China News Service, Zhengzhou, March 1 (Reporter Kan Li, Han Zhangyun) The reporter learned from the 2023 Henan Archaeological New Discovery Forum held in Zhengzhou, Henan on February 29 that two building foundations (1 No. 2 and No. 2) are both the foundations of monks' tomb towers. Among them, No. 2 is inferred to be the remains of the tomb tower of Dibhara, an eminent monk from India who entered the Tang Dynasty.

  Data show that Dipohara, an eminent monk who came from Tianzhu to the Tang Dynasty, had profound spiritual practice and translated more than ten Buddhist scriptures in Chang'an and Luoyang. He was highly respected by the Empress Wu Zetian.

After Dipohara passed away, Wu Zetian was very sad and ordered him to be buried "on the left side of Yishui, in the sun of Longmen Mountain", which is the southern foot of the east mountain of today's Longmen Grottoes.

The pagoda courtyard of Dibohara's tomb was later expanded into a temple, and Wu Zetian named it Xiangshan Temple.

The picture shows an aerial photo of the east mountain of Longmen Grottoes where Xiangshan Temple is located.

Photo courtesy of Longmen Grottoes Research Institute

  Longmen Xiangshan Temple was one of the famous "Ten Longmen Temples" during the Tang and Song Dynasties. It was closely related to the Empress Wu Zetian and the great poet Bai Juyi. The temple was completely destroyed during the Jin and Yuan Dynasties.

The temple ruins located at the southern foot of Dongshan Mountain are distributed in a ladder shape on a multi-level platform, with an existing area of ​​more than 40,000 square meters.

The No. 1 building base site was excavated with an area of ​​350 square meters; the No. 2 building base site is located on the first-level highest platform in the heritage area. The platform is 236 meters above sea level. The total area of ​​the platform is more than 4,000 square meters, and the excavation area is more than 2,050 square meters.

  "The highest platform where the No. 2 pagoda base is located is the first pagoda in the temple to occupy and build. The pagoda is located behind the main hall of the temple." Lu Wei, director of the History and Humanities Research Center of the Longmen Grottoes Research Institute in Luoyang, said that according to the topography, underground palace Based on the structure, unearthed bricks and stone carvings, and combined with the literature, the age of Tower No. 2 is determined to be the late 7th century. It is initially believed that the person buried in the tomb tower is Dibohara, an eminent monk from India.

The picture shows the base of Building No. 2.

Photo courtesy of Longmen Grottoes Research Institute

  The reporter learned from the forum that a total of tens of thousands of stone carvings, building components, ceramics, copper and ironware, coins and other relics were unearthed from the Xiangshan Temple site. Among them, door anvil stones and stone thresholds were engraved with exquisite patterns such as barbarians and unicorns. .

Lu Wei said that based on the literature and unearthed copper coins, it was inferred that Xiangshan Temple and the pagoda base were completely destroyed in the late Northern Song Dynasty or the Song and Jin Dynasties.

  "There are very few Buddhist temples in the two capitals in the Tang Dynasty, especially the royal temple sites, that have been fully archaeologically excavated and fully exposed." In Lu Wei's view, the space construction and stone letters for the relics buried under the pagoda base are the ancient Chinese relics. It provides important information for the study of the burial system and relic utensils; the pattern themes, style characteristics and craftsmanship of the stone letters and stone gate components at the base of the tower provide important information for the study of Tang Dynasty art and crafts, Silk Road culture, Dongdu Buddhist art, Chinese and foreign cultural exchanges and integration, etc. Important information is provided.