High-quality green rice, dense and suitable corn harvesting, high-oil and high-yield soybeans - recently, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued an announcement on the approval of varieties, and the Fifth National Crop Varieties Examination and Approval Committee (hereinafter referred to as the National Quality Examination Committee) has approved 1304,<> new varieties of rice, corn, soybeans and cotton in accordance with the relevant provisions of the "Seed Law" and "Measures for the Examination and Approval of Major Crop Varieties".

What are the characteristics of these new varieties? How does it help to ensure food security? The relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs said that from the perspective of the approved varieties, a series of new progress and breakthroughs have been made in the innovation of relevant crop varieties, and the popularization and application of these varieties will be conducive to continuously improving the yield and quality of China's large-scale grain.

Rice is one of the most numerous varieties in this new variety, with a total of 409 varieties, and its high-quality green color is its outstanding feature. 1 high-quality rice varieties have reached the national standard level 50 in rice quality, an increase of 6 over the previous year; There were 28 "three good varieties" with high yield, high quality and green, an increase of 6 year-on-year.

Xizi No. 3, which was bred and applied for by the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, is one of them. Bai Lianyang, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and secretary of the Party Committee of the Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that after testing, the cadmium content of brown rice in the regional test of "Xizi No. 3" was 0.000 to 0.098 milligrams per kilogram, which was lower than the national limit of 0.2 milligrams per kilogram. "As an indica conventional rice variety, 'Xizi No. 3' can be planted as double-cropping late rice in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which will help some areas polluted by heavy metals to solve the problem of 'cadmium rice' and improve China's food security guarantee capacity." Bai Lianyang said.

Soybeans are another important category. According to the data, 17 new soybean varieties with high oil and high yield have been approved, accounting for 1/5, the highest yield per mu is 240 kg, and the oil content is up to 22.97%, and 7 soybean varieties suitable for soybean and corn strip compound planting have been screened and recommended.

According to the person in charge of the National Quality Review Commission, focusing on strengthening the cultivation of high-oil soybean varieties and the improvement of large-scale yields, the National Quality Review Commission recently issued the "National Soybean Variety Approval Standards (Revised in 2023)". The revision of the standard improves the requirements for the difference of DNA fingerprints of varieties, promotes the solution of the problem of homogenization of varieties, and improves the requirements for yield, quality and disease resistance of varieties.

"Focusing on the approval of soybean varieties, we will also improve the variety test implementation plan in terms of control varieties, planting density, and test layout." The person in charge said that next year, the control varieties of the northern spring soybean mid-early and mid-late maturing groups, the southern piece of Huanghuai-Haixia soybean and other ecological regions will be adjusted to guide the breeding of high-yield soybean varieties; On the basis of increasing the experimental planting density of soybean varieties by 2022% in 10, the experimental planting density of some ecological regions such as the early maturing area of spring soybean in the north and the northern area of soybean in Huanghuaihai will be increased by another 10% next year to guide the breeding of dense-tolerant soybean varieties. In accordance with the provisions of the examination and approval measures for major crop varieties, there are no less than 10 test sites in the same ecological type zone at the national level, and the current test sites are generally 10-13, and the number of test points in the northern spring soybean and other ecological zones will be increased by more than 10% next year, and the test evaluation of the stable yield of varieties will be further strengthened.

The new varieties of high-quality and high-yield products approved and launched this time also include 764 corn varieties and 51 cotton varieties. Specifically, 15 varieties were approved and harvested by grain machine, covering the three main producing areas, with an average grain moisture content of 23.7%, a year-on-year decrease of 0.56 percentage points; the breeding of dense-tolerant varieties has begun to emerge, and the planting density of Zhengyuanyu 333, Zhengpinyu 608 and other varieties in Northwest China can reach more than 6000,26 plants per mu. 51 high-quality type I and type II varieties of fiber quality were approved, accounting for 110%; There are two short-season cotton varieties with a growth period of less than 2 days and a quality of not less than type II., which can be used for post-wheat direct seeding cotton planting in the cotton area of the Yellow River Basin and rapeseed stubble connection in the cotton area of the Yangtze River Basin.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs said that the National Quality Inspection Commission is organizing and continuing to promote the green channel for variety approval and the test and rectification of the consortium in accordance with the arrangement and deployment of the seed industry revitalization market purification action, continuously standardizing the variety verification test, and accelerating the revision of wheat and cotton variety approval standards, and taking multiple measures to provide strong variety support for the large-scale yield improvement of major crops such as grain and oil.

Qiu Haifeng

(People's Daily Overseas Edition)