In the winter season with a high incidence of respiratory diseases, how to match the diet to enhance one's own immunity?

First of all, an important premise of a reasonable diet is food diversity, and the "Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2022)" proposes that adults should consume more than 12 kinds of food every day and more than 25 kinds of food per week, and try to mix them reasonably in three meals. Encouraging families to cook together can help diversify your diet.

Second, make sure you're getting enough high-quality protein. Try to choose foods that are high in protein, and use foods and cooking methods that are relatively low in fat. For example, steamed fish and shrimp, skimmed or low-fat milk, tenderloin, etc., as well as skinless poultry. In addition, the three meals are evenly distributed, and each meal achieves a protein intake of 25~30 grams, which is most conducive to the maintenance of our overall protein status.

Third, ensure the intake of fresh and sufficient vegetables and fruits. Quantitatively, you should eat a total of 300 to 500 grams of vegetables per day and ensure a variety of foods, especially some dark vegetables. For example, tomatoes, purple cabbage, green cauliflower, carrots, bell peppers, etc. In layman's terms, it means "having vegetables at every meal and eating fruits every day".

Fourth, drink plenty of water every day. Try to drink 1500,2000 to <>,<> ml of drinking water a day. Choose plain water, mineral water, and weak tea as much as possible, and do not choose all kinds of sugary drinks.

Finally, maintaining a healthy and reasonable weight is an important foundation for maintaining good immunity. It is necessary to achieve a balance between eating and moving, maintain good living habits, and maintain a regular work and rest time.

For patients with respiratory diseases, how to eat to improve their condition?

If you have restricted feeding, or are unable to eat at all, or if you are able to eat, you have eaten significantly less than usual, such as 30% or even 50% less than usual, for two days, in this case, you should supplement oral nutritional supplements, including formulas for special medical purposes, and oral enteral nutrition preparations under the guidance of a medical professional.

At the same time, for some people with long-term nutritional deficiencies or long-term low body weight, especially some elderly people, special emphasis should be placed on high-quality protein supplementation. For long-term vegetarians, the intake of animal foods is low, in which case some protein supplements can be added specifically in addition to the aforementioned oral nutritional supplements.

If there is a disorder of intestinal flora, you should choose some probiotics and prebiotics under the guidance of a doctor or clinical dietitian to improve the intestinal microecology.

Finally, it is especially necessary to strengthen nutritional monitoring throughout the disease prevention and control process, including weight, food intake, water and electrolytes. For some elderly people, special attention should be paid to changes in body composition, such as muscle mass, as well as some metabolic indicators, such as blood sugar, blood lipids, liver and kidney function, etc.

(Healthy China WeChat public account)