In order to achieve the EU's climate goals and comply with the Paris Agreement, emissions need to be reduced.

The researchers agree that several measures are needed to get people to change their behaviour, and thus reduce emissions.

But a challenge for politicians is how to get citizens on board when climate-adapted measures are introduced.

One key is how to present the measure, according to Sverker C Jagers, professor of political science at the University of Gothenburg.

"If you call it a gasoline tax, there are many more people who are negative than if you call it a carbon tax. Then you make a mental connection that it's about the environment, and then the support rises right away, he says to SVT's Agenda.

Fairness and efficiency are crucial

According to him, there are two factors that are particularly crucial in getting citizens to accept environmental policy measures.

"It's partly a question of whether you think a policy instrument is fair and whether you think it's effective in making the environment a little better.

An example of this is the introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm compared to congestion charges in Gothenburg.

"They were the first in Stockholm, and people didn't get so angry. An important reason for this seems to be the trial period. It was introduced for six months, in return for a promise to evaluate what the residents of Stockholm thought.

"In Gothenburg, they just decided"

When six months had passed, many people had changed their minds, and were no longer against it because they had noticed that the congestion in the inner city had become less, and they did not feel that it was so difficult to get to work.

A clear majority was in favor of the fee.

"In Gothenburg, it was just decided that 'This is how high the fee should be and this is where the cameras should be placed', without a trial period. In the research, we clearly see that it is not just about how much worse it has become for the individual, but also how the procedure is experienced and whether it has been done in a fair way.

Watch Agenda Special: The Climate Challenge 21.15 on SVT2.