Text/Hua Zhuoma

On November 11, the National Health Commission held a press conference on "Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Diseases in Winter". At the press conference, Mi Feng, spokesman of the National Health Commission, said that with the successive winters in various places, respiratory diseases have entered the high incidence season, and a variety of respiratory diseases are intertwined and superimposed.

Multiple diseases are superimposed, and antiviral therapy is not required

Mi Feng reminded that all localities should adhere to the same prevention and treatment of multiple diseases, pay close attention to the epidemic situation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, new crown infection, influenza, dengue fever, norovirus infection and other epidemics, strengthen monitoring and early warning, and grasp the changes in the intensity of virus activity and virus mutation.

Tong Zhaohui, director of the Beijing Institute of Respiratory Diseases, said that influenza A and B, including respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus, adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, etc., are common respiratory pathogens in winter, and some pathogens have a certain colonization in the respiratory tract of the population and may coexist with the human body. In the case of a dry climate and low temperatures in winter, the chances of infecting the human body increase. Therefore, it is possible that two or more pathogens may be detected clinically, but this is very rare and does not necessarily correlate with the severity of the disease.

How to treat multiple diseases once there are superimposed infections?

Tong Zhaohui pointed out that although there is no specific drug treatment for some viruses, respiratory virus infections are self-limiting, and they do not need to be treated with antiviral treatment, and they can recover with symptomatic symptomatic treatment.

However, Tong Zhaohui also reminded that for the elderly, children under the age of 5 and special groups with low immunity, it is recommended to seek medical attention in time, so that doctors can help patients judge their conditions and carry out corresponding treatment.

Doctor's reminder: symptomatic treatment, do not use drugs indiscriminately

Recently, many people on the Internet said that their whole family was infected with mycoplasma pneumonia; It is also believed that many adults are actually infected with the coronavirus.

In this regard, Tong Zhaohui said that Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the common pathogens of respiratory tract infection, and according to the 2016 edition of the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Chinese Adults and relevant monitoring data, Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the important pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia in China. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets, so in the case of unprotected conditions, it will lead to concentrated outbreaks in densely populated places such as kindergartens and schools, and it is also relatively common for family members to be infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Tong Zhaohui said that acute respiratory infection is a common respiratory disease, and the symptoms caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, new coronavirus, influenza virus, etc. are similar, and can be identified by antigen and nucleic acid detection methods.

In addition, recently, some parents of children have followed the advice of the Internet and given their children drugs such as azithromycin on their own.

Wang Quan, chief physician at Beijing Children's Hospital, said it was not advisable for parents to give their children drugs such as azithromycin on their own.

Wang Quan said that it is the season of high incidence of respiratory diseases in children, although Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection accounts for a large proportion, but on the whole, the virus is still the most common pathogen of respiratory tract infection in children, common viruses include adenovirus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, etc. Azithromycin, on the other hand, is ineffective against viral infections and is unreasonable.

At the same time, coupled with the young age of children, the imperfect development of organ function, and the abuse of drugs may cause adverse reactions in children, azithromycin is a prescription drug, which belongs to macrolide antibacterial drugs, and is the preferred drug for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, which should be used under the guidance of a physician or pharmacist, including appropriate dose, appropriate course of treatment, and correct route of administration.

Wang Quan reminded parents that children are not a miniature version of adults, and the use of drugs should not be arbitrary, and they should pay attention to their safety and effectiveness.

Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention

How to prevent respiratory diseases in the high incidence season?

Wang Dayan, director of the National Influenza Center of the Institute of Viral Disease Prevention and Control of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said that winter and spring are the high incidence seasons for respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza. The most effective and cost-effective way to prevent infectious diseases is vaccination, which can effectively reduce the risk of infection, morbidity, and severe disease.

Wang Dayan said that in addition, the public can reduce the risk of infection and transmission by mastering the basic knowledge of common respiratory infectious diseases and adopting scientific prevention methods in daily life, mainly including the following four points:

First, a healthy lifestyle is an important guarantee for enhancing physical fitness and improving body resistance. In daily life, it is necessary to maintain adequate sleep, adequate nutrition, and moderate physical exercise.

Second, practicing good personal hygiene can reduce the risk of infection. For example, when coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue, towel, or elbow; Practice hand hygiene and wash your hands frequently, especially after coughing or sneezing; Try to avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.

Third, pay attention to keeping the home and workplace environment clean. Open the windows regularly indoors for ventilation, and the outdoor temperature is low in winter, so you should also pay attention to keeping warm during the ventilation period. If you have a person with a respiratory infection in your household, wear a mask when caring for the patient.

Fourth, high-risk groups such as the elderly, children, and patients with underlying diseases should avoid going to crowded public places, especially closed places with poor air circulation, to reduce the chance of contact with sick people. When going to confined and crowded places or taking public transportation, it is recommended to wear a mask and change it in time.

Wang Dayan reminded that once symptoms of respiratory tract infection such as fever and cough appear, patients should rest at home to avoid infecting the pathogen to other people. If the symptoms are severe, you should take personal protection and go to the hospital as soon as possible to get effective treatment in a timely manner.

The new coronavirus infection is showing a fluctuating downward trend as a whole

It is winter, and various respiratory diseases and infections are in a high incidence period, will the new crown virus mutate again?

In this regard, Wang Dayan said that global and China's surveillance data show that the new coronavirus variants currently circulating in the world and in China belong to Omicron. The sequencing results of the virus sampled in the last week showed that all of them were subclades of XBB, and no variants with significantly altered biological characteristics were found. The state is still conducting systematic multi-channel surveillance of the new coronavirus, and the data is regularly published on the website of the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Since late August this year, the number of reported cases of new coronavirus infection in the country has declined for 8 consecutive weeks, and the positive rate of new coronavirus nucleic acid testing in sentinel hospitals in fever clinics across the country has also continued to decline.

Compiled from CCTV news client, CCTV network, and China news network