Use golden ink pads to put the "eyes on" on the door of "Ji Bei Da Fu", ride a Han-style carriage to take photos and check in, and collect customized five-baht coins with different themes...During the Spring Festival this year, the National Archaeological Site Park of Han Dynasty Haihun Hou Kingdom in Nanchang, Jiangxi Popular, exciting exhibitions and rich activities provide visitors with an unforgettable experience.

  The archaeological site of Haihun Hou Kingdom in the Han Dynasty consists of the city site of Zijin City, the capital of Haihun Hou Kingdom, the cemetery of Liu He, the first generation of Haihun Hou, and the tombs in the west and south of the city site. It is the largest, best preserved, and most complete structure discovered in China so far. , the richest connotation of the capital settlement ruins of the princely states of the Han Dynasty.

Among them, the tomb of Liu He, Marquis of Haihun, was rated as "the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country in 2015" and "the top 100 archaeological discoveries in a century".

The National Archaeological Site Park of the Han Dynasty Haihun State will be opened in September 2020. The planned area is about 12 square kilometers, including the ruins museum area, tomb display area, Zijin City display area, archaeological reserved area, entrance functional area, and historical experience ecological leisure area. Six functional areas.

Here, you can not only learn about the story of Liu He, Marquis of Haihun, but also get close to the magnificent history of the Han Dynasty and experience the prosperous and splendid Han civilization.

  Voice of history

  Entering the Heritage Park along Zijin Avenue, a strong atmosphere of Han culture hits your face.

The tall Han-style city tower stands majestically, and the golden dragon chariot seems to be rushing through the gate of history. The white ring-shaped visitor center is shaped like a jade, symbolizing "the jade gift to heaven". The Haihun Hou Kingdom Ruins Museum features a dragon unearthed from Liu He's tomb. The jade-shaped jade article was built as a prototype, looking like a vigorous horned dragon lying among the mountains and waters.

  When you walk into the museum hall, the first thing you see is a bronze statue of Liu He. The huge copper engraving behind it tells the story of Liu He's rise from king to emperor, from emperor to citizen, and from citizen to marquis.

  Liu He (92 BC - 59 BC) was the grandson of Liu Che, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, and the son of Liu Kun, the first king of Changyi.

In 74 BC, Emperor Zhao of Han died without any children.

The young King Liu He of Changyi was proclaimed emperor. After reigning for 27 days, he was deposed by the general Huo Guang and returned to the fiefdom of Changyi, Shandong.

In 63 BC, Emperor Xuan of the Han Dynasty issued an edict to confer the title of Marquis of Haihun to Liu He, and established a marquis state in Haihun County, Yuzhang County, north of Nanchang.

According to historical records, the Haihun Kingdom lasted for four generations.

In the 16th year of Yongyuan of the Eastern Han Dynasty (AD 104), Haihun County was split into two counties, and the Haihun Kingdom was abolished.

  The basic display of the museum "Golden Haihun - Exhibition of the History and Culture of the Haihun Kingdom in the Han Dynasty" is divided into two parts.

In the previous chapter, "Yuzhang Haihun", there are three units: Yuzhang County of Han Dynasty, Haihun State, and Liu He Family.

The next chapter, "Prince's Majesty", is divided into five units: carriages and horses roaring, rituals, music and banquets, clothing and make-up, piles of gold and coins, and leisure and elegance.

  In the independent display cabinet in the center of the exhibition hall on the first floor, there is a bronze lamp with the inscription "Nanchang" unearthed from Liu He's tomb. This is the earliest physical information about Nanchang discovered in Jiangxi so far.

  In the early Han Dynasty, Liu Bang implemented the parallel system of prefectures and states.

In 202 BC, Yuzhang County was established in Huainan Kingdom, which governed Nanchang and administered 18 counties including Nanchang and Haihun.

Yuzhang County is named "Nanchang", which means "prosperous southern border" and "prosperous south".

  Archaeological research has confirmed that the Zijin City site located in the west of Taojia Village, Tiehe Township, Xinjian District, Nanchang City, is the site of the capital of the Haihun Hou Kingdom in the Han Dynasty.

The sand table model and aerial view in the exhibition hall show the layout of Purple City.

The city site is nearly rectangular in plan (concave in the southeast), with a total area of ​​about 3.6 square kilometers. It is a dual city inside and outside, surrounded by city walls and moats.

The inner city is located inside the east wall of the outer city, covering an area of ​​about 140,000 square meters. It is composed of the east city and the west city. There is a palace area inside, and the waterways and land roads in the city are intertwined.

  "The Zijin City site is well preserved and has a unique city building style, which provides important physical data for studying the construction and development of the capital of the Han Dynasty Hou Kingdom." Xia Qingping, secretary of the Party Working Committee of the Nanchang Han Dynasty Haihun Hou Kingdom Site Administration, said.

  Extravagant burials were popular in the Han Dynasty, and princes and kings would build their own cemeteries soon after assuming the title.

The Cemetery of Haihun Hou Liu He is located on Jiedun Mountain in the southwest corner outside Zijin City. It is trapezoidal in shape and covers an area of ​​about 46,000 square meters.

Liu He Cemetery is the Western Han Dynasty marquis cemetery with the best preservation, the most complete structure, the clearest functional layout, and the most complete sacrificial system ever found. It is also the only tomb discovered south of the Yangtze River with real chariot and horse burial pits.

Liu He's tomb and Madam Hou's tomb face north and south and are located in the center of the cemetery. There are seven necropolis tombs surrounding Liu He's minor children and concubines. In addition, there are supporting sacrificial buildings (ancestral halls, dormitories), official residences, Gates, garden walls, wells, etc.

  "Since the archaeological excavation of Liu He Cemetery began in 2011, a total of more than 10,000 pieces (sets) of cultural relics have been unearthed, including gold, jade, bronze, lacquered wood, bamboo slips, wooden tablets, pottery, etc., which are the political, economic and cultural aspects of the Han Dynasty. A true portrayal of the level of art, science and technology." Xia Qingping said.

  The heart of creation

  After thousands of years of vicissitudes of life, the Haihun Kingdom and the tomb area of ​​the Han Dynasty sank to the bottom of Poyang Lake, and it was not until the late Qing Dynasty that they gradually surfaced.

"It is precisely because of this that the tomb of Haihunhou has escaped natural disasters and man-made disasters, especially tomb robberies, allowing today's people to have a glimpse of the whole picture." Yang Jun, researcher at the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology and leader of the archaeological excavation of the Haihunhou Tomb of the Western Han Dynasty in Nanchang He said, "Until now, we are still carrying out cultural relic protection and restoration and laboratory archaeological research on the Haihunhou Tomb. Currently, the cultural relics on display in the Haihunhou State Ruins Museum only account for one-tenth of the unearthed cultural relics."

  Even so, the thousands of cultural relics that have been displayed so far are like colorful puzzle pieces, spliced ​​together into a magnificent historical picture.

  The large number of gold objects on display in the museum amazes the audience.

According to reports, the total number of gold artifacts unearthed from Liu He's tomb reached 478, including 385 pieces of cake gold, 48 pieces of 魭鏏 gold (commonly known as "horseshoe gold"), 25 pieces of lin toe gold, and 20 pieces of sheet metal, totaling about 115 kilograms. So far, the largest amount of gold has been discovered in the archaeological discovery of Han Dynasty tombs in China, witnessing the "golden age" of the Western Han Dynasty.

The gold coins in Liu He's tomb cover all types of gold coins recorded in the Han Dynasty, among which sheet metal was discovered for the first time.

  Jiaohe gold and Linzhi gold are gold commemorative coins cast by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty based on the auspicious events that occurred in the second year of Taishi (95 BC). They use filigree inlay technology to create exquisite patterns.

This craft with the color of Mediterranean civilization was introduced through the ancient Silk Road and integrated into the official gold coins of the Han Dynasty, witnessing the exchange of Eastern and Western civilizations.

  There are also many jades, gems and silverware in the exhibition hall, including ibex-patterned silver mako, wolf-shaped and bear-shaped jade ornaments, sardonyx tube beads, hexagonal crystal beads, etc., which reflect the exquisite craftsmanship and aesthetic taste of the ancients.

  In the "Rites, Music and Banquet" exhibition area, a pair of bronze wild goose and fish lanterns are ingeniously designed and eye-catching.

Two bent-necked geese stand side by side, each holding a fish in their mouths. The fish body is a lampshade, and the bottom is a lamp panel. There is a lamp handle on one side. You can control the lamp panel and adjust the brightness of the light by gently turning it.

The instructor said that after lighting the lamp, the smoke enters the neck of the goose along the belly of the fish, and then enters the belly. It is diluted and filtered by the water in the belly of the goose, so that the smoke will not escape.

This lantern has the same functional principle as the Changxin palace lantern, a national treasure, and reflects the ingenuity of craftsmen in the Western Han Dynasty.

  The lacquered clothing mirror with pictures of Confucius' disciples unearthed in the west room of the main coffin room of Liu He's tomb can be called "the treasure of the museum".

The clothing mirror consists of a mirror back, a mirror body, a mirror cover (mirror cover), a frame, etc. The wooden mirror back is painted with portraits of Confucius and his disciples, and the life stories of the characters are described next to the portraits.

The original mirror is currently in the restoration stage, and a 1:1 replica is displayed in the exhibition hall, with the image enlarged for presentation.

In the image, Confucius is tall, wearing a small crown on his head, a dark robe with a belt around his waist, and flip-up shoes on his feet. His face is not clear, but his long beard is visible.

Several disciples have different images, which are in line with the characters and temperaments recorded in historical materials.

  "This is the earliest portrait of Confucius and his disciples discovered so far, which makes up for the regret that the two volumes of "Illustrations of Confucius' Disciples" containing Confucius' portraits in the "Book of Han" were lost," Xia Qingping said.

  "The bamboo slips and wooden slips unearthed from Liu He's tomb are also of extremely high research value. The largest proportion of the more than 5,200 bamboo slips are Confucian classics and traditions, including the Book of Songs, the Book of Rites, the Analects of Confucius, the Spring and Autumn Annals, and the Classic of Filial Piety. "And so on, from which the "The Analects of Qi" that has been lost for more than 1,800 years was discovered, which is very precious." Yang Jun introduced that the Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Archeology and the Hubei Jingzhou Cultural Preservation Center are cooperating on the protection and restoration of bamboo slips and wooden tablets, and the Peking University Unearthed Document Center is working on Carry out interpretation work.

  It is reported that a batch of lacquer dishes, lacquer ear cups and other lacquerware with Han Dynasty charm have been restored and meet the conditions for exhibition.

Soon, visitors will be able to appreciate these living utensils used by Liu He up close in the exhibition hall.

  The charm of culture

  In addition to displaying various precious cultural relics, the Haihunhou State Ruins Museum also uses multimedia and digital technology to bring visitors a rich and colorful experience.

  On the electronic screen in front of the copper danglu display cabinet with gold-coloured mythical animal patterns, the patterns of mythical beasts such as dragons, phoenixes, and white tigers are moving and vivid. Not only can people appreciate the exquisiteness of ancient craftsmanship, but they can also understand the mythical beasts in Han culture. Knowledge.

  "Night falls, but the Weiyang Palace is brightly lit, the noise is endless, and the city of Chang'an is gradually sleeping under the curfew..." The naked-eye 3D film played in the museum's "Meet the Sea Dusk" exhibition hall takes Liu He's day as emperor as the main axis, with a The audience walked into the Han Dynasty and learned about the etiquette, culture and entertainment activities of the Han Dynasty.

  "Yongdun Garden - Haihun Hidden Treasures" is an exhibition established on the archaeological site of Liu He Cemetery and will be fully opened in December 2023.

The total construction area of ​​the exhibition area is 4,255 square meters, including about 2,000 square meters of semi-open space for displaying the remains of sacrificial buildings in front of the tomb, and about 1,960 square meters of indoor closed space for displaying the ruins of Liu He's main tomb and Chemakeng ruins.

Through various means such as original appearance display, scene restoration, and digital interpretation, historical scenes are revitalized and visitors' visiting experience is enhanced.

  Walking into the wrap-around viewing platform above Liu He's main tomb, you can clearly see the layout of the entire earthen wooden coffin tomb.

Above the tomb, a 360-degree hanging screen shows the construction process of Liu He's cemetery and the funeral rituals of the marquises of the Han Dynasty. The artistic mural of the Ascension to Immortality on the south wall expresses the Han people's concept of praying for immortality after death.

The surrounding walls display the archaeological excavation and protection work of Liu He's main tomb, and the results of cultural relic protection and restoration.

The chariot and horse pit hidden outside restores the scene of the archaeological excavation, making visitors feel like they are at the archaeological site.

The restored model of four horses and carriages unearthed from the Chemakeng and the murals of carriages and horses reflect each other, recreating the majesty of the Han Dynasty princes traveling.

  Extracting representative elements from cultural relics to design cultural and creative products has become a new way to spread Chinese culture.

A bear-shaped inlay on a jade-inlaid lacquer bottle in the tomb of Marquis Haihun has round eyes and arched eyebrows, a wide grinning mouth, and an attitude quite like a lucky cat.

It is the "wealth beast" in the hearts of the ancients and has auspicious meanings.

It is printed on the tickets for the archaeological site park, appears on the walls of the museum, and is also made into a velvet doll, which is very popular among tourists.

  Since the opening of the Han Dynasty Haihunhou State National Archaeological Site Park, Nanchang Han Dynasty Haihunhou State Ruins Management Bureau has been committed to creating a new IP for cultural tourism with Han culture as the core.

  Meet the Hanfu parade in the park, experience the banquet etiquette of the Han Dynasty at Haihun Food Market, and go to the Hanfeng Market to select exquisite products with Han cultural characteristics... The "Haihun Han Cultural Tourism Month" event has been successfully held for three times, and it has a profound understanding of the Han Dynasty. History, culture, food etiquette, daily life, etc. are vividly displayed, allowing tourists to truly feel the charm of Chinese culture.

  During this year’s Spring Festival, the park received a record number of visitors.

As of February 17, 2024, the Han Dynasty Haihunhou State National Archaeological Site Park has received a total of more than 4.42 million tourists, becoming a shining business card of Nanchang cultural tourism.

  Zhu Lei

Zhu Lei