A few days ago, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued an announcement on the approval of varieties, and the National Crop Variety Examination and Approval Committee approved 1304,<> new varieties of rice, corn, soybean and cotton. The launch of a new batch of high-quality green rice, dense and machine-harvested corn, high-oil and high-yield soybeans, and high-quality short-season cotton varieties will be conducive to continuously improving the yield level of large-scale grain.
Judging from the examination and approval, new breakthroughs have been made in the innovation of these types of crop varieties. In terms of rice, 1 high-quality rice varieties have been approved to reach the national standard level 50 in terms of rice quality, an increase of 6 over the previous year; There were 28 "three good varieties" with high yield, high quality and green, an increase of 6 year-on-year. In terms of maize, 15 varieties were approved and harvested by grain machine, covering the three main producing areas, with an average grain moisture content of 23.7%, down 0.56 percentage points year-on-year, and the breeding of dense-tolerant varieties began to emerge, with Zheng Yuanyu 333, Zheng Pinyu 608 and other varieties planting more than 6000,17 plants per mu in Northwest China. In terms of soybeans, 240 new soybean varieties with high oil and high yield have been approved, accounting for one-fifth, the highest yield per mu is 22 kg, and the oil content is up to 97.7%, and <> soybean varieties suitable for soybean and corn strip compound planting have been screened and recommended.
"Based on China's resource endowment and agricultural production conditions, ensuring the stable and safe supply of grain and important agricultural products must rely on increasing yields." Liu Changquan, a researcher at the Institute of Rural Development of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, believes that at present, China's grain area is at a historical high, the constraints on cultivated land and water resources are getting tighter and tighter, and the space for relying on expanding the area to increase output is very limited, and the main way to increase production capacity is to increase yield. At the same time, with the improvement of living standards, the demand for grain and important agricultural products is increasing year by year, and it is necessary to continuously improve the comprehensive production capacity. In addition, the international competitiveness of China's bulk agricultural products is not strong, which is mainly reflected in the low output rate per unit area, and it is also urgent to improve the yield level.
According to the data of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China's grain yield has great potential. In terms of varieties, the average yield per mu of rice, wheat and corn was 600 kg, 420 kg and 650 kg respectively, which was 130 kg, 40 kg and 230 kg higher than that of field production. From the technical point of view, a number of high-yield technical models such as deep fertilization of rice side, wide precision sowing of wheat, shallow drip irrigation of corn, and dense planting of soybean ridges have been innovated in various places, and the average yield increase in demonstration sites is more than 10%, but it has not yet been popularized in a large area. From the perspective of high yield, in recent years, through the implementation of green, high-quality and efficient actions and industrial technology system demonstrations, the average yield per mu of wheat in the project counties is 91 kg higher than that of the province where it is located, 50 kg higher for rice, 120 kg higher for corn and 28 kg higher for rape.
Since the beginning of this year, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has taken the improvement of large-scale yield as the number one project of grain production, driven by the demonstration of the whole system of 100 soybean and 200 large corn counties, mainly promoting the dense planting technology model, integrating various resource measures, and achieving remarkable results. Pan Wenbo, director of the Planting Management Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that the soybean planting density in the yield improvement demonstration area this year has generally increased by 800 to 1000,2 plants per mu, and the density of high-yield fields has reached 4,2 plants, and the density of the United States, Brazil and Argentina has been 3,2 to 5,3 plants. According to the calculation of 30 plants and one or two beans, the average yield per mu increases by about 100 catties. The increase in yield in the 70 main producing counties contributed more than <>% to the increase in total output.
In order to improve the yield, Laozhaozhuang Town, Linqing City, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province, has implemented key technical measures such as coating of improved seeds, returning straw to the field, and "one spray and three preventions" for grain and oil crops from land preparation and sowing to field management. "We promote soybean and corn compound planting, and increase yields through the implementation of fine machine sowing and water and fertilizer integration. At the same time, large grain growers and agricultural machinery cooperatives are encouraged to purchase high-performance sowing machinery and special machinery for soybean and corn compound planting that are conducive to the improvement of large-scale yields. Liu Dianfeng, mayor of Lao Zhaozhuang Town, said.
In Tianpan Village, Changtang Town, Jizhou District, Ji'an City, Jiangxi Province, Xiao Wenlong, a large planter, planted 280 acres of late rice this year, and used the technology of side-deep application of slow-release fertilizer, which reduced the amount of chemical fertilizer by 10% and increased the yield per mu. Liao Huafeng, a member of the Party Committee of Jizhou District Agriculture and Rural Bureau, said that the local application of improved varieties and good methods, based on soil testing and formula fertilization technology, increased nutritional diagnosis and increased organic fertilizer, green manure substitution and other technologies integrated application, increase green prevention and control technology, the use of biological pesticides. In the critical season of rice growth, more than 3,<> mu of foliar fertilizer was sprayed on middle and late rice to enhance resistance, increase grain weight, and thus increase yield.
According to the relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the large-scale yield improvement of grain and oil crops is a systematic project. According to the production and demand situation and yield potential, the first level is the soybean and corn crops with the most urgent capacity improvement and the greatest yield improvement potential, as the focus of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, take the lead in launching the yield improvement action, and strive to achieve a breakthrough as soon as possible; The second level is rape, rice, and wheat that are in demand for capacity improvement, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs guides all provinces to promote the implementation in accordance with the actual situation; The third level is cotton, sugarcane and other important bulk cash crops. Strengthen scientific and technological research, accelerate integration and promotion, and comprehensively improve the level of yield.
Liu Changquan said that it is necessary to take the two-wheel drive of science and technology and reform, highlight the great cooperation in tackling key problems, the promotion of excellent mechanisms, strong policy support, and the promotion of the whole system, promote the shortcomings of all factors, the integration of all links, and the promotion of all fields, and do everything possible to transform the potential of science and technology into actual output, the output of experts into farmers' output, and the typical output into field output, so as to promote the production capacity of grain and important agricultural products to a new level.