Recently, there are many people who have not been able to eat because they are sick and have a fever. What should I do in this case? Do you want to avoid all kinds of high-protein foods? Today, let's talk about fever and nutrition.
Why doctors don't let some fever patients eat more high-protein foods
In fact, this suggestion is not entirely unreasonable.
First of all, eating too much protein food may lead to increased heat dissipation and an increased inflammatory response, and doctors may be worried about affecting the body's recovery. For example, some children become more inflamed after eating beef and lamb.
Secondly, when the patient has a high fever, the patient loses appetite and has a reduced ability to digest and absorb. Foods such as chunks of beef and whole boiled eggs are much more difficult to digest than soft starchy foods. They need more stomach acid, more proteases, more bile to help them get through.
Thirdly, food intolerance reactions and other adverse effects are more likely to occur in disease states. In the case of fever, not only the body's ability to digest and absorb is reduced, but the intestines may also have inflammation, decreased barrier function, and disordered microbial balance. Some undigested products enter the body and may cause adverse reactions.
For example, some foods are usually fine when eaten, but when you are sick, you will feel uncomfortable. For example, some children will be very sensitive to high-quality protein foods such as chicken, eggs, and milk when they have a fever, and they will cough after eating, or the phlegm in their throat will increase after eating, and they will wheeze, etc.
The folk saying that "fish produces fire and meat produces phlegm" can probably be explained by these reasons, but these adverse reactions are not limited to animal food. If you eat dried nuts and fried plant foods such as peanuts, potato chips, fried beans, etc., you may also have adverse reactions.
Therefore, it is generally true to give priority to easily digestible starchy foods when you have a fever and loss of appetite.
However, it is also important to note that, on the other hand, starving for several days in a row is not conducive to physical recovery. Especially at present, the ongoing war with mycoplasma virus and various bacteria is also a very nutritious thing. If you really can't eat for two or three days or even longer, only drink some soup, or eat too little food even if you eat some food, it will hinder your body's recovery.
What do fever patients need to supplement in their diet?
What to eat depends on the patient's appetite. On the premise that the food is fresh and nutritious, if they really want to eat it, they don't have to deliberately block it. If you don't want to eat, you have to find ways to supplement it with energy, protein and multivitamins.
1. Eat as much of the staple food as possible
Staple foods are the main source of energy. If you don't eat enough staple foods, even if you eat enough protein, it will be treated as a waste of calories and will not really be replenished to the body. If you can't eat rice and steamed buns, you can also eat thick rice porridge, soft noodle soup, etc., you can eat mashed potatoes, yam paste, etc., you might as well eat it several times a day. At this time, as long as it is easy to digest food and the patient can eat it, you can try it.
2. Add a variety of ingredients to the staple food within the range that is acceptable to the patient
For example, vegetables, fruits, milk, soy products, etc. If you can't eat fruits and vegetables directly, you can steam, stew soft, chop, mash, chop and cook the leaves in soft noodle soup or porridge.
3. Protein foods should be supplemented gradually
When you lose your appetite, don't give large pieces of meat, whole boiled eggs, scrambled eggs, etc. For example, eggs can be made into egg drops or custard, meat can be chopped to make minced meat, and it can also be simmered in a pressure cooker or electric cooker. If you really don't want to eat meat, you can drink the deoiled broth first, and then try to add the soft and chopped minced meat to the porridge and noodle soup.
According to the patient's appetite, from less to more, slowly increase the protein food, and gradually increase the variety. When your appetite is good and your digestion is strong, it's not too late to eat "hard dishes".
4. If the amount of food continues to be seriously insufficient, you can supplement some whole nutritional products
This includes protein powder products. These products can be added to porridge, yam paste, and lotus root paste to make a semi-liquid meal. In case of indigestion, you can also consult a professional to use products that aid digestion and benefit the gastrointestinal tract, such as compound digestive enzyme products, probiotic products, etc.
5. Appropriate vitamin supplementation
The consumption of vitamins increases during fever, and vitamin C and B vitamins can be supplemented, as well as vitamins A and D. In the course of disease stress and inflammatory responses, the consumption of vitamin C increases; In a fever, the metabolic rate increases, energy expenditure increases, and the need for B vitamins rises.
In addition, vitamin D is also important for normal disease resistance, and vitamin A is not only required for anti-inflammatory responses, but also essential for the repair of damage to respiratory tissues. Patients may feel uncomfortable taking large multinutrient pills and can use small pills and capsules, as well as powdered nutritional supplements.
6. Stay away from foods with low nutritional value, indigestibility, allergies and intolerances
For example, it is necessary to avoid fried, fried, smoked and grilled foods, avoid foods that are too hard, and avoid processed foods that are high in sugar and oil. Foods that are prone to allergies or intolerances should also be avoided.
7. Seasoning is not greasy or irritating, but attention should be paid to promoting appetite
As long as the blood pressure is basically normal, you can add a small amount of salt at this time, and there is nothing wrong with adding some chicken essence and monosodium glutamate. Because after fever and sweating, it is necessary to supplement electrolytes such as sodium salts, as well as amino acids. Adding a little sodium salt appropriately is conducive to the production of gastric acid; Adding some umami amino acids can increase the motivation of intestinal cells and also increase the patient's appetite.
A few semi-liquid recipes that are delicious and easy to digest
If your family has a poor appetite and can't think of what to eat for a while, here is a list of some easy-to-digest and delicious semi-liquid food options for your reference:
1. Milky yam puree
After steaming the soft yam, grind it into a puree, add milk powder to make a milky yam puree. If you can't eat milk powder, you can try soy milk powder. If you don't have yams, you can also try them with mashed potatoes. If you want to eat salty, add a little salt or chicken essence, add a few drops of sesame oil, and make salty mashed potatoes.
2. Yogurt lotus root flour is soft and frozen
Stir in cold yogurt and stir into a semi-frozen state. It can also be added to nutritional supplements such as whole nutrition powder. If it is only the lotus root flour itself, the nutritional value is too low.
3. Yogurt mash
Stir the hot mash into the cold yogurt and stir well to bring the yogurt to a warm temperature.
4. Fried rice and egg drop porridge
In some areas, there is a habit of eating fried rice, which can be boiled into porridge with fried brown rice, add a small amount of salt, beat in a small amount of egg liquid, and stir it into a thin egg drop.
5. Green cabbage, bean curd, millet porridge
Add half a spoon of sesame oil to the soft millet porridge, a handful of finely chopped greens, and two spoonfuls of chopped lactone tofu, cook together for a few minutes, and finally add a little salt and chicken essence.
6. Soft noodles with egg drop in minced chicken soup with green vegetables
If you like to eat pasta, you can use the chicken broth with grease removed, add thin noodles, and cook it into a soft hot noodle soup, with egg drops and chopped greens.
7. Winter melon soup with chopped green vegetables and small wontons
Use the degreased chicken broth, add the winter melon slices and cook for a few minutes, add the small wontons with thin skin and chopped greens and cook until soft.
8. Hawthorn, jujube, apple and pear soup
A few pieces of dried hawthorn or two hawthorns, a few pitted dates, a pitted apple diced, a pitted pear diced, add half a bowl of water, discharge together in a pressure cooker, and cook soft with the rapid porridge program. Or simmer in a slower saucepan with a lid covered. Put less water, less sugar, and let the water in the fruit seep out on its own and become a soup.
Text/Fan Zhihong (Director of the Chinese Nutrition Society, Chief Expert of Science Communication of the China Association for Science and Technology)
(Beijing Youth Daily)