China Weather Network News From January 31st to February 5th, the central and eastern regions of my country will encounter the largest and longest rain and snow weather process since this winter. This will also be the most complex Spring Festival weather since 2008. Among them, from February 1st to 4th, there will be freezing rain in parts of southern Henan, central and western Hubei, northern Anhui, northern Jiangsu, southern Shandong, northwest Hunan, and eastern Guizhou. This will also be the province with the most freezing rain this winter. One process.

  Freezing rain is a highly destructive meteorological disaster that has a great impact on transportation, agricultural production, and power communications. How does freezing rain form? How harmful is it? Which places are most susceptible? China Weather Network will answer your questions one by one.

Freezing rain disasters are distributed in mountainous areas in both the north and south of my country and are more likely to occur.

  Freezing rain generally begins in November and lasts until March of the next year. January to February every year is the peak season for freezing rain.

  In our country, freezing rain occurs in both the north and the south, showing a distribution pattern of more in the south and less in the north. In the south, freezing rain has occurred in most of the Jianghuai River, northern Jiangnan region, and eastern Southwest China, including high-altitude areas in Guizhou, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Hubei, and Fujian. Among them, Guizhou is the region where freezing rain occurs most frequently, and Weining is the city most affected by freezing rain. With an average of 41.6 days of freezing rain every year, Weining is known as the "Hometown of Freezing Rain". The site with the most freezing rain days in my country is Mount Emei, Sichuan. Judging from observation data from 1991 to 2020, there are more than 110 days of freezing rain every year on average.

  In the north, there is also freezing rain. Eastern Inner Mongolia, the three northeastern provinces, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Shandong, Henan and other places and northern Xinjiang have all been affected by freezing rain, but they are basically distributed in high-altitude areas such as mountainous areas.

Turned into ice when it hit the ground? A picture to understand how freezing rain is formed

  Freezing rain is the product of the intersection of cold and warm air. Generally, the force of cold air between the two is stronger than the warm and humid air flow. The temperature near the ground plummets to below freezing point, and the warm air is lifted up, forming clouds and causing rain. Although the name is freezing rain, its formation process is not simply freezing raindrops, but the process of water vapor changing shape as altitude changes.

  At altitudes above two thousand meters, water vapor is "quickly frozen" and exists in the form of snowflakes or ice crystals. However, at lower altitudes of one thousand to two thousand meters, controlled by warm and moist airflow, the temperature reaches above the freezing point. At this time, the temperature near the ground is below the freezing point and lower than the temperature at high altitude, forming an inversion layer. Ice crystals or snowflakes pass through the inversion layer and melt into water droplets. When they reach the ground, they are quickly cooled again into supercooled water droplets. When they reach the surface of objects, such as telephone poles, plants, trees, etc., because the surrounding environment is lower than the freezing point, a layer of ice crystals will form. A layer of ice shell is called freezing rain in meteorology.

Yusong and Risong can't tell the difference between them. They are both ice crystal tree hangings. What's the difference?

  Yusong is the product of freezing rain, which is the ice crystal tree hanging we often see. Houses, bridges, and trees are covered with ice shells, just like the Ice Age. In some areas in the south, people vividly call it "Xiabingling", while in the north it is called "Diyouzi". Freezing rain is not the only cause of smog formation, but freezing rain will definitely form smog.

  People often confuse smog and rime, but in fact there is a big difference between the two. Yusong and rime are both tree hangings, but their "materials" are different. Rime is an ice shell formed by supercooled water droplets attached to the surface of an object. The surface is hard, has a certain weight, and has a high density; rime is a milky white ice crystal deposit, more similar to frost, with low density and light weight. In addition to the shape, the conditions for the formation of rain and rime are also different. The birth of rain is inseparable from the weather process and requires the participation of cold and warm air. However, rime is caused by the long-term low temperature of the surrounding environment and the condensation of a large amount of water vapor. Forming.

Freezing rain weather is very harmful, please keep this most complete defense guide

  Freezing rain weather is very harmful and often has adverse effects on transportation, agriculture, electricity and other aspects. When freezing rain comes, the tree hangings formed by falling on the surface of objects have a certain weight, which can cause roofs to collapse and telephone poles and trees to be broken. In addition, icy roads will also greatly affect traffic. In January 2008, four severe low-temperature rain and snow weather processes occurred in southern my country, causing nearly 20 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in southern my country to suffer freezing disasters rarely seen in history. Transportation, energy supply, power transmission, agriculture and People's lives and other aspects have been extremely seriously affected.

  In terms of transportation, when freezing rain comes, roads can easily freeze. Pedestrians should try to reduce their travels. If they need to travel, they should take anti-skid measures and drive carefully and slowly. If you are traveling by car, it is best to install anti-skid chains on your tires to leave enough braking distance to prevent the vehicle from skidding and rolling over. When freezing rain strikes, temperatures near the ground are often below freezing, and air transportation is often affected by engine ice. Therefore, relevant departments need to keep abreast of weather forecast information, and in the event of freezing rain, check in advance and confirm that de-icing equipment can operate normally.

  In agriculture, in addition to the attached ice shell that often damages crops, when freezing rain comes, crops also suffer freezing damage due to low temperatures. Farmers need to strengthen field insulation management and promptly put up plastic sheds, plastic sheets and other covering items to protect crops. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen regular inspections of vegetable greenhouses and livestock pens during periods of high freezing rain, and make timely repairs to prevent losses.

  In terms of power communications, squalls caused by freezing rain often cause power poles to be broken. If the main power transmission lines are damaged, it will cause large-scale power outages in surrounding towns and villages. In areas prone to freezing rain, it is necessary to strengthen the maintenance of main power transmission system lines and key mobile base stations. In the event of freezing rain, timely organize personnel to carry out de-icing work.

  Freezing rain weather is a highly destructive meteorological disaster that is distributed in both the north and south of my country. The above freezing rain prevention guidelines must be memorized and preventive measures must be taken in advance. In addition, China Weather Network specifically reminds you that after the freezing rain ends, the temperature rises and the ice covering the objects falls off, which can easily injure people. Therefore, when pedestrians go out and pass billboards, trees or buildings, they should pass as quickly as possible to prevent being injured by falling ice from high altitude. (Text/Jiang Yi Design/Chen Yujie Data Support/Li Liang and Hu Xiao)