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The question of Jerusalem entered the corridors of the United Nations as a result of the Partition of Palestine Resolution 181 adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on November 29, 1947, which stipulated that the internationalization of Jerusalem is the best way to protect all religious interests in the Holy City.

Since the Nakba of 1948, the Security Council, the General Assembly and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) have adopted resolutions on Israeli violations and occupation measures aimed at Judaizing the Holy City and making it its "unified capital".

The following are the most prominent resolutions adopted by the Security Council, the General Assembly and UNESCO against Israel in Palestine since the Nakba:

Security Council Resolutions

Resolution 56 of 1948: The Security Council considered the status of Jerusalem and voted on Resolution 56, in which it requested the international mediator to demilitarize Jerusalem to protect it from destruction.

Resolution 57 of 1948: On September 18, the Security Council expressed its "strong shock" at the assassination of the UN mediator in Palestine, Count Folke Bernadotte, as a result of a "cowardly act committed by a criminal group of terrorists" in Jerusalem.

Resolution 59 of 1948: On October 19, the Security Council expressed concern that Israel had not reported on the assassination of Count Bernadotte and recognized the duty of governments to cooperate with oversight staff.

Resolution No. 61 of 1948: In which the Council recognized that in order to achieve peace in Palestine, an armistice would be applied in all sectors of the country.

Resolution 101 of 1953, dated November 24, condemning Israel's attack on Qibya, October 14-15 of the same year.

Resolution 228 of 1966: The council condemned Israel on November 25 for its military action that caused damage to life and property and violated the UN Charter and the General Armistice Agreement between Israel and Jordan.

Resolution 237 of 1967, on June 14, in which the Security Council called on Israel to respect human rights in areas affected by the Middle East conflict in general and to take into account the urgent need to alleviate further pain for the civilian population and prisoners of war in the Middle East conflict zone.

Resolution 242 of 1967, passed on November 22, calling on the UN Security Council to withdraw to the pre-1967 borders.

Resolution 248 of 1968, passed on March 24, condemning Israel's widespread and deliberate military offensive against Jordan (Battle of Dignity).

Resolution 249 of 1968, passed on August 16, condemning Israel's military attack on Jordan (Salt) (two heavy air attacks).

Resolution 250 of 1968: The Security Council voted unanimously on April 27 on a resolution calling on Israel to refrain from holding a military parade in Jerusalem because it would "increase tension in the region and have a negative impact on the peace settlement."

Resolution 251 of 1968: The council voted in May on the resolution expressing "deep regret" over the holding of a military parade in Jerusalem on May 2 in disregard by Israel of the council's unanimous resolution.

Resolution 252 of 1968: The Council on May 21 examined a Jordanian complaint against Israeli measures to Judaize Jerusalem, and voted on a resolution in which it considered that "all administrative and legislative measures and actions taken by Israel, including the confiscation of land and property that would lead to a change in the legal status of Jerusalem, are null and void," and called on Israel to "rescind these measures and immediately refrain from any further action that would alter the status of Jerusalem." Jerusalem".

The Council requested the Secretary-General to submit a report on the implementation of this resolution, and indeed subsequently submitted two reports (9194) and 9199, in which he indicated that Israel continued to change the features of Jerusalem.

Resolution 253 of 1968, passed on May 21, in which the Security Council called on Israel to rescind all arbitrary measures to change the status of the holy city.

Decree No. 265 of 1969, dated April 1, in which the Council condemned the deliberate Israeli civilian attack on Jordanian villages and populated areas and the repetition of this attack (Salt).

Resolution 267 of 1969: The council met at Jordan's request on June 30 and voted on July 3 of the same year on Resolution 267, condemning all measures taken by Israel to alter the contours of Jerusalem, including the confiscation of Arab land and property. He considered it canceled.

Decree No. 271 of 1969: On September 15, the council condemned Israel for burning the Al-Aqsa Mosque on August 21, calling for the cancellation of all measures that would change the status of Jerusalem.

Resolution 298 of 1971: The council passed the resolution on September 25 urging Israel to "rescind all previous actions and actions, and not to take further steps in the occupied sector of Jerusalem that may be understood as changing the status of the city or prejudice the rights of the residents and the advice of the international community or a just and lasting peace."

Resolution 317 of 1972: On July 21, the Security Council expressed regret over Israel's failure to return abducted Syrian and Lebanese army and security personnel and called for their return without delay.

Resolution 338 of 1973: The Security Council in October adopted a call for a ceasefire after the Yom Kippur War, which Israel calls the "Yom Kippur War."

Resolution No. 452 of 1979: The Council declared that the settlements in the occupied territories do not have any legal status and that the legal status of Jerusalem cannot be changed unilaterally.

Resolution 465 of 1980, passed on March <>, in which the Council demanded that Israel dismantle existing settlements and cease planning and building settlements in the occupied territories, including Jerusalem.

Resolution 468 of 1980: On May 8, the Security Council demanded that Israel (as the occupying power) rescind its unlawful measures (deportations) against the mayors of Hebron and Halhul and the Hebron Sharia judge.

Resolution 469 of 1980, May 20, in which the Security Council again demanded that Israel rescind the measures taken against the three Palestinian leaders and facilitate their immediate return so that they could resume the positions to which they were elected and appointed.

Resolution 476 of 1980: The Security Council passed the resolution on June 30 in which it noted that if Israel refuses to abide by this resolution, the council is determined to examine the practical ways and means provided for in the UN Charter to ensure full implementation of this resolution.

Decree No. 478 of 1980: issued on August 29 that included non-recognition of Israeli law on Jerusalem and calling on states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city.

Resolution No. 471 of 1980: In which the Council condemned the attempts to assassinate the mayors of Nablus, Ramallah and Al-Bireh, called for a ceasefire and accountability for the perpetrators of these crimes, called on all States not to provide Israel with any assistance that could support it in the matter of its settlement in the occupied territories, and called for an end to the Israeli occupation of the territories occupied in 1967, including Jerusalem.

Resolution 573 of 1985: On October 4, the Security Council condemned Israel's aggression against Tunisia, which caused heavy loss of life as well as extensive material damage, and urged UN member states to take measures to dissuade Israel from similar acts of aggression.

Resolution 592 of 1986: On December 8, the Security Council condemned the IDF's shooting at Birzeit University, which resulted in the death and injury of several of its students.

Resolution 605 of 1987, December 22, in which the Security Council condemned Israeli practices that violate the rights of the Palestinian people in the occupied territories and called on Israel to immediately and scrupulously abide by the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War.

Resolution 607 of 1988, January 5, requested that Israel refrain from deporting Palestinian civilians from the occupied territories.

Resolution 608 of 1988: On January 5, the Council called on Israel to rescind the order to deport Palestinian civilians and ensure the return of those who had already been deported.

Resolution 611 of 1988: On April 25, the Security Council condemned the Israeli aggression against Tunisia on April 16 of the same year, which resulted in the loss of human life and led in particular to the assassination of Palestinian leader Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad).

Resolution 636 of 1989, July 6, in which the Council requested Israel to ensure the return to the occupied territories of those deported (eight Palestinian civilians on June 29) and to stop deporting any other Palestinian civilians.

Resolution 641 of 1989: On August 30, 1989, the Council denounced Israel's continued deportation of Palestinian civilians (deportation of five Palestinian civilians on August 27) and requested it to ensure the immediate return of those deported.

Resolution 672 of 1990: On October 12, the Security Council condemned the October 8 violence by Israeli security forces on the Temple Mount, which resulted in the death of more than 20 Palestinians and the injury of more than 150 (Palestinian civilians and innocent worshippers). It affirms the position of the Security Council that Jerusalem is an occupied territory.

Resolution 673 of 1990, October 24, in which the Council denounced the Israeli government's refusal to receive the Secretary-General's mission and urged it to comply with Resolution 672.

Resolution 681 of 1990: December 20, the Council condemned Israel's decision to resume deportations of Palestinian civilians in the occupied territories.

Resolution 694 of 1991: On May 24, the council condemned Israel's deportation of Palestinians, in violation of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War.

Resolution 726 of 1992: On January 6, the council asks Israel to avoid deportation decisions.

Resolution 799 of 1992: On January 19, the Council condemned Israel's deportation of 418 Palestinians to southern Lebanon, violated its obligations under the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1948, and required it to ensure that all deportees return immediately and safely to the occupied territories.

Resolution No. 904 of 1994: In which the Council called for measures to be taken to protect Palestinians in the occupied territories after the Ibrahimi Mosque massacre. It was adopted without a vote.

Resolution 1073 of 1996: On September 30, the council issued a resolution calling for an immediate halt and reversal of the opening of the entrance to a tunnel next to the Al-Aqsa Mosque, which has resulted in a large number of deaths and injuries among Palestinian civilians.

Resolution 1322 of 2000, passed on October 7, condemning the provocative act of Ariel Sharon's entry into the Temple Mount and the violence that resulted in the deaths of 80 Palestinians. He called on Israel, as the occupying Power, to abide scrupulously by its legal obligations.

Resolution No. 1397 of 2002, issued on March 2002, 2000, calling on the Palestinian and Israeli sides to resume negotiations on a political settlement. He demanded an end to the violence that has persisted since the outbreak of the second intifada in September <>.

Resolution 1402 of 2002: The Council called for an immediate ceasefire and Israel's withdrawal from Palestinian cities, and called for cooperation with the implementers of the recommendations of the Michel Commission to reach a political settlement.

Resolution No. 1405 of 2002: The Council called for the lifting of restrictions on humanitarian organizations (in Jenin in particular) and welcomed the formation of an investigation team regarding the events in Jenin camp.

Resolution No. 1435 of 2002: demanded an end to the occupation of Muqata'a, the seat of then-Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat. He denounced the reoccupation of Palestinian cities and the imposition of restrictions on the free movement of citizens and goods and noted the need to respect the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949.

قرار رقم 1515 لعام 2003: طالب المجلس مرة أخرى بالوقف الفوري لجميع أعمال العنف في المنطقة، وأيد خارطة الطريق التي وضعتها اللجنة الرباعية.

قرار رقم 1544 لعام 2004: أدان المجلس قتل المدنيين الفلسطينيين وهدم منازلهم في رفح، وأكد على تأييده لخريطة الطريق التي سبق وصادق عليها في قراره 1515 لعام 2003.

قرار رقم 1850 لعام 2008: أكد على أن المجلس يشجع على وجود حدود آمنة ومعترف بها بين "دولتين ديمقراطيتين"، ورحب بالبيان الصادر عن المجموعة الرباعية الدولية وأشار إلى أهمية "مبادرة السلام العربية" لعام 2002.

قرار رقم 1860 لعام 2009: يوم 8 يناير/كانون الثاني دعا المجلس إلى احترام وقف إطلاق النار الفوري والمستدام بشكل يقود إلى انسحاب إسرائيلي كامل من غزة. تبنت 14 دولة القرار وامتنعت أميركا عن التصويت.

قرار رقم 2334 لعام 2016: يوم 23 ديسمبر/كانون الأول أصدر مجلس الأمن قراره الذي يؤكد أن إنشاء إسرائيل المستوطنات بالأراضي الفلسطينية المحتلة منذ عام 1967 -بما فيها القدس الشرقية– ليس له أي شرعية قانونية، ويطالب تل أبيب بوقف فوري لجميع الأنشطة الاستيطانية وعدم الاعتراف بأي تغيرات في حدود الرابع من يونيو/حزيران 1967.

2017 resolution: On December 18, the council voted on an Egyptian draft resolution rejecting US President Donald Trump's announcement recognizing Jerusalem as Israel's capital, which won the approval of all council member states, except the United States, which vetoed it, while the Palestinians pledged to go to the UN General Assembly to condemn Trump's decision.

Resolution 2712 of 2023: On November 15, the Council called on all parties to the war in the Gaza Strip (the Battle of the Al-Aqsa Flood) to abide by international law regarding the protection of civilians and children, and called for a truce and the opening of urgent humanitarian corridors in the Strip for a sufficient number of days.

General Assembly Resolutions

Decree No. 181 of 1947, issued on November 29, known as the "Partition Law," which approved the division of Palestinian land into an Arab state and a Jewish state, placing Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and adjacent territories under international trusteeship.

Resolution 194 of 1948: The General Assembly called for the right of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes, and the United States voted in favor.

Resolution 303 of 1949: This resolution was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly following the 1948 war, the first Arab-Israeli war. The resolution affirmed that the General Assembly does not recognize Israel's declaration of Jerusalem as its capital.

Resolution 2253 of 1967, passed on July 4, in which the General Assembly regrets the decision to apply Israeli law to East Jerusalem and deems it illegal.

Resolution 3236 of 1974: which recognized the Palestinians' right to sovereignty over their land, but the United States voted against it.

Resolution 3236 of 1974: Granting the Palestine Liberation Organization observer status in the General Assembly, and the United States voted against this resolution.

Resolution No. 3379 of 1975: considered Zionism a form of racism and discrimination. America was against it, but the Assembly later repealed Resolution 46/86 in 1991 and the United States voted in favor of it.

Resolution 15/36 of 1981, issued on October 28, considers any changes in the Jerusalem area to be illegal, against international law, and that such actions are an obstacle to the achievement of a just and comprehensive peace.

Resolution 55/130 of 2001: passed on February 28, demanding that Israel provide the necessary facilities to the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People in the Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem.

Resolution 10/14 of 2003, adopted on December 8, 2003, in which the General Assembly requested the International Court of Justice to urgently issue an advisory opinion on the construction of the wall in the Palestinian territories and around East Jerusalem, setting out the rules and principles of international law in this regard.

Resolution No. 124/59 of 2004: It relates to the practices of the Israeli occupation that affect Palestinian human rights in occupied Palestine, including East Jerusalem. America voted against the resolution.

Resolution 104/60 of 2006, adopted on January 18, in which the General Assembly requested the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting Human Rights to continue its work until the Israeli occupation ended completely.

Resolution No. 98/70 of 2015: Issued on December 9, condemning settlement activities in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, expanding settlements in and around occupied East Jerusalem, and denouncing Israel's continued unlawful construction of the wall.

Resolution No. 67/19 of 2012: Palestine was granted the status of a non-observer member of the United Nations. America opposed it.

Resolution 69/320 of 2015: Non-member observer states were allowed to flag their flag at UN Headquarters in New York. America opposed the resolution.

Decision No. 96/71 of 2016, passed on December 6, affirming that the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of August 12, 1949, applies to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem.

Resolution No. 10/19 of 2017: related to the status of Jerusalem, and was adopted during the 10th emergency special session of the General Assembly, in which 128 countries voted in favor of the resolution, 9 opposed it, 35 abstained, and 21 countries absent.

UNESCO Resolutions

1956 resolution: UNESCO adopted its first resolution on Jerusalem, nearly eight years after Israel annexed the western part of Jerusalem. The resolution stipulated that all measures should be taken to protect cultural property in the city in the event of armed conflict.

1968 resolution: UNESCO adopted a resolution affirming the previous resolution and called on Israel to refrain from any excavations in the city, the transfer of property, or the alteration of its cultural features or features.

1974 resolution: UNESCO decides not to provide any cultural and scientific aid to Israelis because of their practices in Jerusalem.

1978 Resolution: The UNESCO General Conference passed two important resolutions on Jerusalem, the first of which was an urgent appeal to Israel to refrain from all measures that prevented the Palestinian Arab population from enjoying their rights to education and cultural and national life, and the second condemned Israel for altering and Judaizing Jerusalem's historical and cultural features.

Decree No. 150 of 1996, issued on November 27, stating that the Old City of Jerusalem is on the List of World Heritage in Danger and condemning the Israeli authorities' opening of the tunnel along the Western Wall of the Haram al-Sharif.

Decree No. 159 of 2000, issued on June 15, expressing concern about measures that continue to impede Palestinian access to the city of Jerusalem and to the holy sites located in the Old City of Jerusalem.

Resolutions between 2005 and 2006: UNESCO adopted resolutions that recognized the exceptional value of the city of Jerusalem and its walls, placing it on the List of World Heritage in Danger. It referred to the obstacles placed by Israel to the safeguarding of cultural heritage.

Resolution 184 of 2010, issued on April 2, expressing grave concern about Israel's ongoing excavation and excavation of Al-Aqsa Mosque and Old City Jerusalem buildings, in contravention of UNESCO, UN, and Security Council resolutions.

Resolution 192 of 2014, passed on January 13, condemning Israel's failure to stop its ongoing excavations in East Jerusalem and condemning Israel's ongoing unilateral measures and incursions into East Jerusalem.

Resolution 196 of 2015, passed on May 22, expressing deep regret over Israel's refusal to implement previous UNESCO resolutions on Jerusalem, and the damage caused by Israeli security forces on October 30, 2014, to the doors and windows of the Tribal Mosque, as well as the closure of the Bab al-Rahma building, one of the gates of the Al-Aqsa Mosque, and condemns Israel's decision to approve the construction of a cable car in East Jerusalem.

Decree No. 200 of 2016, issued on October 13, demanding that Israel allow a return to the historical status quo that existed until September 2000, strongly condemning the continued incursion into Al-Aqsa Mosque by Israeli right-wing extremists, denouncing Israel's restrictions on Al-Aqsa Mosque, and reaffirming that the slope of Bab al-Maghariba is an integral part of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

2016 Resolution: UNESCO inscribed 55 heritage sites in the world on the list of endangered sites, including the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls, causing Israeli outrage and condemnation.

2016 Resolution: At a meeting in Paris in October, UNESCO adopted a resolution denying the religious affiliation of Jews to the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Western Wall, which Jews call the Western Wall, and considered them pure Islamic heritage.

2017 resolution: UNESCO's Executive Board voted on a resolution affirming the organization's previous decisions declaring Israel an occupier of Jerusalem and rejecting its sovereignty over the Holy City.

Source : Al Jazeera + Websites