The development and change of China's manufacturing highlights the sonorous pace of industrial upgrading——

The "old three" glows with new opportunities and the "new three" show new advantages

Times are changing, and so is the structure of China's trade in goods.

In the past, clothing, furniture, home appliances and other "old three" were exported in large quantities and became popular overseas. Nowadays, new energy vehicles, lithium batteries, photovoltaic products and other foreign trade "new three" sail to the sea and call the world. According to customs statistics, in the first three quarters of this year, the total export of electric manned vehicles, lithium-ion batteries, solar cells and other products increased by 41.7% year-on-year, and the performance was very bright.

The times are changing, and the pace of China's industrial upgrading has always been consistent.

From the "old three" to accelerate the high-end, intelligent and green transformation, and constantly rejuvenate the "new three" with new technologies and new products to stand out and gain new competitive advantages, China's manufacturing anchors the high-quality development goal and moves forward firmly.

The "new three" and the "old three" condense the changes of the times and record the development footprints.


Behind the positive results of China's manufacturing transformation and upgrading, and the change of China's comparative advantage in the global industrial division of labor

Milan Fashion Week, the Oriental tide is surging.

Bosideng held a show at Leonardo da Vinci Manor, Duck Duck released the world's first Icelandic goose down jacket, and Seven Wolves exhibited a new reversible jacket that conveys the concept of "harmonious coexistence between man and nature"... In September, a number of Chinese clothing brands appeared in the global fashion capital, winning a lot of applause.

The "Chinese elements" that shine in Milan, Italy are not only clothing, but also cars - the high-end smart coupe AVATR 12 shines on the debut, Lynk & Co's tenth European experience store is crowded, and the BYD Pioneer Store officially opens this year... China's new energy vehicles are accelerating into the daily life of European people.

From clothing to new energy vehicles, Chinese brands have appeared on the global stage, demonstrating the comprehensive strength and international competitiveness of the world's largest manufacturing country: today's China, with an annual output of more than 700 billion garments, accounting for more than half of the world's total, and the global proportion of textile and apparel exports has remained at about 1/3 for many years; the production and sales of new energy vehicles have ranked first in the world for eight consecutive years, with a global market share of more than 8%.

Since becoming the "main force" of China's foreign trade exports, the "old three" has been stable——

In 2006, China became the world's largest furniture exporter, and has always maintained the first export for many years, with a current output value of more than 35% of the world.

"Made in China" refrigerators and washing machines account for more than 50% of the global market, air conditioners account for more than 80%, and the export scale ranks first in the world.

"The 'old three' is an important part of the consumer goods industry, and it is also a typical embodiment of China's foreign trade competitiveness." Wang Xu from the Consumer Goods Industry Research Institute of CCID Research Institute said that from the beginning of the reform and opening up, to the rapid development after joining the World Trade Organization, and then to the unswerving transformation and upgrading in recent years, the "old three" have gained a firm foothold and consolidated their advantages in the global industrial changes.

As an industrial product with the rapid development of China in recent years, the "new three" continues to run out of "acceleration"——

Since CATL topped the global power battery annual shipment championship in 2017, China's power battery shipments have begun to lead the world.

China's photovoltaic module output has ranked first in the world for 16 consecutive years, and the production capacity of polysilicon, silicon wafers, cells, modules and other production capacity has accounted for more than 80% of the world's total. In the first half of this year, the export value of photovoltaic products reached 289.2 billion US dollars, a year-on-year increase of 11.6%.

Look at the "block", "new three" and "old three" all have the characteristics of large scale, heavy weight, and many exports; Looking at the "temperament", both are striding forward on the road of high-end, intelligent and green.

——High-end layout and a new level of industry.

Two pieces of clothing, 40 years apart, witness Youngor's footsteps to climb to both ends of the "smile curve": one is the popular "Beilun Port" shirt in the 80s of the last century, and the profit of one shirt is only 1 yuan; One is the best-selling haute couture suit, and a set costs tens of thousands of yuan.

In terms of quality control, we continuously optimize traditional processes and make up for technical shortcomings; In terms of R&D and design, hundreds of new fabrics are developed every year to introduce clothing fits that are more suitable for Chinese; In terms of marketing services, online and offline channels are opened, and smart logistics realizes efficient distribution..."Behind the premium of clothing brands is the all-round improvement of quality, innovation and service. Li Rucheng, chairman of Youngor Group, said.

In the 2023 "Top 50 Global Electronics and Home Appliance Brand Value" released by a brand evaluation agency in the United Kingdom, more than 10 brands from Chinese mainland, such as Midea, Gree and Haier, were shortlisted; The energy density of the mass production power battery unit is 300 watt-hours per kilogram, which is at the international leading level; The efficiency of crystalline silicon-perovskite tandem cells reached 33.9%, setting a new world record... With the improvement of technology content and brand premium, Made in China is no longer synonymous with "big road goods", and is accelerating towards the middle and high-end of the global industry.

——Intelligent manufacturing, surging new industrial momentum.

Guangzhou, Guangdong, Sophia Home Furnishing South China 4.0 Digital Intelligence Factory, Yishui'er intelligent processing equipment.

Cutting process, system automatic identification, electronic saw automatic cutting; In the edge banding process, an advanced edge banding machine with closed operation is introduced to automatically seal 4 edges at a time; Drilling and punching process, system scanning, automatic identification and automatic operation of equipment, and the accuracy is greatly improved; In the sorting process, 8 sets of "long-eyed" manipulators tossed and turned, matching different types of plates with complete sets... Since the workshop was put into operation in September 2022, the number of workers has been reduced from more than 9 people in the traditional line to 200, and the utilization rate of panels has increased from 70% to 85%.

Xi'an, Shaanxi, LONGi Green Energy's Xi'an battery factory is a scene of smart production.

In the 1,7-square-meter dust-free workshop, the robotic arm rises and falls flexibly, and the intelligent carrier shuttles back and forth, with an average of one solar cell coming off the assembly line every 0.8 seconds. Through digital and intelligent technological upgrading, the production capacity of a single production line has increased from 2020,15 pieces/day in 20 to 220,120 pieces/day, and the number of employees in a single shift has been reduced from more than <> to <>.

5G, Internet of Things, robots, artificial intelligence, industrial Internet, and a series of advanced digital technologies have refreshed the production scene of Made in China and significantly improved manufacturing efficiency. ZEEKR smart factory, millions of personalized configurations can be combined at will; Galanz, from receiving overseas microwave oven orders to completing production and shipment, the whole industry chain process only takes 7 days...

-- Green transformation, blooming a new atmosphere of the industry.

Tailor-made energy-saving digital management system, automatically generate the number of equipment start-ups in each section, and minimize the number of start-ups per unit of production capacity; More than 80% of electricity comes from hydropower, reducing carbon emissions by 40,3 tons per year; Inside the entire plant, the means of transport are fully electrified... In March last year, Sichuan Times, a subsidiary of CATL in Yibin, Sichuan, became the world's first zero-carbon battery factory.

"Green energy, green manufacturing, green logistics, and products are also green equipment." Zhu Yunfeng, general manager of Sichuan Times New Energy Technology Co., Ltd., said proudly.

Promote advanced energy-saving technologies, equipment and products, reduce energy consumption, water consumption, and pollution emissions, and green is becoming the distinctive background color of the "new three" and "old three": in Sophia Home Furnishing South China 4.0 Digital Intelligence Factory, all the dust generated in each cutting link enters the pipeline to achieve unified recycling and reuse;

Along the road of high-quality development, the "new three" and "old three" are fighting side by side and moving forward hand in hand.

There are many similarities between the "new three" and the "old three", what are the differences?

Comparing the many differences between the "new three" and the "old three", it is found that the distinctive trajectory of China's manufacturing upward leap is found.

The "technological content" is different - from labor-intensive to technology-intensive.

"In the past, the 'old three' was a labor-intensive industry, mainly relying on the cost advantages of labor, land, energy and other aspects, and achieved rapid development in China. The current 'new three' is technology-intensive, with a high threshold for capital investment, and it is difficult to rely on 'crowd tactics' to achieve large-scale production. Hong Qunlian, a researcher at the Industrial Institute of the China Macroeconomic Research Institute, said.

Behind the change of products is the change of the stage of development and the change of concept.

Since the reform and opening up, China has taken the initiative to participate in the international industrial division of labor, actively attracting foreign investment and vigorously developing labor-intensive industries by taking advantage of its comparative advantages such as rich labor, low labor costs, and cheap energy and resource prices. As a result, the "old three" developed rapidly.

With the rise of factor costs and the weakening of traditional comparative advantages, China has seized the precious opportunity of a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, actively promoted structural optimization and kinetic energy conversion, and strived to achieve innovation-driven development. In the context of China's economic development towards high-quality development, the "new three" has taken root and grown strongly.

The "entry time" is different - from the "undertaker" of industrial transfer to the "pioneer" of innovation and development.

"Home appliances such as TVs, the technology originated in Europe and the United States, matured in Japan and South Korea, and then turned to Chinese mainland, which has gone through decades of industrial gradient transfer process." Ma Beibei, director of the Digital Economy Office of the Institute of Electronics of CCID Research Institute, believes that unlike the "old three", China's "new three" is the first time that a new round of new technologies has formed a strong market competitiveness.

"From the past 'old three' to the current 'new three', it fully reflects the internal changes in China's factor endowment structure and the dynamic evolution of comparative advantages in the global industrial division of labor." Hong Qunlian said.


Both the "new three" and the "old three" have grown up in the fertile soil of China's economy, and there is a strong support for China's unique development advantages

From the "old three" to the "new three", why can "Made in China" stand out and take the lead in the global market?

During the interview, the answer gradually became clear: both grew up in the fertile soil of China's economy, and there is a strong support for China's unique development advantages.

——The demand advantage of the super-large-scale market has created a huge space for the development of the "new three" and "old three".

The market is the most scarce resource. With a population of more than 14.4 billion, a middle-income group of more than <> million, the world's second largest consumer market, and the largest online retail market, China is the world's most potential super-large-scale market.

Many respondents said that although the "old three" and "new three" are the highlights of foreign trade, their growth is inseparable from the support and assistance of huge domestic demand.

The super-large-scale market, like a "big stage", can generate a steady stream of massive demand.

In the western Sichuan Plateau, the world's largest hydro-solar complementary project - SDIC Yalongjiang Kola Phase I photovoltaic power station was put into operation; In the Kubuqi Desert, the largest single photovoltaic sand control project in the country - the Kubuqi 200 million kilowatt photovoltaic sand control project in Mengxi Base was successfully connected to the grid; Tengger Desert, National Energy Group's 200 million kilowatt photovoltaic project is stepping up construction... Since the beginning of this year, a number of key photovoltaic projects have been steadily promoted. Previously, China's newly installed photovoltaic capacity has ranked first in the world for 10 consecutive years.



































The success of the "new three" and "old three" has strengthened our determination and confidence to stick to industry and strive for innovation, and also inspired us to adhere to the principle of seeking progress while maintaining stability, opening up and cooperation, and moving towards high-quality development

Walking into the electrolyte coating workshop of Qingtao Energy Development Co., Ltd. in Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, composite cathode materials the size of boarding passes are being accurately stacked together by manipulators.

"What is produced here is the first generation of semi-solid-state batteries jointly developed by SAIC and Qingtao. In the third quarter of next year, it will be the first to be mass-produced and equipped on a new model of the Zhiji brand. Li Zheng, general manager of SAIC Qingtao Energy, said that this generation of semi-solid-state battery technology can achieve a maximum range of more than 1000,10 kilometers for new cars under the condition of the existing platform-based battery system, and an increase of 400 kilometers in <> minutes of charging.

In the past 10 years, the main technical route of global power batteries was lithium-ion liquid electrolyte batteries. In contrast, solid-state batteries use a solid-state electrolyte, composite cathode and anode materials, and a separator. Since Toyota announced this year that it has achieved a breakthrough in the research and development of solid-state batteries and will be mass-produced in 2027, this form of power battery has attracted great attention from the industry.

At present, China is a well-deserved leader in the global power battery industry. So, what about solid-state batteries after they "enter the market"?

"At present, we are evaluating and following up on several technical roadmaps for solid-state batteries. New material system products such as sodium ions, lithium manganese iron phosphate, and condensed matter are also being developed simultaneously. Ni Jun, co-president of CATL's engineering manufacturing and R&D system, told reporters that in the face of new opportunities and challenges in the industry, China's power battery companies have never stopped innovating.

Sailing against the current, if you don't advance, you will retreat. Only by innovating can we stay ahead of the curve.

"From an international point of view, some traditional head car companies have been late in the transformation to new energy vehicles. However, these enterprises have a strong technical foundation, and the late-mover advantage cannot be underestimated. Feng Xingya, general manager of GAC Group, said.

Accelerate the popularization of the integrated aluminum die-casting process, rush to launch the 800V high-voltage silicon carbide platform and the central integrated electronic and electrical architecture, and open the "mapless era" of intelligent assisted driving that does not rely on high-precision maps... Chinese auto brands that are "one step ahead" in intelligence and electrification are still running hard and striving to build an industrial "moat".

The "new three" relies on innovation to consolidate its advantages, and the "old three" also relies on innovation to make up for its shortcomings.

Constant temperature and humidity laboratory, negative pressure laboratory, cell culture cabinet, antistatic testing laboratory... In the Youngor Textile Materials Research Institute, all kinds of instruments are running at high speed, and researchers are busy operating.

"The 'old three' is still full of new topics, even a piece of silk or cloth can create new breakthroughs." Dean Wang Qingmiao said that the current clothing industry is fiercely competitive in new functions and new materials, and only by developing more exclusive products can we occupy the market advantage, "from tackling exclusive technologies such as ironless shirts and machine-washable wool to exploring cutting-edge research such as machine-washable silk fabrics, we will aim at consumer pain points and overcome more innovative 'no man's land'." ”

"Only by constantly innovating can the 'new three' be 'stronger and stronger', and the 'old three' can continue to improve quality and efficiency." Jin Ruiting, a researcher at the Institute of Foreign Economic Research of the National Development and Reform Commission, said.

The success of the "new three" and the "old three" has strengthened our determination and confidence to stick to industry and accelerate the construction of a modern industrial system, and also provided a lot of inspiration for future development.

-- Persist in seeking progress while maintaining stability, and promote the effective improvement of quality and reasonable growth in quantity.

With rapid expansion and disorderly competition, the "old three" once went through a "detour".

"In the past, some domestic garment companies blindly spelled the price, the quantity, there were a lot of cheap and low-quality products on the market, the short-term sales may be good, but the revenue performance is not satisfactory, and finally eliminated by the market." Recalling the development process of the garment industry, Li Rucheng sighed that enterprises can not only focus on the expansion of quantity, ignoring the improvement of quality, "only by insisting on technology, products, and brands can we achieve long-term development." ”

Many respondents believe that the "new three" industry market is very open, and it is normal and positive to attract capital, talents and other factors in the accelerated growth stage. At the same time, the departments concerned and the vast number of enterprises should also take precautions to avoid industrial convergence, duplication of investment, and vicious competition.

"At present, the high-end capacity of the power battery industry is not excessive, but the problem of low-end production capacity 'swarming' needs to be paid attention to." Ni Jun believes that China should establish a lithium battery GMP certification system as soon as possible and use standards to promote the high-quality development of the industry.

"In the past two years, photovoltaic products have performed well, but hidden concerns such as volume increase and price decline must be dealt with in a timely manner." Gao Jifan, Chairman of Trina Solar, believes that the rational development of the photovoltaic industry should be promoted, and leading enterprises should be supported to play a supporting and leading role to build a good ecology of the industry.

In Hong Phison's view, to avoid "detours", it is necessary to strengthen the publicity and guidance of the macro situation, promote enterprises to always adhere to quality first and efficiency first, and scientifically set access conditions in terms of technology, quality, energy consumption, emissions, investment scale, etc., and use scientific regulatory thresholds to force the industry to improve its level.

-- Adhere to openness and cooperation, smooth domestic and international dual circulation, and pursue win-win cooperation.

"Hello Xiao An, enter pickup mode."

Giving the command, the oversized fastback rear window slowly slides to the roof, a cool pure electric SUV, instantly transformed into a pure electric pickup...

On November 11, the Changan Automobile booth at the Bangkok Motor Show in Thailand attracted a lot of attention. On the same day, Changan Automobile announced that it will introduce three major digital and intelligent product brands such as DEEPAL into the Thai market, and plans to launch 27 new energy products in the local market by 2030.

"At present, Changan Automobile has set up 73 subsidiaries and 22 factories around the world, and its products are exported to 63 countries and regions." In Zhu Huarong's view, the next three years are an important window period for the globalization of China's auto industry, "with technological advantages, cost advantages, and industrial chain advantages, Chinese car companies have the opportunity to run side by side with multinational companies or even lead." ”

Many industries are speeding up their overseas layout: in the field of power batteries, companies such as Guoxuan Hi-Tech, EVE Lithium Energy, Honeycomb Energy, and Sunwoda have announced that they will build factories in Europe; In the field of photovoltaics, as of 2022, Chinese enterprises have invested in overseas photovoltaic projects in more than 40 countries, with a cumulative installed capacity of 16.8 GW.

"When the world is good, China will be good; If China is good, the world will be better. ”

Looking to the future, we must not only promote more products and industries to show the style of Chinese manufacturing on the global stage, but also unswervingly promote high-level opening-up and promote all countries and parties to share the opportunities of China's big market.

"Over the past 45 years of reform and opening up, the rapid development of joint venture automobile enterprises has not only stimulated economic growth and created jobs, but also provided products, technologies, supply chain systems, management experience and talents for the development of China's automobile industry. Feng Xingya believes that in view of the production and operation difficulties of some joint ventures that still focus on fuel vehicles since last year, it is necessary to give better play to the technology, research and development and cost advantages of the Chinese parent company in the context of further deepening reform and opening up, and promote the healthy development of joint ventures.

"On the one hand, based on advantages, do a good job of yourself, and further enhance your competitiveness; On the other hand, we should also pay attention to strengthening communication, dialogue, cooperation and exchanges with partners, and promote the realization of domestic and international dual circulation as the main body and mutual promotion of domestic and international circulation. Jin Ruiting said.

At this year's two sessions, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out when participating in the deliberations of the Jiangsu delegation: "China's manufacturing industry is very complete, and what we need to work hard now is to comprehensively improve, and the middle and low end of the past should go up and lay out the high-end." High-quality development should be reflected here. ”

The "old three" are rejuvenated, and the "new three" show new advantages. We see the dynamic curve of China's manufacturing in an all-round improvement and moving towards high-end, and feel the surging momentum of China's high-quality economic development.

All walks of life have firm confidence, the majority of enterprises strive to climb, the strength of China's manufacturing will be stronger, and the resilience of China's economy will be more sufficient!

(People's Daily reporters Liu Zhiqiang, Wang Zheng, Ding Yiting, Qiu Chaoyi)