◇President Xi Jinping, with a broad strategic vision, outstanding political wisdom and strong mission commitment, proceeded from the perspective of promoting sustainable development of mankind, conformed to the common aspirations of all countries for peace and development, proposed and promoted high-quality joint construction of the "Belt and Road", provided Chinese solutions to solve the four major deficits, and injected stability and certainty into the cause of promoting human peace and development.
◇The relevant research of the Bruegel Institute in Belgium shows that every 10% reduction in railway, air and maritime transportation costs along the Belt and Road can increase international trade by about 2%, 5.5% and 1.1% respectively. Infrastructure connectivity can help developing countries break development bottlenecks.
◇As of the end of June 2023, China has signed more than 6 cooperation documents with more than 150 countries and more than 30 international organizations to jointly build the Belt and Road.
◇At present, the "Belt and Road" cooperation projects have reached more than 3000,<>, driving nearly trillion US dollars of investment, creating "national landmarks", "people's livelihood projects" and "cooperation monuments", setting milestones on the road to building a community with a shared future for mankind, and injecting strong impetus into the development of the country.
According to the World Bank's "Belt and Road Economics" report, the full implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative will increase trade between participating countries by 4.1%. By 2030, the Belt and Road Initiative will generate $1.6 trillion in annual global revenue.
Text | "Outlook" newsweek reporter Chen Shan Su Liang
In the autumn of 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered important speeches in Kazakhstan and Indonesia, proposing the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road" initiative. Cooperation on the Belt and Road has opened a new chapter in global development.
Looking at the world, the evolution of major changes unprecedented in a century has accelerated, the world has entered a period of turbulence and change, and the four major deficits of peace deficit, development deficit, security deficit and governance deficit have become increasingly prominent.
In the face of the world, history and times of "what is wrong with the world and what should we do", President Xi Jinping, with a broad strategic vision, outstanding political wisdom and a strong mission, proceeded from the perspective of promoting sustainable development of mankind, conformed to the common aspirations of all countries for peace and development, proposed and promoted high-quality joint construction of the "Belt and Road", provided Chinese solutions to solve the four major deficits, and injected stability and certainty into the cause of promoting peace and development of mankind.
Looking back on the past decade, the Belt and Road Initiative has grown from ramming foundations and pillars to taking root and lasting development, contributing wisdom and strength to the cause of world peace and development.
Under the personal planning, deployment and promotion of President Xi Jinping, the Belt and Road Initiative has transformed from concept to action and from vision to reality, becoming a popular international public product and international cooperation platform provided by China to the world, playing a symphony of "hard connectivity", "soft connectivity" and "heart connectivity", building an important platform for wide participation, gathering international consensus and pooling the strength of all parties, and stimulating a strong synergy to build a community with a shared future for mankind on a global scale.
Harmony and symbiosis, cohesion to cope with challenges
The ancient Silk Road stretched for thousands of miles and lasted for thousands of years.
More than 2100,600 years ago, Chinese opened up the Silk Road, promoted equal civilizational exchanges between the East and the West, and left a footprint of mutually beneficial cooperation, which greatly benefited the people of all countries along the road. More than 7 years ago, China's Zheng He led the world's largest fleet of ships on seven voyages to the Pacific and western Indian Oceans, visiting more than 30 countries and regions, without occupying an inch of land, sowing the seeds of peace and friendship, and leaving behind a good story of friendly exchanges with the people along the route and the spread of civilization.
"These pioneering undertakings are famous in history because they used not horses and spears, but camel caravans and goodwill; It is not on strong ships and sharp guns, but on treasure ships and friendship. Generations of 'Silk Road people' have built ties of cooperation between the East and the West and bridges of peace. President Xi Jinping reflected on the important enlightenment brought by the ancient Silk Road in a broad historical dimension, absorbed the nutrients of excellent traditional Chinese culture such as "universal harmony", "Huairou distant people" and "harmony among all nations", and put forward the Silk Road spirit of peaceful cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit, so as to refine the spiritual core and civilization heritage of "cooperation" and "cooperation" for the joint construction of the "Belt and Road".
Once "the land of milk and honey", many places along the ancient Silk Roads are synonymous with conflict, turmoil and the challenges of crisis. Looking at the world, various new and old problems and complex contradictions are superimposed and collided, intertwined and fermented. Regional conflicts and local wars continue, hot issues arise one after another, the haze of the arms race persists, hegemonism, power politics, unilateralism and the Cold War mentality seriously threaten human development, and the global peace deficit and security deficit continue to accumulate. Peace and security are the basic prerequisites and guarantees for jointly building the Belt and Road.
President Xi Jinping pointed out that "in the face of endless global challenges, countries have no better choice than to strengthen multilateral cooperation. When I propose to build a community with a shared future for mankind and advocate the joint construction of the Belt and Road, I am repeatedly thinking about how all countries in the world should achieve consultation, sharing, harmony and difference, and win-win cooperation among the different interests and demands. ”
The Belt and Road Initiative advocates building a new type of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness and justice, and win-win cooperation, and building a partnership of dialogue and non-confrontation and partnership without alignment. All countries should respect each other's sovereignty, dignity and territorial integrity, respect each other's development paths and social systems, and respect each other's core interests and major concerns.
Former Slovenian President Turk said that with the deepening and evolution of economic globalization, new cooperation and models are needed between countries. China's proposal of the Belt and Road Initiative and the building of a community with a shared future for mankind are in line with this need. Former French Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin said that jointly building the "Belt and Road" offers the world a completely different alternative to isolation and confrontation.
In May 2017, in his opening speech at the first Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation Roundtable Summit, President Xi Jinping pointed out that in today's world of interdependence and global challenges, it is difficult for a single country to stand alone and solve the problems facing the world. Only by aligning with each other's policies and integrating economic factors and development resources on a larger scale around the world can we form a synergy and promote world peace and tranquility and common development.
The construction of the Eurasian Economic Union proposed by Russia, the "Agenda 2063" proposed by the African Union, the "ASEAN Connectivity Master Plan 2025" proposed by ASEAN, the "Bright Road" New Economic Policy proposed by Kazakhstan, the "Global Marine Fulcrum" concept proposed by Indonesia, the "Economic Reconstruction and Recovery Plan" proposed by South Africa, and the "Two Corridors and One Circle" proposed by Vietnam... The Belt and Road Initiative is deeply aligned with the development plans and regional development strategies of various countries to achieve complementary advantages.
Russian President Vladimir Putin said that the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" initiative has broad development prospects; South African President Ramaphosa praised the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" project that has greatly promoted the integration of Africa and various economies; Argentine President Fernandez looks forward to seeing the countries of the Belt and Road move forward together; Timorese Prime Minister Xanana said that the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" meets the general needs of developing countries... More and more foreign leaders have expressed their good expectations for the Belt and Road Initiative and their strong willingness to join and deepen cooperation on the Belt and Road.
The Belt and Road Initiative originated from China, and the opportunities and achievements belong to the world. The joint construction of the "Belt and Road" is an initiative of peaceful development and economic cooperation, not a geopolitical alliance or military alliance, and it does not target or exclude anyone. It is an open and inclusive process, not a "small circle" or "Chinese club" behind closed doors; It is China's "hundred gardens" to share opportunities and seek common development with the world, not to create its own back garden; It is a sunshine road where all parties move forward hand in hand, not a private road for one party. All countries interested in cooperation in jointly building the Belt and Road can participate, cooperate and benefit together.
By the end of June 2023, China had signed more than 6 cooperation documents with more than 150 countries and more than 30 international organizations to jointly build the Belt and Road. The ideas and concepts of the Belt and Road Initiative have been written into the relevant documents of multilateral organizations such as the United Nations, the SCO, APEC, and the G200; China successfully held the first and second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in 2017 and 2019; More than 130 representatives of countries and international organizations have confirmed their participation in the Third Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation... Over the past decade, the Belt and Road Initiative has built bridges and cooperation platforms between different countries, organizations, nationalities and regions, making positive contributions to deepening exchanges, conceptual recognition, unity and cooperation, and promoting cross-continental cooperation into a new era.
UN Secretary-General António Guterres said the Belt and Road Initiative and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development share the same macro goals, both aim to create opportunities, deliver beneficial global public goods, and promote global connectivity in many ways.
Jointly build and share to open up a global pattern of common prosperity
In Doliji, the third largest city in Congo (Brazzaville), there is a statue of the "Mountain Cutter", which was erected by the local people to express respect and gratitude to the Chinese builders.
Congo (Brazzaville) National Highway No. 6, which passes through Dolgi, is a landmark project of the "Belt and Road" jointly built by China and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which took eight years to complete. The road passes through complex landscapes such as primeval forests, hills, wetlands and swamps, shortening the travel time from Brazzaville, the capital, to Pointe-Noire, the economic center, from one week to six hours, effectively promoting employment and development along the route and raising the income level of residents.
Congolese President Sassou said that China's builders have fulfilled the dreams of generations of Congolese (Brazzaville) people, and "China is sincerely helping us."
For a long time, global development has been plagued by problems such as North-South gaps, development faults and technological divides. In recent years, affected by multiple factors such as geopolitical conflicts and the new crown epidemic, the world economic recovery has been weak, the global trade trend has been sluggish, unilateralism and protectionism have been rampant, some countries have built "small courtyard walls", forced "decoupling and broken chains", and advocated "de-risk" in supply chains.
"The imbalance in development is the biggest imbalance in the world today." At the opening ceremony of the second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in 2019, President Xi Jinping pointed out the biggest sticking point in current global development, "We must commit to strengthening international development cooperation, creating more development opportunities and space for developing countries, and helping them get rid of poverty and achieve sustainable development." ”
Most of the countries jointly built by the "Belt and Road" are developing countries, and for a long time, the infrastructure development of these countries has been insufficient, which restricts economic development. With "six corridors, six roads, multiple countries and multiple ports" as the main framework, the "Belt and Road" initiative has truly brought about a turnaround in regional development through the infrastructure connectivity plan.
In July this year, the main landmarks of the Pakistani capital city of Islamabad were lit up with neon lights symbolizing the colors of the flags of China and Pakistan. The Pakistani government and people celebrated the 7th anniversary of the launch of the CPEC project.
The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is an important pilot project of the Belt and Road Initiative. From the snow-capped mountains of the Pamirs to the vast Indian Ocean, CPEC is like a link, connecting a large number of cooperation projects such as the Kalot Hydropower Station, the Lahore Rail Transit Orange Line Project, and Gwadar Port. By the end of 2022, CPEC had created a cumulative total of 23,6 jobs in Pakistan, helping Pakistan add 510 kilometers of expressways, 8000,886 MW of electricity and <> kilometers of the national core transmission grid.
Pakistan's ambassador to China, Moin Haq, said that participating in the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" has made Pakistan "a lot of positive changes", creating jobs, improving people's livelihood, eradicating poverty, improving the economic situation in remote areas, and the "Belt and Road" benefits the Pakistani people. "Over the past decade, our infrastructure and living conditions have improved, and the continuous opening of highways has brought us new employment opportunities and provided a broader overseas market." Pakistani businessman Adil Ahmed said.
Research by the Bruegel Institute in Belgium shows that every 10% reduction in rail, air and maritime transportation costs along the Belt and Road can increase international trade by about 2%, 5.5% and 1.1% respectively. Infrastructure connectivity can help developing countries break development bottlenecks.
Focusing on strengthening connectivity, the Belt and Road Initiative will jointly help countries develop together: Kazakhstani products have found access to the sea in Lianyungang, China, and the railway freight volume between China and Kazakhstan will reach 2022 million tons in 2300, an increase of 20% year-on-year; The China-Laos Railway has transformed Laos from a "land-locked country" to a "land-linked country", carrying more than 2100 million passengers and more than 2600 million tons of goods; Since the completion of the Mongolian Railway, the average load factor has exceeded 90%, creating nearly 5,57 jobs in Kenya; The construction of the "Air Silk Road" has achieved remarkable results, and China and 3000 jointly built countries have achieved direct air flights... With the "Belt and Road" picture rolling over the mountains and seas, the level of infrastructure construction in many countries has been continuously improved, employment opportunities have achieved a leap, development conditions have improved, and the well-being of the people in the region has been continuously enhanced. At present, the "Belt and Road" cooperation projects have reached more than <>,<>, driving nearly trillion US dollars of investment, creating "national landmarks", "people's livelihood projects" and "cooperation monuments", setting milestones on the road to building a community with a shared future for mankind, and injecting strong impetus into the development of the country.
Take the interests of the world as the benefit and the heart of the people as the heart. With the firm belief that "people of all countries deserve a better future", China advocates the people-centered development concept, focusing on eradicating poverty, increasing employment and improving people's livelihood, so that the results of the Belt and Road Initiative can better benefit all people.
In Cambodia, China has helped build more than 16,1800 deep-water wells and nearly 130 community ponds in <> provinces to effectively solve the shortage of drinking water sources and water sanitation problems for local rural residents. In the Pacific island nation of Samoa, China's agricultural technical assistance project has assisted in the construction of comprehensive demonstration farms and other agricultural extension systems, training tens of thousands of people. In Zambia, solar mills provide people with sufficient corn flour and increase the added value of local agricultural products... One by one, "small but beautiful" and "practical and beneficial" projects have been steadily implemented, helping the people of the countries to increase their income and improve their lives, and constantly promoting the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" as a "happy road" that benefits people of all countries.
Vladimir Norov, former secretary-general of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, said that the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" initiative has effectively promoted sustainable development at the regional and global levels, and "the most valuable thing is that this initiative is aimed at bringing more opportunities to developing countries and peoples in the interests of the majority." British scholar Martin Jacques said that the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" initiative shows that China is working with other countries, especially developing countries, to develop together in the process of realizing its own modernization, "which is very different from the Western way."
We will continue to build a series of national-level "exhibition matrix" such as the Expo, the Consumer Expo, the Service Trade Fair, the China-Africa Economic and Trade Expo, and the China-Arab Expo, coordinate and promote the construction of 21 pilot free trade zones and the Hainan Free Trade Port, promote the high-level implementation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement, and operate more than 7,7 China-Europe trains in total, reaching more than 200 overseas cities... Under the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative, China has continued to expand its opening-up, and from 2013 to 2022, the total import and export volume between China and the jointly built countries has accumulated US$19.1 trillion, with an average annual growth of 6.4%. According to the World Bank's Belt and Road Economics report, the full implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative will increase trade between participating countries by 4.1%. By 2030, the Belt and Road Initiative will generate $1.6 trillion in annual global revenue.
President Xi Jinping said that within the framework of the "Belt and Road" construction cooperation, all parties will work together to address the challenges facing the world economy, create new opportunities for development, seek new impetus for development, expand new space for development, achieve complementary advantages, mutual benefit and win-win results, and constantly move towards a community with a shared future for mankind. This is the original intention of China to propose the "Belt and Road" initiative, and it is also the highest goal that it hopes to achieve through this initiative.
Martin Alblau, a well-known sociologist and academician of the British Academy of Social Sciences, said: "The Belt and Road Initiative is an inclusive development strategy, and its vitality has already emerged. The Belt and Road Initiative meets the needs of the times, enabling partners to put aside their differences and achieve mutual benefit and win-win results. Robert Lawrence Kuhn, chairman of the Kuhn Foundation in the United States, said that relevant countries have benefited extensively from China's initiatives such as the "Belt and Road", and the win-win cooperation approach allows China's development achievements and experience to provide long-term and key support to developing countries.
Sharing a common destiny and moving towards a bright future for human civilization
One night in 2018, the village of Padma Bari in Bangladesh lit up. The village ended its history of not having electricity. Thanks to financial support from the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), Bangladesh has implemented an electricity distribution system upgrade project that has benefited 1250.<> million rural people.
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has 106 members and approved 227 investment projects with a total investment of US$436.<> billion, covering transportation, energy, public health and other fields, providing investment and financing support for the joint construction of national infrastructure connectivity and sustainable economic and social development. Karim Umda, a professor of economics at Egypt's Arab Institute of Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, said that the AIIB provides financing without attaching any political conditions, implementing low interest rates and lending facilities, helping developing countries like Egypt to obtain funds, promote the implementation of infrastructure projects and achieve economic development.
"The joint construction of the 'Belt and Road' conforms to the inherent requirements of the reform of the global governance system, demonstrates the sense of a community of common destiny of working together and sharing rights and responsibilities, and provides new ideas and new solutions for improving the reform of the global governance system." In August 2018, at the symposium marking the fifth anniversary of the promotion of the "Belt and Road" construction, President Xi Jinping stressed the need to adhere to dialogue and consultation, joint construction and sharing, win-win cooperation, exchanges and mutual learning, seek the greatest common denominator of cooperation with countries along the route, promote countries to strengthen political mutual trust, economic integration and people-to-people exchanges, promote implementation step by step, grasp the results bit by bit, promote the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" in depth and practicality, benefit the people of countries along the route, and promote the construction of a community with a shared future for mankind.
Adhering to the global governance concept of consultation, co-construction and sharing, China firmly promotes South-South cooperation, strives to enhance the representation and voice of emerging market countries and developing countries in global affairs, and promotes the development of the global governance system in a more just and reasonable direction. Under the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative, China initiated the establishment of new multilateral financial institutions such as the AIIB and the Silk Road Fund, and facilitated the completion of quota and governance mechanism reform by the IMF.
Arab Parliament Speaker Oshubi said that China's initiatives, including the joint construction of the "Belt and Road", "are characterized by always focusing on building a community with a shared future for mankind, always seeking collective interests, and benefiting all parties." Cambodian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance and Economy Ampon Monila said that the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" adheres to the principle of consultation, joint construction and sharing, and has become an important platform for enhancing human well-being and promoting global peace and development.
President Xi Jinping pointed out that the joint construction of the "Belt and Road" pursues development, advocates win-win results, and conveys hope. Over the past decade, this initiative has been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people with the deepening of practical cooperation, and people of many countries have continuously deepened their recognition of China's initiative and Chinese concept in the daily palpable and perceptible changes.
The four bridges of the Panama Canal, the Amador cruise terminal, the Panama National Convention and Exhibition Center... In Panama, large-scale projects full of Chinese elements have become landmarks in many places, and Chinese goods are increasingly integrated into people's daily lives. Eddie Tarpoiro, an expert on financial strategy issues at the Panama Canal Authority, lamented: "The Belt and Road cooperation is not about who conquers whom, but about mutual help between friends. ”
At the beginning of 2023, the construction of the headquarters building (phase I) of the African Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Phase I) of China-aided African Union was completed, which is the first CDC on the African continent with modern office and experimental conditions and complete facilities, which will enhance Africa's public health prevention and control system and capacity building. Kenyan international studies scholar Cavince Adhir said that the joint construction of the BRI has benefited Africa, and many African countries have gained modern transportation and production methods and a large number of employment opportunities, giving local people "hope for the future life".
From 2014 to 2015, China sent more than 1200,30 medical experts and personnel to fully assist West African countries in controlling the Ebola epidemic, to launching the largest global humanitarian operation since the founding of New China during the new crown epidemic, to launching the "Belt and Road" vaccine partnership initiative with <> countries... Jointly build the "Belt and Road" to open up new fields with "healthy Silk Road" cooperation, promote cooperation in vaccines, health care, biomedicine and other fields, make positive contributions to building a global health defense line, and write vivid stories of fighting the epidemic and promoting development together.
From the establishment of the South-South Cooperation Fund on Climate Change, the construction of a new platform for global environmental governance, to the implementation of the "Belt and Road" South-South Cooperation Plan on Climate Change; From fully supporting global biodiversity conservation and becoming the largest donor to developing countries to the Global Environment Facility, to promoting the construction of ecological and environmental protection big data service platform; From promoting the establishment of the International Alliance for Green Development of the Belt and Road to building multilateral cooperation platforms such as the Green Investment Principles of the Belt and Road... The joint construction of the "Belt and Road" takes green as the background and continues to achieve positive results and progress.
Promote cultural and tourism exchanges along the "Belt and Road", implement the "Cultural Silk Road" plan, establish the Silk Road International Theater, Museum, Art Festival, Library and Art Museum Alliance, actively organize art festivals, film festivals, music festivals, cultural relics exhibitions, book exhibitions and other activities with the countries of joint construction, cooperate in the creation and mutual translation and broadcast of book broadcasting, film and television products, jointly implement joint archaeological and cultural relics restoration projects, and "Luban Workshop" helps young people in many countries master vocational skills... The joint construction of the "Belt and Road" is characterized by people-to-people exchanges, promotes the deepening of people-to-people bonds, and promotes the "Belt and Road" to jointly build countries with people-to-people affinity and close hearts.
Anatoly Tozik, former Deputy Prime Minister of Belarus, said that important initiatives such as the "Belt and Road" come from China's deep understanding of the current situation and laws of the development of human civilization in the 21st century, and advocate that all countries should help each other and jointly build their homeland. Eiichi Shinto, professor emeritus at the University of Tsukuba, said that the Belt and Road Initiative is a new governance model that is being implemented on a global scale for developing countries.
Over the past decade, the Belt and Road Initiative has grown from a seed of a dream to a towering tree, becoming an important platform for China to participate in global openness and cooperation, improve the global economic governance system, and promote global common development. Looking forward to the future, China will continue to work hand in hand with other countries to build a community with a shared future for mankind and a better tomorrow of prosperity and progress.
(Participating reporters: Yao Bing, Shen Danlin; Editors: Sun Hao, Qiao Jihong, Liu Yifang, Cao Xiaofan, Du Jing, Zhang Tao, Dong Longjiang, Lin Xiaochun)