China News Service, Xi'an, January 12 (Reporter Alina) The reporter learned from a press conference held by the Shaanxi Provincial Bureau of Cultural Relics on the 12th that more than 220 pieces of terracotta warriors and horses were excavated in the third excavation of the No. The arrangement of the array clarifies the production procedure of the terracotta warriors, and the signs of the corridor can provide very strong evidence for Xiang Yu's destruction of the Mausoleum of Qin Shihuang and the pit of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses.

  The burial pits of the Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses are a group of large-scale burial pits outside the Mausoleum of the First Emperor of Qin. Among them, Pit No. 1 has the largest area and a rectangular plane. According to the arrangement density, more than 6,000 pottery warriors and horses can be unearthed after all the excavations.

From 2009 to 2022, the Qinshihuang Mausoleum Museum conducted the third official excavation of Pit No. 1, with an excavation area of ​​about 430 square meters.

The picture shows the excavation area.

Photo courtesy of Shaanxi Provincial Bureau of Cultural Relics

  In this excavation, more than 220 pottery figurines and 16 pottery horses were cleared; 4 chariots, 2 drums, 1 drumstick, 1 lacquered shield, and 3 cages; ; Discovery of chariots and horses, weapons, production tools, etc., a total of nearly a thousand pieces (groups).

  According to Shen Maosheng, a researcher at the Mausoleum Museum of the First Emperor of Qin, the wooden structure of the terracotta pit is a frame structure composed of pedestals, columns, square wood, and shed wood. Wood—The box-and-coffin structure composed of shed planks appears to be technically primitive, and the burial pits of the terracotta warriors and horses should be a group of burial pits built earlier in the cemetery.

  Some important discoveries and new understandings have also been made through archaeological excavations.

In terms of the ranks and military formations of the figurines, the functions of special figurines are clarified, and the arrangement rules of the military formations are preliminarily clarified.

In terms of the relics of the car, the cage and other relics were cleared out, and it was determined that it was a car equipped with a device for storing sundries, not a manger.

In terms of weapons and equipment, it is believed that the long weapons in the figurines pit are mainly beryllium and halberds; the short weapons can distinguish the difference in grade between the two types of bronze swords; First shield; directing device clears out drums and drumsticks.

The picture shows archaeologists working in the excavation area.

Photo courtesy of Shaanxi Provincial Bureau of Cultural Relics

  In addition, through archaeological excavations, it is believed that the arms of the terracotta figurines were made separately. After the torso of the terracotta figurines was completely made, they were covered with fine mud for a second time. The arms were glued after the detailed carvings, including the armor, were clarified .

New breakthroughs have also been made in the protection of painted paintings and the restoration of cultural relics. Up to now, more than 140 pottery figurines have been restored.

  Shen Maosheng said that the archaeological excavation showed that the tunnel had been dug by people, and it is speculated that someone used the tunnel to enter the pit of figurines.

Those who can use the corridor to enter the pit for destruction must be those who participated in the construction of the pit, and think of the Qin soldiers who surrendered to Xiang Yu. If these people accept Xiang Yu's order to destroy, they must be familiar with the road, so the signs of the tunnel can be Xiang Yu's destruction of the Mausoleum of Qin Shihuang and the Terracotta Warriors and Horses Pit provides a very strong evidence.