Moscow, 3 March (Xinhua) --

Joint statement of the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on deepening the comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination in the new era

At the invitation of Russian President Vladimir Putin, President Xi Jinping of the People's Republic of China paid a state visit to the Russian Federation from March 2023 to 3, 20. The two heads of state held talks in Moscow. President Xi Jinping also met with Prime Minister Mishustin of the Government of the Russian Federation.

The People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as "the Parties"), declare the following:


With the unremitting efforts of both sides, the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for the new era has reached the highest level in history and has continued to develop. The two sides reaffirmed the development of bilateral relations in accordance with the principles and spirit set forth in the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation signed on July 2001, 7, the Joint Statement of the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on the 16th Anniversary of the Signing of the Sino-Russian Treaty of Good-Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation issued on June 2021, 6, and the Joint Statement of the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on International Relations and Global Sustainable Development in the New Era issued on February 28, 20.

The two sides pointed out that China-Russia relations are not a military-political alliance similar to the Cold War era, but go beyond this model of state-to-state relations and have the nature of non-alignment, non-confrontation and non-targeting of third countries. The relationship between China and Russia is mature, stable, independent and tenacious, withstanding the test of the new crown epidemic and the changing international situation, free from external influences, and showing vitality. The friendship between the two peoples from generation to generation has a solid foundation, and all-round cooperation between the two countries has broad prospects. Russia needs a prosperous and stable China, and China needs a strong and successful Russia.

China and Russia regard each other as priority partners, always respect each other and treat each other as equals, becoming a model for today's relations between major countries. Under the guidance of the head of state's diplomacy, the two sides have maintained close exchanges at all levels, in-depth communication on major issues of mutual concern, enhanced mutual trust, ensured that bilateral relations operate at a high level, and are willing to further deepen bilateral relations and develop dialogue mechanisms in various fields.

The two sides pointed out that the current world changes are accelerating evolution, the international pattern is profoundly adjusted, peace, development, cooperation and win-win results are irresistible historical trends, the multipolar international pattern is taking shape at an accelerated pace, the status of emerging markets and developing countries has generally increased, and the number of regional powers with global influence and determined to defend their legitimate rights and interests is increasing. At the same time, hegemonism, unilateralism and protectionism are still rampant, and the replacement of universally recognized principles and norms of international law with a "rules-based order" is unacceptable.

The principles of universality, openness, inclusiveness, non-discrimination and balance should be upheld to achieve a multipolar world and sustainable development for all countries. China and Russia call on all countries to promote the common values of peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom for all mankind, to engage in dialogue rather than confrontation, inclusiveness rather than exclusion, to live in harmony and win-win cooperation and promote world peace and development.

Under this situation, the two sides maintain close diplomatic coordination, carry out close multilateral cooperation, resolutely safeguard fairness and justice, and promote the building of a new type of international relations.

The two sides stressed that consolidating and deepening the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination in the new era is a strategic choice made by the two sides based on their respective national conditions, which conforms to the fundamental interests of the two countries and peoples, conforms to the trend of development of the times, and is not subject to external influences. The Parties will:

– Guided by the consensus of the two heads of state, ensure that bilateral relations always move in the right direction.

– Firmly supporting each other in safeguarding their core interests, first and foremost sovereignty, territorial integrity, security and development.

– Adhering to the principle of mutual benefit, continue to deepen and expand pragmatic cooperation in the process of modernization, achieve common development and prosperity, and better benefit the Chinese and Russian peoples.

– Promoting mutual understanding between the two peoples and constantly consolidating the foundation of social and public opinion for the friendship between the two countries for generations to come.

– Promoting world multipolarization, economic globalization and democracy in international relations, and promoting the development of global governance in a more just and rational direction.


The two sides pointed out that each country has the right to independently choose its development path due to its own history, culture and national conditions. There is no superior "democracy", and the two sides oppose the imposition of their own values, the demarcation of ideology, the hypocritical narrative of so-called "democracy against authoritarianism", and the use of democracy and freedom as an excuse and political tool to put pressure on other countries. Russia attaches great importance to China's global civilization initiative.

The two sides pointed out that the realization of human rights for all is the common pursuit of human society. All countries have the right to independently choose the path of human rights development, and different civilizations and countries should respect each other, tolerate each other, exchange with each other and learn from each other. The two sides will unswervingly advance the cause of human rights in their own countries and in the world.

Russia supports China's realization of Chinese-style modernization. China supports Russia in achieving its national development goals before 2030.

The two sides oppose interference by external forces in internal affairs.

The Russian side reaffirms its adherence to the one-China principle, recognizes Taiwan as an inalienable part of China's territory, opposes any form of "Taiwan independence", and firmly supports China's measures to safeguard its sovereignty and territorial integrity.

The two sides agreed to strengthen the exchange of foreign-related rule of law and legislative experience to provide legal guarantees for the development of China-Russia relations and foreign cooperation between the two countries.

The two sides will continue to conduct mutual trust dialogue between the central government and its subordinate agencies, as well as high-level representatives within the framework of strategic security consultations and law enforcement and security cooperation mechanisms. The two sides will promote exchanges between the political parties of the two countries.

The two sides agreed to hold an annual meeting of the ministers of public security and interior affairs to strengthen cooperation in law enforcement in preventing "color revolutions", cracking down on the "three forces" including the "East Turkestan Islamic Movement", transnational organized crime, economic crimes, drug crimes and other law enforcement fields.

The two sides will regularly organize joint maritime and air cruises and joint exercises and training, strengthen exchanges and cooperation between the two militaries, including under existing bilateral mechanisms, and further deepen military mutual trust.

The two sides attach great importance to safeguarding the security and rights and interests of overseas personnel and institutions of the two countries, and will further promote the construction of bilateral and multilateral mechanisms and counterpart exchanges, and continuously expand the ways and fields of cooperation in the security protection of overseas citizens, projects and institutions.


The two sides will strengthen coordination, implement precise policies, and proceed from a strategic height to effectively enhance the level of pragmatic cooperation between the two countries in various fields, so as to consolidate the material foundation of bilateral relations and benefit the two peoples.

The two sides will consolidate the momentum of bilateral trade growth, continue to optimize the trade structure, implement the Roadmap for the High-quality Development of China-Russia Trade in Goods and Services, support the development of e-commerce, cultivate new economic and trade growth points, expand the breadth of economic and trade cooperation, improve the efficiency of cooperation, minimize external risks, and ensure the stability and security of the industrial chain and supply chain. The two sides will deepen local cooperation, broaden cooperation areas and fields, and promote exchanges and cooperation between small and medium-sized enterprises of the two sides.

The two sides will steadily promote investment cooperation in various fields, optimize the business environment, improve legal guarantees, innovate cooperation methods, and deepen cooperation in digital economy and green and sustainable development. The two sides will continue to promote the preparation of the new version of the Outline of the China-Russia Investment Cooperation Plan.

The two sides welcome the Joint Statement on Initiating Negotiations on the Upgrading of the Agreement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments signed on November 2022, 12, issued by the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China and the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation on 5 December 2006, and will continue negotiations on this to enhance the level of investment protection, promote investment facilitation, and create a more stable, fair, transparent and predictable business environment for investors and their investments.

The two sides will continue to strengthen mutually beneficial cooperation in the financial sector, including ensuring smooth settlement between economic entities of the two countries and supporting the expansion of the use of local currencies in bilateral trade, investment, credit and other economic and trade activities.

The two sides will forge a closer energy partnership, support companies to advance energy cooperation projects in oil and gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, etc., and promote initiatives that help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including the use of low-emission energy and renewable energy. The two sides will jointly safeguard international energy security, including critical cross-border infrastructure, maintain the stability of the energy product industry chain and supply chain, promote a fair energy transition and low-carbon development based on the principle of technology neutrality, and jointly contribute to the long-term healthy and stable development of the global energy market.

The two sides will continue to carry out practical cooperation in civil aviation manufacturing, automobile manufacturing, shipbuilding, metallurgy and other areas of common interest.

The two sides will strengthen cooperation in the field of transportation, improve cross-border infrastructure, improve port capacity, and ensure the stable operation of ports. The two sides will continue to support China-EU transit Russia in carrying out rail and sea cargo transportation to improve transportation efficiency.

The two sides will deepen mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of space, including the implementation of the Outline of Space Cooperation between the State Space Administration of the People's Republic of China and the State Space Corporation of the Russian Federation for 2023-2027.

The two sides will actively create facilities to enhance the diversity and availability of agricultural products and grains to be exported to each other.

The two sides support the holding of the 2023th China-Russia Expo in Yekaterinburg, Russia in <>.

China supports the promotion of the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union, and Russia supports the construction of the Belt and Road Initiative. The two sides will work together to actively promote the docking and cooperation between the "Belt and Road" and the Eurasian Economic Union, and strengthen the connectivity of Asia and Europe. The two sides will continue to implement the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation between the People's Republic of China and the Eurasian Economic Union signed on May 2018, 5.

The two sides are willing to continue to promote the parallel and coordinated development of the Belt and Road Initiative and the Greater Eurasian Partnership, promote the process of bilateral and multilateral integration, and benefit the people of all countries in Eurasia.

The two sides attach great importance to the implementation of the 2015 Medium-term Roadmap for the Development of Trilateral Cooperation between the People's Republic of China, the Russian Federation and Mongolia and the 2016 Outline Plan for the Construction of the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor, so as to further deepen the trilateral package of cooperation, and will actively promote the further integration of this promising mechanism with regional organizations and mechanisms such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Eurasian Economic Union. The two sides will work together to promote the study and consultation of the new China-Mongolia-Russia natural gas pipeline project.

The two sides agreed to strengthen exchanges and cooperation in the field of anti-money laundering, including coordination under multilateral frameworks.


The two sides oppose the politicization of international humanities cooperation and discrimination against people in the fields of culture, education, science and sports on the grounds of nationality, language, religion, political or other beliefs, national or social origin.

The two sides will strive to restore and expand offline people-to-people exchanges and cooperation between the two countries, and continuously consolidate the friendship between the two peoples and the social foundation of bilateral relations.

The two sides will deepen educational cooperation, promote two-way study abroad to improve quality and efficiency, encourage cooperation between universities, support the construction of similar university alliances and secondary school alliances between China and Russia, promote cooperative school-running and vocational education exchanges, deepen language teaching cooperation, enhance student exchanges between the two countries, and carry out digital education cooperation.
































The two sides stressed the importance of the Joint Statement of the Leaders of the Five Nuclear-Weapon States on the Prevention of Nuclear War and the Avoidance of an Arms Race, and reaffirmed that "a nuclear war cannot be won and cannot be fought". The two sides call on all signatories to the Joint Statement to follow the concept of the Statement in order to effectively reduce the risk of nuclear war and avoid any armed conflict between nuclear-weapon States. In the context of the deterioration of relations between nuclear-weapon States, measures to reduce strategic risks should be organically integrated into the overall effort to reduce tensions, build more constructive relations and resolve contradictions in the field of security to the greatest extent. All nuclear-weapon States should refrain from deploying nuclear weapons outside their territories and should withdraw their nuclear weapons deployed outside their territories.

The two sides reaffirmed that the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is the cornerstone of the international nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation regime. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to the Treaty and will continue to cooperate in upholding and strengthening the Treaty and maintaining world peace and security.

The two sides expressed serious concern about the consequences and risks to regional strategic stability of the Trilateral Security Partnership (AUKUS) established by the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia and related nuclear-powered submarine cooperation plans. The two sides strongly urge AUKUS member states to strictly comply with their obligations on the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery and to maintain regional peace, stability and development.

The two sides expressed grave concern over Japan's plan to discharge radioactive contaminated water from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident into the sea this year, and stressed the need for transparent and full consultation between Japan and other stakeholders such as neighboring countries and relevant international institutions. The two sides urge Japan to properly dispose of radiologically contaminated water in a scientific, transparent and safe manner, and accept long-term supervision by the International Atomic Energy Agency and relevant countries, so as to effectively protect the marine environment and the health rights and interests of the people of all countries.

The two sides reaffirmed the importance of the early restoration of the complete and effective implementation of the JCPOA and UNSCR 2231, and called on all parties concerned to make political decisions and promote the resumption of negotiations on the implementation of the JCPOA to achieve positive results.

The two sides reaffirmed that the Biological Weapons Convention should be fully adhered to and continuously strengthened, institutionalized and concluded with a legally binding protocol with an effective verification mechanism. The two sides expressed grave concern over the biomilitary activities of the United States that seriously threaten other countries and undermine the security of the relevant regions within or outside its territory, and requested the United States to clarify in this regard, refrain from carrying out all biological activities that violate the Biological Weapons Convention, and no longer obstruct the establishment of a compliance verification mechanism within the framework of the Convention.

The two sides are committed to the goal of a world free of chemical weapons and express deep concern over the politicization of the OPCW. The two sides urged the United States, as the only State party that has not completed the destruction of chemical weapons, to accelerate the destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles, and urged Japan to complete the destruction of abandoned chemical weapons in China as soon as possible.

China and Russia expressed concern about the United States accelerating the construction of the global anti-missile system and deploying anti-missile systems around the world, strengthening incapacitating high-precision non-nuclear weapons strategic strike capabilities, promoting the deployment of land-based intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles in the Asia-Pacific region and Europe and providing them to its allies, and urged the United States to stop undermining international and regional security and global strategic stability in order to maintain its unilateral military superiority.

China and Russia oppose the attempts of certain countries to transform outer space into a territory of military confrontation, and oppose the use of outer space to achieve military superiority and military action. The two sides advocate the early commencement of negotiations on a legally binding multilateral instrument on the basis of the draft Sino-Russian Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space and the Threat or Use of Force against Space Objects, so as to provide fundamental and reliable safeguards for the prevention of an arms race in outer space, the weaponization of outer space and the threat or use of force against outer space objects. The two sides endorse the global implementation of international initiatives/political commitments of no first deployment of weapons in outer space in order to consolidate international peace, ensure equitable and indivisible universal security, and enhance the predictability and sustainability of the research and use of outer space for peaceful purposes by all countries.

The two sides attach great importance to the issue of AI governance and are willing to strengthen exchanges and cooperation on AI issues.

The two sides oppose the militarization of information and communication technologies and the restriction of normal information and communication and technology development and cooperation, and support the establishment of a multilateral, fair and transparent global Internet governance system on the premise of ensuring the sovereignty and security of Internet governance of all countries. The two sides welcome the work of the UN Open Working Group on Security and Information Security in the Use of Information and Communication Technologies 2021-2025 as the only UN process in the field of international information security. The two sides believe that a new and responsible national code of conduct in information cyberspace should be formulated, especially universal international legal instruments. China's Global Data Security Initiative and Russia's concept paper on the International Convention on Information Security will make important contributions to the formulation of relevant norms. The two sides support the elaboration by the United Nations Ad Hoc Committee of a comprehensive international convention against the use of information and communication technologies for criminal purposes.


The two sides have taken strong measures to cope with and adapt to climate change, actively cooperated, built and operated a greenhouse gas emission trading system, voluntarily implemented climate projects, and exchanged experience among countries and regions on global warming mitigation and adaptation, making important contributions.

The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to the objectives, principles and provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Paris Agreement, in particular the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, adherence to true multilateralism, and the full and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement. The two sides stressed that accelerating financial support from developed countries to developing countries is critical to strengthening mitigation actions and addressing inequalities in access to finance. The two sides oppose the erection of trade barriers and the politicization of climate issues on the grounds of addressing climate change.

The two sides highly appreciate the outcome of the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, chaired by China, and hope that it will make positive contributions to promoting the global biodiversity governance process. The two sides firmly promote international cooperation and exchanges on biodiversity, actively implement the goals of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, and jointly promote the harmonious development of man and nature to contribute to global sustainable development.


The two sides believe that the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations must be respected and international law must be respected. The Russian side spoke positively of China's objective and fair position on the Ukraine issue. The two sides oppose any country or group of countries seeking military, political or other superiority that harms the legitimate security interests of other countries. The Russian side reiterated its commitment to resuming peace talks as soon as possible, and China appreciates this. The Russian side welcomes China's willingness to play an active role in resolving the Ukrainian crisis through political and diplomatic means, and welcomes the constructive propositions set out in the document "China's Position on the Political Settlement of the Ukrainian Crisis". The two sides pointed out that the solution to the Ukraine crisis must respect the legitimate security concerns of all countries and prevent the formation of camp confrontation and add fuel to the fire. The two sides stressed that responsible dialogue is the best way to resolve the issue steadily. To that end, the international community should support relevant constructive efforts. The two sides call on all parties to stop all actions that contribute to the tense situation and the prolongation of the fighting to prevent the crisis from worsening or even getting out of control. The two sides oppose any unilateral sanctions not authorized by the UN Security Council.

The two sides urge NATO to abide by its commitments as a regional and defensive organization, and call on NATO to respect the sovereignty, security, interests, diversity of civilizations, history and culture of other countries, and view the peaceful development of other countries objectively and fairly. The two sides expressed grave concern over NATO's continued strengthening of military-security ties with Asia-Pacific countries and the undermining of regional peace and stability. The two sides oppose the patchwork of closed and exclusive bloc structures in the Asia-Pacific region to create bloc politics and camp confrontation. The two sides pointed out that the United States adheres to the Cold War mentality and pursues the "Indo-Pacific Strategy", which has a negative impact on peace and stability in the region. China and Russia are committed to building an equal, open and inclusive Asia-Pacific security system that is not aimed at third countries, so as to maintain regional peace, stability and prosperity.

The two sides believe that maintaining peace and stability in Northeast Asia is in the interests of all parties concerned. The two sides oppose the undermining of regional peace and stability by extraterritorial military forces and call on relevant countries to abandon the Cold War mentality and ideological prejudice, exercise restraint and refrain from taking actions that endanger regional security.

The two sides expressed concern about the situation on the Korean Peninsula and urged all parties concerned to remain calm and exercise restraint, strive to ease the situation, and the US side should respond to the legitimate and reasonable concerns of the DPRK with concrete actions to create conditions for the resumption of dialogue. The two sides have always advocated maintaining peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula, including the denuclearization of the Peninsula, and jointly advocated the establishment of a peace and security mechanism on the Peninsula. The two sides will continue to communicate and cooperate closely and continuously promote the political settlement process of the Korean Peninsula issue in accordance with the "dual-track" approach and the principle of phased and synchronized progress. The two sides call on all parties concerned to actively echo the joint efforts of China and Russia to promote peace talks and play a constructive role in this process.

The two sides stand for maintaining peace and stability in the Middle East, support regional countries in strengthening their strategic autonomy, resolve hotspot issues through dialogue and consultation, and oppose interference in the internal affairs of regional countries. The two sides welcomed the normalization of relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran through dialogue and supported a comprehensive and just settlement of the Palestinian issue on the basis of the two-state solution. Support Syria's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity, and promote a Syrian-led and Syrian-owned political settlement package. We stand for safeguarding Libya's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity and promoting a political settlement process led by and owned by the people. The two sides will strengthen communication and docking on their respective Gulf security initiatives and work together to build a collective security architecture in the Gulf region.

The two sides believe that the CSTO has made positive contributions to regional security, and China and the CSTO have potential for cooperation in maintaining regional peace and stability.

The two sides are willing to strengthen cooperation, support Central Asian countries in safeguarding their sovereignty, ensuring national development, and opposing "color revolutions" and interference in regional affairs by external forces.

The two sides will strengthen communication and coordination on African affairs, maintain a good and healthy atmosphere of international cooperation in Africa, support African countries' efforts to resolve African issues independently, and contribute to the cause of peace and development on the African continent. China and Russia will continue to hold consultations on Latin American affairs, strengthen communication and dialogue, attach importance to the development of bilateral relations with Latin American and Caribbean countries, and continue to promote stability and prosperity in the region.

The two sides advocated that the Arctic should continue to be a place of peace, stability and constructive cooperation.

President of the People's Republic of China President of the Russian Federation

Xi Jinping F. V. Putin

Moscow, 21 March 2023