Newsweek丨Agriculture should increase production and farmers should increase their income, and these places have their own tricks!
This year's northern temperatures have been warmer than usual, and even in early November, there was still a feeling of autumn, until the end of this week, when it really cooled down and winter was coming. This time is also the end of the autumn harvest, and there is a lot of good news for grain production. On Tuesday, Heilongjiang, the northernmost province of China, announced that the autumn harvest production has been fully ended, even if the local areas were affected by floods in the early stage, but the overall growth of crops is better than usual, and the province's grain production is expected to achieve a bumper harvest. And last week, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs also said that this year's national grain output is expected to hit a record high, but the autumn harvest should literally be divided into two pieces, the first is the autumn grain harvest, and then the next should of course be the farmers' harvest, how can we increase grain production and farmers' income?
The reporter learned from the Heilongjiang Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs that in addition to individual corn winter harvest plots, as of 10 o'clock on October 31, 17.99% of crops in Heilongjiang Province were harvested
On Wednesday, Heilongjiang Province has fully ended the autumn harvest work, and Li Zilong, a large grain grower in Taipingchuan Town, Beilin District, Suihua City, planted 16,000 catties of rice, and the output was the same as last year.
Li Zilong, West Taiping Village, Taipingchuan Town, Beilin District, Suihua City: The price is better than last year, last year it was three or four cents a piece, and this year it is seven or eight cents.
Although the rice has been harvested, Li Zilong can't be idle, because he tried online sales last year and had more profits, so he wants to grind out new rice as soon as possible and send it to the live broadcast room of the local e-commerce development service center to sell, so as to grab the golden sales period of new rice on the market.
There are many factors influencing the grain prices that farmers are concerned about, including the enthusiasm of enterprises to purchase raw grain, the reluctance of farmers to sell, and the gradual deepening of the integration of the domestic market and the international market. Farmers have been looking for ways to sell grain at a good price, and in recent years, Internet sales have become one of the ways for farmers to increase their profits.
With the popularization of the Internet, more and more farmers are using live streaming as a means of selling products on e-commerce and social media platforms.
Beilin District of Suihua City has made new adjustments this year, in addition to the government-run live broadcast room to help farmers live broadcast, it also invites a professional live broadcast shooting team to teach farmers live broadcast and shoot short videos for free.
For Li Zilong, this teaching made him see the convenience of his live broadcast, but for his introverted personality, it is difficult to do his own live broadcast. For this reason, the video team suggested that Li Zilong could try to shoot a short video to bring goods.
Now is the autumn land preparation stage, Li Zilong needs to sort out his nearly 450 acres of land as soon as possible, so Li Zilong made a plan to record the process of his work and shoot a short video of autumn land preparation.
Li Zilong, West Taiping Village, Taipingchuan Town, Beilin District, Suihua City: In the past, my daughter-in-law and I were just talking nonsense, and we didn't understand it at all, but through the guidance of others, we understood a lot and how to do this thing. But the government tells you that this thing must be real, and you have to be good at this thing to help you push it to the market, how can you push it to the market if you are not good? We have taught us these things to develop slowly little by little.
In addition to helping farmers sell on the Internet, the local government has also made corresponding responses to the introduction of grain processing enterprises according to the different conditions of the grain during the window period when the guiding purchase price of some grain has not yet been released.
Zhou Yuan, deputy director of the grain bureau of Beilin District, Suihua City, Heilongjiang Province: From the perspective of the grain market in the whole region this year, the enthusiasm of processing enterprises to enter the market is generally high, and at the same time, through the brand promotion of Beilin fragrant rice this year, processing enterprises in Jilin Province, Liaoning Province and other processing enterprises in Beilin District are also very willing to buy, so that the price of rice in Beilin District is in a state of high opening and high. The rice recovered by the peasant households is basically sold directly to processing enterprises, seed breeding factories and foreign merchants, and only a small number of peasant households have their rice stored in their own warehouses.
In addition, the local government will also regulate, serve and supervise the grain market at this stage.
Zhang Xuesong, deputy director of the Grain Bureau of Suihua City, Heilongjiang Province: Guide farmers to sell grain at the right time and at the right price, that is, when the grain price is high, carry out rapid sales, and when the grain price is low, carry out slow sales, and guide farmers to store grain scientifically. Let farmers improve quality, raise prices, increase farmers' income, and get more income. In this area, the grain sector must shoulder the responsibility of grain supervision and control, and seriously investigate and deal with some behaviors in the grain market, such as arrears of grain payments to the peasants, making white slips, and lowering grades and prices, so as to standardize the market and at the same time let the peasants sell grain that they can feel comfortable with and can sell grain with confidence.
Bai Yansong: Farmers have worked hard for a year, of course, the increase in grain production makes themselves and everyone happy, but if the production is not increased but not increased, the farmers will not be happy, and the motivation to work next year may be a lot less, before saying that someone will chop the cabbage as kitchen waste to complete the task, in addition to not seeking truth from facts, cutting corners to cope with the inspection, but also related to the recent cabbage is really cheap, in Beijing Xinfadi, the wholesale price of two or three cents per catty of Chinese cabbage abounds, is a veritable cabbage price. But even so, the sales are not very good, and how can the farmers of that kind of cabbage make money?
Si Jiaxi is an agricultural insurance manager in Jiaozhou, Shandong Province. On Friday morning, he was researching the price of cabbage. The stall owner told him that the cabbage on the market now mainly comes from the northeast, and the price has been falling for the past two weeks due to the large production. In a few days, when the local cabbage is on the market in a large area, I am afraid that the price of 1 yuan and 1 catty will soon be broken down.
Chinese cabbage is the most important vegetable in Jiaozhou. Lao Jing is a big planter in the village, and he has planted more than 100 acres this year. He said this year's cabbage output is the highest in the past three years. Although the loss is almost a foregone conclusion, Lao Jing still looks more confident.
Jing Shixin, head of Qingdao Anjiagou Fruit and Radish Planting Cooperative: We have had price index insurance in Jiaozhou since 2015, and I have participated in it every year. 2017 was my happiest year, cabbage is not worth much, but I participated in price insurance, and finally the price insurance paid me more than 100,10 yuan for one acre of land, planted <> acres of cabbage, and finally lost more than <>,<> yuan.
This kind of price index insurance for cabbage is exactly the type of insurance promoted by Si Jiaxi's company. Every year, when the cabbage is harvested, 10 collection points will be selected in Jiaozhou City to monitor the average purchase price. If the final average price is lower than the target price set by the insurance for the year, the insurance company will initiate the payout process. For example, this year's target price is 2 cents and 3 cents a catty, and after this price is lower, the maximum insurance amount per mu can reach 2250,200 yuan. The price of this insurance is 40 yuan per mu, and farmers only need to pay 160 yuan, and the remaining <> yuan is subsidized by Jiaozhou City.
Si Jiaxi, manager of Jiaozhou Company of China United Property Co., Ltd.: Agricultural insurance compensation has become an important source of funds for farmers to resume production. When the work was first launched, it was necessary to go from village to village, visit house by house, and explain the policy. Through the payment of compensation over the years, the people have really seen this result, and everyone is now actively participating in the insurance, from passive to active.
In Wucheng County, Dezhou, Shandong, the current purchase price of corn is generally 31 catties per piece, which is 7 or 8 points lower than last year. In the past, farmers might have kept corn in their hands until they reached the price they wanted. However, since last year, the local government has implemented a price insurance model called "insurance + futures", and farmers are no longer a one-shot deal when selling grain. When the grain is sold, the price of grain collected in the market rises one day, and the peasants can have a chance to demand a second settlement at this higher price. The surplus difference will be repaid to the peasants by the grain merchant houses that collect the grain.
Qiu Zhonghui, a major grain grower in Wucheng County, planted 510 acres of corn this year. The warehouse and yard at home have all been piled up. Worried about the mildew of the corn, he sent the unstoredled grain to the grain merchant house in batches to sell. The "insurance + futures" model implemented by the county, in addition to the secondary point price, also includes a price guarantee for corn. For example, this year's target selling price of corn agreed by the insurance is 2700,31 yuan per tonne. After calculation, the actual price in the county is <> yuan per ton lower than it, and the insurance company will pay for the less money.
Qiu Zhonghui, a large grain grower in Zhengguantun Village, Lijiahu Town, Wucheng County, Dezhou City, Shandong Province: Generally, there are more large grain growers who are insured. Once the market fluctuates too much, the loss is not one money or two dollars, but with the guaranteed price of insurance and futures, it is equal to tens of thousands of dollars, which is a more practical thing for us farmers to earn a year.
In this "insurance + futures" model, the insurance company entrusts the premiums it receives to the futures company and makes a profit in the futures market.
In Wucheng County, "insurance + futures" charges 60 yuan per mu, of which 18 yuan is paid by farmers, 18 yuan is subsidized by futures companies, and the remaining 24 yuan is paid by the county finance. Instead of issuing 24 yuan directly to farmers and investing in insurance, it is actually a change in the way of agricultural development.
Lan Min: Giving money directly is not a market behavior, and there may be a phenomenon of raising lazy people. Insurance futures are a market-oriented supplement to the national agricultural subsidy policy, which is more in line with the WTO (World Trade Organization) green box policy, does not affect the market price formation mechanism, and can be recognized by the international community.
Bai Yansong: On the surface, the price of cabbage and crabs is much worse, but this year's cabbage and crab farming are a little bitter, the reason is that the harvest has led to a decline in prices, the recent period is in the peak season of aquatic products hairy crabs are like this, due to the main hairy crab production areas this year The climatic conditions are suitable, the output has risen, but the price has decreased compared with previous years, and due to the rapid expansion of the breeding scale across the country, the competition in the hairy crab market is extremely fierce. While foodies are happy, how can hairy crab farmers expand their sales channels and protect their income?
The autumn is high and cool, the crab is fat and chrysanthemum yellow, and it is the season when hairy crabs go ashore to compete for "freshness". In Yixing City, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, the crab pond of Chu Shengfeng, a large farmer, is much larger than last year, and the overall output is expected to be much higher.
Jiangsu Yixing Shengfeng Ecological River Crab Breeding Cooperative Chu Shengfeng: This year's output may be about one-third larger than last year, like in previous years, our normal output is about 300 catties per mu, and this year may reach 400 catties up. The main reason is that this year's climate is better, there is no continuous high temperature like last year, like this climate is more suitable for aquatic weed breeding in crab ponds, good water and good grass to raise good crabs.
But the bumper harvest has brought joy and sorrow to the crab farmers. Many hairy crab producing areas across the country have ushered in increased production, the overall supply is increasing, and the purchase price in many producing areas has decreased.
Chu Shengfeng, Jiangsu Yixing Shengfeng Ecological River Crab Breeding Cooperative: Now the output is high, but the price is not as high as last year, and it may be slightly lower than last year's price. Taking 4 taels of crabs as an example, last year it could be sold for 50 yuan per crab, but this year it may only be sold for 45 yuan per crab.
And Chu Shengfeng has to care about more than just his own income. In the cooperative he led the establishment, there are more than 100 crab farmers, all of whom need him to buy them and then help them sell them in a unified manner.
Over the years, under his leadership, the output and income of the members of the cooperative have increased, and after the price of crabs fell this year, Chu Shengfeng decided that the purchase price of the members of the cooperative would not decrease, so that the crab farmers could increase their production and income.
Chu Shengfeng, Jiangsu Yixing Shengfeng Ecological River Crab Breeding Cooperative: Although the price has indeed fallen, our purchase price is still the same as last year. Through self-regulation of exports and online sales, the income of crab farmers is guaranteed, and he cannot suffer losses. He earns more, and then he will be more attentive to raising crabs, which is a virtuous circle.
Chu Shengfeng's confidence in doing so comes from the sales network that the cooperative has operated for many years. Especially in recent years, he has bought hairy crabs to overseas markets that are less affected by the domestic market. Last year, the cooperative's overseas exports of hairy crabs reached 150 tons, accounting for 80% of the total sales. Overseas orders are more time-sensitive, for which he also purchased an automatic strapping machine for hairy crabs to improve efficiency.
This year, in the case of poor sales in the domestic market, the overseas market is still expanding, in addition to Southeast Asia, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, Chu Shengfeng has expanded the Middle East market such as the United Arab Emirates. This Thursday, after the customs officers carried out inspection and quarantine, these hairy crabs that crossed the "rivers and lakes" will drift across the ocean and go to the table in a foreign country.
Chu Shengfeng, Yixing Ecological River Crab Breeding Professional Cooperative, Jiangsu: This transportation requirement is still different from that in China, because we focus on the timeliness of going abroad, from the beginning of fishing to foreign customers, the whole cold chain transportation is to ensure the freshness and survival rate of crabs. In countries like Thailand and other nearby countries, if the flight is suitable, we will now package and ship, and if we clear customs in the middle of the night, it will be on the table of Thai consumers in the morning.
More importantly, because the export of hairy crabs in the whole chain of breeding, testing and other implementation of higher standards, so the cooperative's scientific breeding level and brand awareness have also improved, which makes the crab farmers' ability to resist price fluctuations is improving. And this year, Chu Shengfeng started a new plan to develop the hairy crab deep processing industry.
Chu Shengfeng, Shengfeng Ecological River Crab Breeding Professional Cooperative, Yixing City, Jiangsu: Hairy crabs are seasonal after all, and we plan to do a deep processing of hairy crabs, including drunk crabs, spicy crabs, crab paste, crab powder, crab oil, etc., which are all needed by customers. Increase its added value, extend its sales period, and let crab farmers get more profits.
The development of hairy crab related processing industry is becoming the consensus of many breeding enterprises. In 2023, the No. <> document of the central government pointed out that the implementation of agricultural product processing industry promotion actions, support family farms and cooperatives to develop the primary processing of agricultural products, and guide large agricultural enterprises to develop intensive processing of agricultural products. From one season to the whole year, from "one crab" to a bigger and stronger industry, it will also make it more possible for farmers to increase their income.
Yao Shuisheng, Director of the Information Office of Suzhou Yangcheng Lake Hairy Crab Industry Association: Some enterprises with more aquaculture water surface and good sales performance are developing and extending in this direction, taking deep processing and prefabricated vegetables as a breakthrough to promote the extension of the entire industrial chain. With the continuous introduction of deep-processed products, the market price of hairy crabs is more conducive to the harvest year to be stable, and the interests of crab farmers are better guaranteed.
Geng Xianhui, Deputy Dean of the School of Economics and Management, Nanjing Agricultural University: Processing is definitely a trend in the future, especially for the extension and expansion of the industrial chain, which is very meaningful. However, at present, the deep processing of the crab industry is mainly concentrated in the products of drunk crab and crab roe, which is relatively limited. The scientific research department should also increase the intensity of research and development, so that there can be better and more new processed products that meet our consumption habits and tastes to do some research and development.
Bai Yansong: In the first three quarters of last month, economic data were announced, of which the per capita disposable income of rural residents in the first three quarters was 1,57 yuan, an actual increase of 7.3% year-on-year, although this growth rate is higher than the growth rate of 4.7% in cities, but the per capita disposable income of 1,57 is nearly <>,<> yuan compared with the figure of nearly <>,<> yuan for urban residents, but there is a lot of gap, and at the same time, such as education, medical and other expenditures, is increasing. Rural revitalization must make people in the countryside feel excited in many aspects such as income and life, to let the horses run, let the horses eat grass, and the more they eat, the better, of course, people are even more so, I hope we can increase production, but we can increase income faster.
Choreographer丨Xu Xin, Shi Mingyang, Yao Daolei
Source: CCTV news client