In Ukraine, a general mobilization order has been issued since the start of Russia's military invasion, and men between the ages of 18 and 60 are prohibited from leaving the country in principle. Many people have been mobilized so far, but as the military invasion drags on, there is a growing sense of unfairness in Ukraine between those who are actually conscripted and those who are not.

In the squares of the capital Kyiv and elsewhere, wives whose husbands are in war zones protested against the government, calling for their husbands to return after a certain period of time, and criticizing that only some of them were fulfilling their military service obligations.

Under these circumstances, discussions on additional mobilization are also underway, and the Ukrainian government has submitted a related bill to parliament so that more people can be mobilized, such as lowering the target age of conscription from the current 27 to 25 years old.

In an interview with The Economist, a British business magazine dated January 1, President Zelensky emphasized the need for additional mobilization, saying, "It's not just about the soldiers going to the front, it's about all of us, it's the only way to protect the country and liberate the occupied lands."

In addition, at a press conference held on December 1, he said that "the military is requesting an additional mobilization of 12,19 to 45,50 people."

Commenting on this statement, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine Zaluzhny denied that the military had given specific figures, but said, "We need resources, weapons, ammunition, and people," and called for additional mobilization.

In Ukraine, there is no end to corruption, such as bribing officials of the authorities in charge of conscription because they do not want to participate in the fighting, and draft evasion has become a social problem.

In order to avoid conscription, some people re-enter university

In Ukraine, students and others are not subject to conscription, so there are more and more cases where people who have already graduated are re-entering universities.

In November 2023,, a group of Ukrainian journalists and others, published a report stating that universities are widely used to avoid conscription.

According to the report, the number of men aged 11 to 30 who became new students jumped 39-fold from 2021,2186 in 2023, before Russia's military invasion, to 4,3722 in 20.

A Ukrainian man in his 30s interviewed by NHK had already graduated from university, but last year he re-entered the university.

While the purpose of enrollment is to acquire new specialties in order to get a better job, it is also said that the deferment of conscription is one of the reasons.

The man has a wife and two young daughters, but he has fled abroad since the invasion began and has not seen them for more than a year.

When he was mobilized and had something to do in the war zone, he was worried about the families left behind, and he said, "If I lose my hands and legs in battle, how will I live and who will support my children?

He also said, "Some people go to kill their enemies out of anger against Russia, but I'm not ready for that, I'm scared."

The man said that there are many other people who enter universities to avoid the draft, and that "the people who were full of the desire to go to the battlefield regardless of salary or social security are gone. We are not livestock, we are human beings who make our own choices. If you want them to become soldiers, the government should pay them an appropriate salary so that they volunteer themselves, rather than chasing people around," he said, appealing that the Ukrainian government should improve the treatment of soldiers and create an environment in which more people volunteer.

Securing personnel in positions other than combat soldiers on the front line

In Ukraine, amid a series of draft evasion, some units are working to secure personnel by appealing that there are jobs other than soldiers engaged in front-line fighting.

The Azov Brigade under the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine is recruiting personnel with specialized skills in more than 20 occupations, such as drivers, cooks, and machinists, in addition to infantry and artillery, as it is an issue to secure military personnel due to the prolonged fighting.

At the Azov Brigade facility in the capital Kyiv, recruiting staff called citizens directly to recruit them for jobs such as welders and medical staff.

Depending on the person in charge, as a general rule, after you start working, you will not be changed to a job that is directly involved in combat.

In addition, it is not subject to mobilization to other units, so more than 10 people visit the facility every day for inquiries and interviews.

A recruiter for the Azov Brigade said: "As the fighting drags on, people are exhausted, and sometimes ordinary calls are not enough. It's had a very positive impact on recruitment."

A 43-year-old welder who visited the facility said that he wanted to work on equipment repairs, "It's a very good initiative to be able to choose the type of job you want, and you can choose a job according to your physical condition without being forced to do what you do."

Experts: "The government should disseminate information and improve the treatment of soldiers"

Regarding the successive draft evasion in Ukraine, military expert Oleksandr Musyenko said, 'There are people who try to escape conscription, but they do not account for many,' and it does not affect the recruitment of troops at this time.

On the other hand, he also points out that "300 million or 400 million people are not mobilized at once, but many people seem to be in a state of panic," and that anxiety is arising among citizens.

"We must change the way people think that mobilization is not a 'punishment' but a benefit to the country, and we must conduct military training in various places, prepare to train future soldiers, and pay better salaries," the Ukrainian government said in addition to strengthening the dissemination of information to gain the understanding of the people. He pointed out that we should improve the treatment of soldiers.

In addition, he said, "As the economy deteriorates due to the war, support from friendly countries plays a major role in the payment of salaries to soldiers, and assistance from the United States, Europe, Japan, and other countries is desired," and stressed the need for not only military support but also financial support.