On February 26, the new Yin Xu Museum was officially opened in Anyang, Henan.

On the shore of Huan River, a bronze-colored museum rises from the ground, across the river from the ruins of the Yinxu Palace and Ancestral Temple.

Nearly 4,000 sets of cultural relics such as bronzes, pottery, jades, oracle bones are on display in the museum. More than three-quarters of the precious cultural relics are on display for the first time, painting a panoramic view of the Shang Dynasty.

  Tang Jigen, former director of the Anyang Work Station of the Institute of Archeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and chair professor of Southern University of Science and Technology, participated in part of the exhibition.

He said that the hard work of many archaeologists was behind the opening of the new museum.

  The Shang Dynasty, also known as the Yin Shang Dynasty, was the second dynasty in Chinese history and the first dynasty in China to retain "contemporary documents".

Archeology connects reality with imagination, matches documentary materials with relics one-to-one, and gives flesh and blood to the characters written on oracle bone inscriptions.

For Tang Jigen, who has worked in Yinxu for 27 years, the Shang Dynasty is inextricably linked to contemporary life. "Today's banquets, blessings, etc. all come from Shang culture."

  In 1928, archaeologist Dong Zuobin wielded the first spade in Xiaotun Village in the northwest suburbs of Anyang City, kicking off the continuous scientific excavation of the Yin Ruins by Chinese archaeologists, which has lasted nearly a hundred years.

The Yin Ruins have become the ancient capital ruins with the longest time, the most number of excavations and the largest area in my country.

In the hands of generations of archaeologists, the outline of the "Dayi Shang" gradually became clearer.

  "A piece of oracle bone shocked the world"

  The Yin Ruins are the first capital ruins of the late Shang Dynasty in Chinese history with documented documents and confirmed by archaeological excavations.

“A piece of oracle bone shocked the world” and “Without Yin Ruins archeology, there would be no Chinese archeology” are the world’s evaluations of it.

  Before being discovered, oracle bones went through a long process of dispersion.

Before 1899, oracle bones were constantly discovered in the farmland north of Xiaotun Village and south of the Huan River in Anyang County, Henan Province. They were sold as "keel bones" to pharmacies. Some of the "keel bones" were ground into powder and used to treat wounds. .

  The first person to discover oracle bone inscriptions was Wang Yirong, an official and epigrapher of the Qing Dynasty.

Legend has it that Wang Yirong, who was serving as a wine sacrificer in the Imperial Academy at the time, was taking medicine for illness and found words engraved on the turtle board of the "dragon bone" in the traditional Chinese medicine.

After repeated scrutiny, Wang Yirong initially confirmed that the above text was a relic of the Shang Dynasty.

He is also known as the "Father of Oracle".

  In 1928, archaeologist Dong Zuobin was ordered to investigate the dispersion of oracle bones unearthed at the Yin Ruins in Anyang, and concluded that "the excavation of oracle bones is indeed not complete", thus starting the scientific archaeological excavation of the Yin Ruins.

Subsequently, famous archaeologists such as Zheng Zhenxiang, Liu Yiman, Yang Xizhang, and Yang Baocheng all left their presence in Yin Ruins.

  Over the past 90 years, important ruins such as the palace area, residence area, royal tomb area, tomb area, and handicraft workshop area of ​​the Yin Ruins, as well as the adjacent Huanbei Mall, the capital of the mid-Shang Dynasty, have been successively discovered. A large number of oracle bone inscriptions, bronzes, Various precious cultural relics such as pottery and jade have basically clarified the distribution range and structural layout of the Yin Ruins, providing a basis for exploring the archaeological culture of the early Shang and even Xia dynasties.

  There are many types of relics in the Yin Ruins and the quantity is extremely impressive.

The most important among them are the 150,000 oracle bones unearthed, with more than 4,000 characters each, covering all aspects of politics and life in the Shang Dynasty.

It pushed forward China's written history by about 1,000 years and confirmed the existence of the "Shang" dynasty in ancient historical records.

  In addition, there are tens of thousands of pottery pieces, about 1,500 bronze ritual vessels, about 3,500 bronze weapons, about 2,600 jades, more than 6,500 stone tools, and more than 30,000 bone tools.

  Among them, the Houmuwu Ding, the most important bronze in China and the treasure of the National Museum of China, was unearthed from the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan in 1939.

The large tripod was cast from multiple pottery molds. The hollow tripod ears and body were cast separately and then joined together. Under the conditions at that time, the casting could not have been successful without the close cooperation of two to three hundred people.

  "Women are good" - the best specimen for studying the history of the Shang Dynasty

  When talking about Yin Xu, we have to mention a legendary woman - Fuhao.

  In 1975, Chinese archaeologist Zheng Zhenxiang presided over the archaeological excavation of Xigangdi in Xiaotun Village (where Fuhao's tomb is located), and in May 1976, he discovered Fuhao's tomb, which had been sleeping underground for 3,000 years.

There are 1,928 burial objects in the tomb, including bronzes, jade, gemstones, stoneware, pottery, ivory, bone, clam, etc., as well as more than 6,000 seashells and red snails.

Among them, the inscriptions with the word "Fu Hao" or "Hao" on 109 bronzes excited her, and she realized that "Fu Hao" was the spouse of Shang King Wu Ding frequently mentioned in oracle bone inscriptions.

  "Many people think that Fu Hao is a name, but it is actually a title. 'Fu' is a title, and 'Hao' is the name of a country or clan. The original character is 'Zi'. Because Fu Hao is a woman, according to the custom at the time, it is placed next to 'Zi' Adding '女' is written as 'Hao'. Fuhao is a woman from the country of 'Zi' who has received the title of 'Fu', somewhat similar to 'Zhao Ji' or 'Mrs. Mi'." Tang Jigen said, "The Shang Dynasty was at the forefront of the development of Chinese history. One of the important stages: the 'kingdom' stage. As a queen, Fuhao can be directly related to the kingdom society at that time, and is the best specimen for studying the history of the Shang Dynasty and popularizing the knowledge of the Shang Dynasty."

  "Fuhao once helped the king count oracle bones and met with representatives from all walks of life, namely 'Duozheng'. She loved beauty and makeup. Four bronze mirrors, 500 bone hairpins and 28 jade hairpins were found in the tomb," Tang Jigan said. For example, the word "Yan" in oracle bone inscriptions refers to a woman with multiple hairpins on her head.

Hairpins are equivalent to modern women's cosmetics. There are so many bone hairpins and jade hairpins in the funerary objects, which shows that she was most likely a woman who liked to dress up during her lifetime.

  "In addition, Fuhao may have also liked to cook. Many cooking utensils were unearthed from her tomb; Fuhao must have loved collecting. Among the funerary objects were jade phoenixes from the Post-Shijiahe Culture and hooks from the Hongshan Culture. Shape jade pendants, jade jade pendants from the Dawenkou culture, etc. are all 'antiques' from the Shang period; Fuhao also led soldiers in wars, gave birth to children, and had a stable 'circle of friends.' In the oracle bone inscriptions unearthed from the Yin Ruins , Fuhao, Yazun, Yaqi and other figures appeared on the same piece of divination armor at the same time. Moreover, in Fuhao’s tomb, there were also funerary objects with the inscriptions of Yazun and Yaqi, indicating that after Fuhao’s death, her friends Bronze vessels were sent to her to be buried with her as a token of condolences," Tang Jigen said.

  A piece of pottery fills the gap of "Chinese business"

  Academic circles generally believe that Huanbei Mall is one of the major breakthroughs in the archaeological and historical research of the Shang Dynasty in the past 20 years, filling the gap between the Zhengzhou Mall in the early Shang Dynasty and the Yin Ruins in the late Shang Dynasty, and changing the traditional "Yin Ruins". the concept of.

The discovery of this ancient city is closely related to Tang Jigen.

  Tang Jigen recalled that when he just graduated, he was assigned to the Prehistoric Archeology Research Laboratory of the Institute of Archeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

"By chance, I joined the Central Lecturer's Group and went to Yinxu. I saw the Shang Dynasty pottery, bronzes, and bone vessels in the archaeological team's showroom. I found it very interesting. At that time, Zheng Zhenxiang, a famous archaeologist who participated in the excavation work in Anyang, , Liu Yiman, Yang Xizhang, etc. They said that the field excavation and scientific research tasks in Anyang are very heavy and there is a shortage of manpower." In this way, Tang Jigen switched from Neolithic to studying the Shang Dynasty, and began to directly participate in the excavation of the Yin Ruins site.

  In the 1970s, the archaeological community had established a chronological framework for the history of the Shang Dynasty.

In this framework, the Anyang Yin Ruins are equivalent to the late Shang Dynasty, while the Zhengzhou Shangcheng (discovered in the 1950s), which is earlier than the Yin Ruins, is classified as the early Shang Dynasty.

  Tang Jigen questioned this in his master's thesis.

Based on his observation of the characteristics of pottery, he vaguely felt that there were problems with the staging of Yin Ruins pottery in the academic world at that time.

"The idea at the time was that the Yin Ruins were divided into four phases, and the first phase could be divided into two phases: early and late. But I think the first phase was actually compressed over a long period of time, and the first phase was early. The stage should be separated and become a separate stage. Thus, the concept of 'China Business' loomed."

  Based on his master's thesis, Tang Jigen wrote a series of papers, clearly proposing the viewpoint of the "Mid-Shang Dynasty", but it has not been recognized for a long time.

He realized that just writing a paper was not enough. Only by going to the wild and finding specimens from the mid-Shang Dynasty could the existence of the mid-Shang Dynasty be confirmed.

  In the mid-1990s, Tang Jigen led an archaeological team to conduct archaeological surveys in Anyang, Henan, and Handan, Hebei.

On a windy day in 1996, Tang Jigen, Liu Yiman and others were exploring the North Henan Cotton Textile Factory near Huayuanzhuang Village on the north bank of the Huanhe River in Anyang. He accidentally stepped on a cabbage tree and the roots of the cabbage were stained with Got a piece of pottery.

Tang Jigen recognized it at a glance as the pottery fragment from the mid-Shang Dynasty that he wanted.

This discovery directly contributed to the archaeological excavation of the Huayuanzhuang site on the north bank of the Huan River the following year.

  In 1999, an ancient city covering an area of ​​4.7 square kilometers was discovered. The relevant unearthed pottery and jade were all remains from the mid-Shang Dynasty.

Tang Jigen thought repeatedly and decided to name this ancient city "Huanbei Mall", which was quickly recognized by the academic community.

"It is a great honor to engage in archaeological work to be able to personally name a shopping mall." Tang Jigen said.

  The discovery of Huanbei Mall has filled the time gap between the early Shang culture represented by Erligang in Zhengzhou and the late Shang culture represented by Yinxu, making the archaeological chronological framework of the history of the Shang Dynasty more complete.

  Let Yinxu "come alive"

  While working at the Yin Ruins, Tang Jigen often encountered various illegal activities that destroyed the ruins.

As a result, he began to vigorously promote the Yin Ruins to be declared a world cultural heritage.

After eight years of hard work, the Yin Ruins were included in the World Heritage List in 2006.

"The application as a World Heritage Site can draw the world's attention to the Yin Ruins, which is conducive to the protection of the Yin Ruins, and is more conducive to integrating the value of the ruins into economic development, which will ultimately benefit the people." Tang Jigen said.

  He Yuling, a researcher at the Institute of Archeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and deputy director of the Anyang Work Station, believes that the greatest core value of a successful application for World Heritage is the recognition of the value of the Yin Ruins by the entire world and the entire country. The value of the Yin Ruins requires continuous archaeological excavation and research to fully demonstrate it.

  In the past 20 years, archaeologists have never stopped exploring the Yin Ruins.

From 2006 to 2011, the archaeological team excavated a number of large-scale Shang Dynasty roads that crisscrossed from east to west, north and south in the north of Liujiazhuang Village; from 2015 to 2019, copper casting and bone making workshops were discovered in the north of Huanbei Shopping City, filling the gap between the Shang Dynasty and the Shang Dynasty. There was a gap in handicraft production in the capital in the mid-Dynasty; from 2016 to 2019, archaeological discoveries confirmed that the Xindian site in Anyang was a large-scale bronze casting base in the late Shang Dynasty...

  While archaeological excavations and research continue to advance, the protection and revitalization of Yin Ruins has also entered a new chapter - oracle bone inscriptions were selected into the "Memory of the World Register"; the "Regulations on the Protection and Management of Yin Ruins in Anyang, Henan Province" was announced; the construction of the Yin Ruins National Archaeological Site Park began ; Cultural tourism projects such as archaeological towns are advancing steadily; a series of cultural and creative products such as Oracle emoticon packs, blind boxes, and ice cream have become popular items; the Chinese Character Museum and the Chinese Character Park have become places for Internet celebrities to check in.

  "The display and use of the Yin Ruins need to adhere to the direction of the park, protect the site as a whole, and focus on the urban layout, and not just the movable cultural relics displayed indoors." Tang Jigen believes that the Yin Ruins only reveal a part of the archeology of the Shang Dynasty.

For the Shang Dynasty, the Yin Ruins was just the late period of the entire dynasty; for Chinese history, it was just an era.

For modern China, it is just the representative of civilization in the Yellow River Basin.

Understanding the Yin Ruins requires time and depth, a spatial perspective, and the correlation of different materials.

"The unearthed residences, handicraft workshops, and tombs need to be related, and the archaeological data and the oracle bone inscriptions need to be related. But the correlation or combination is a huge challenge for scholars."

  ■ Dialogue

  Yue Zhanwei, Executive Director of Yinxu Museum:

  1:1 copy and restoration of Simu Xin Ding

  The public can touch and feel the beauty of Jijin

  After the new Yin Xu Museum was officially opened to the public, the exquisite exhibitions and cultural relics aroused widespread heated discussion and attention.

What will the new museum look like?

What are the features and highlights?

Recently, a reporter from the Beijing News conducted an exclusive interview with Yue Zhanwei, executive director of the Yinxu Museum.

Beijing News reporter Zhang Jianlin

  The exterior design of the new museum draws lessons from "The Book of Songs·Ode to Shang"

  Beijing News: As the first national major thematic museum to display business civilization in a panoramic manner, what are the considerations for the new museum in terms of site selection, structural layout, etc.?

  Yue Zhanwei: The new Yin Ruins Museum is located on the bank of Huan River, across the river from the Yin Ruins palace and temple ruins. It is within the protection scope of the Yin Ruins ruins. It is an important part of the Yin Ruins ruins archaeological park and is the first panoramic exhibitor. The civilized national major thematic museum is one of the key projects of the Yellow River National Cultural Park.

  The appearance of the Yinxu Museum is a "ding", which is based on the "Book of Songs: Odes of Shang". It is shaped like a green grass platform, a tripod standing on the ground, layered deep, and wrapped in bronze. It focuses on a green, low-carbon, and sustainable development model to form a distinctive The cultural connotation and archaeological significance of the Yin Ruins are "the model of China and the temple of civilization".

The central hall has the theme of the black bird descending and giving birth to business, and is based on the jade phoenix bird of the Yin Ruins. It is magnificent and spacious.

  The museum is mostly decorated with Chinese Shang Dynasty bronzes with animal mask patterns, cloud and thunder patterns, Shang Dynasty oracle bone inscriptions as the exhibition hall logo, and the Shang Dynasty "Zi" surname in bronze inscriptions. It is simple, elegant and vivid.

The exhibition theme of the entire museum increases with the height of the exhibition hall, from exploring Shang civilization to telling Shang civilization, and finally Shang civilization went to the world.

  Beijing News: Many archaeological experts believe that the Yin Ruins are the experimental field of modern Chinese archeology.

As a carrier, how will the opening of the new museum reflect the civilization of the Yin and Shang Dynasties?

How is it different from the old building?

  Yue Zhanwei: The opening of the new Yin Ruins Museum will combine the latest archaeological research and excavation results from multiple perspectives such as the history of the Shang Dynasty, the history of archaeological excavations, and world Shang civilization, and explore the prosperous urban civilization, perfect ritual and music civilization, and The developed bronze civilization, splendid writing civilization and superb handicraft technology are comprehensively explained, vividly showing the important position and role of Shang civilization in the history of the development of Chinese civilization and even human civilization.

  Compared with the old museum, the new museum has a larger exhibition hall area of ​​about 22,000 square meters, and the space area is more complete.

In addition to the difference in exhibition hall area, the new museum displays nearly 4,000 sets of bronzes, pottery, jades, oracle bones and other cultural relics. Many of these precious cultural relics are on display for the first time. They will be combined with the latest results of the Yin Ruins archaeological excavations in recent years, such as the Taojiaying site and the Xindian site. And the top ten archaeological discoveries in the country in 2022 - the Yin Ruins Shang Wang Tombs and surrounding remains will be displayed.

  The old museum takes "Yin Ruins" as its theme, while the new museum focuses on the theme of "Great Shang Civilization" and more comprehensively displays the social civilization and culture of the Shang Dynasty based on the Yin Ruins.

In addition, the new museum has established a precision archaeological laboratory to provide comprehensive protection of archaeological cultural relics; it has established an exhibition hall for new archaeological discoveries to more timely and accurately display the latest archaeological excavation and research results.

  Naked-eye 3D and touchable exhibitions make visitors’ experience more intuitive

  Beijing News: In terms of the presentation of cultural relics, what are the features and highlights of the new museum?

  Yue Zhanwei: The new museum makes extensive use of digital technologies such as artificial intelligence and multimedia, and sets up naked-eye 3D, immersive digital exhibition halls, electronic interactive screens, etc., to give cultural relics a new way of expression, enhance the breadth, depth, and accuracy of panoramic display of cultural relics, and build cultural relics. , historical and digital virtual space interaction places, giving visitors a more intuitive experience.

  For example, more than 20 precious cultural relics from the Shang Dynasty, including the Duling Fangding Ding in Zhengzhou Mall, the Yachou Bronze Yue in Subutun, Shandong, the Four-Yang Fangzun in Ningxiang, Hunan, and the kneeling jade figure from the Fuhao Tomb in Yinxu, were displayed on the screen through naked-eye 3D technology. Presented in the same space, people can experience the inheritance of Shang civilization and the charm of Oracle in a multi-dimensional, three-dimensional and immersive way.

  We also used a combination of video and sand table to reproduce the development process of Dayi Shang from scratch, from simplicity to prosperity, so that the audience can more intuitively feel the evolution of the late Shang capital.

Through a display method that combines restored ruins with packaged ruins, including wells, tombs, sacrificial pits, chariot and horse pits, etc., the matrix display is displayed to the public, allowing the audience to experience the cultural phenomena of the Shang Dynasty up close, as well as the ingenious technology Craftsmanship.

  We also made a 1:1 replica of the Simu Xin Ding, recreating its appearance before it rusted, and exhibited it together with the original.

The restored piece does not have a glass cover, allowing the public to touch it and feel the beauty of Jijin three thousand years ago with the touch of their fingertips.

(Auspicious gold: In ancient times, sacrifices were regarded as auspicious rituals, so the bronze sacrificial vessels were called "auspicious gold".)

  Beijing News: In recent years, museum cultural tourism has continued to gain popularity.

What else do we need to do to build the Yin Xu Museum into a world-class museum?

  Yue Zhanwei: I think the first thing is to protect it.

The Yinxu Museum has a scientific and technological archaeological laboratory, a high-standard cultural relics exhibition hall, a cultural relics warehouse, etc. It will undertake the functions of archaeological research, cultural relic restoration, scientific and technological testing, etc., and provide high-standard facilities and conditions for the scientific and technological archeology of Yinxu and the research, preservation and display of cultural relics.

  The second is to study well.

In the Yinxu site, we must continue to strengthen the construction of scientific archeology, museology, cultural relics and other disciplines, and strengthen the training of archaeological and museum research talent teams; increase the overall excavation plan of the Yinxu site, confirm the scope of the site, and clarify the site layout, and at the same time do a good job in overall protection and research; accelerate the transformation of archaeological research results.

  Beijing News reporter exhibition Shengjing