How to steadily move towards common prosperity?

Economic Daily heavyweight research report→

  Entering a new stage of development, my country's internal and external environment for development has undergone profound and complex changes, and is facing many new major problems.

At the Central Economic Work Conference held at the end of last year, General Secretary Xi Jinping clearly put forward the correct understanding and grasp of five major theoretical and practical issues.

How to steadily move towards common prosperity?

How to make capital regulation develop in a healthy and orderly manner?

How to ensure the supply of primary products?

How to focus on avoiding major risks?

How to steadily and orderly promote carbon neutralization?

These problems are not only practical problems that must be faced and solved at present, but also forward-looking, strategic and long-term problems for the development of the Party and the country.

  Since the beginning of this year, focusing on five hot issues, the Economic Daily has formed a special research group of more than 30 people to conduct in-depth interviews with ministries, scholars, think tanks, and enterprises. After more than three months, a research report of more than 90,000 words has been formed, which will be published one after another from today. , for readers.

The deepest foundation lies in high-quality development

Correctly Understand and Grasp the Strategic Objectives and Practical Ways of Realizing Common Prosperity (Part 1)

  Socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, and reform and opening up has entered a new stage driven by strengthening top-level design and building social consensus. It is necessary to continuously promote theoretical innovation and practical innovation on the basis of summarizing historical experience. , to realize the organic unity of value pursuit and system design.

How to understand, grasp and promote the common prosperity of all people is one of the grand propositions.

  Common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism, an important feature of Chinese-style modernization, and the ardent expectation of the people for a better life.

Committed to achieving common prosperity is our party's consistent position, policy and pursuit.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has adhered to the people-centered development philosophy, and has launched a series of pioneering measures to promote common prosperity and achieve fairness and justice.

From building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, to "people's life and health first" in the fight against the new crown pneumonia epidemic; from winning the battle of poverty alleviation to promoting a new type of urbanization with people at the core; Enjoy more tangible development results... The party puts the people at the top of its heart and has never changed, wavered, or hesitated.

  In the past 10 years, "unswervingly following the path of common prosperity" has laid an important cornerstone for our party's governance of the country, and "more obvious and substantive progress in common prosperity for all people" has been included in the core goal of initially realizing socialist modernization , "Adhere to step-by-step progress, fully estimate the long-term, arduous, and complex nature of common prosperity, encourage localities to explore effective paths according to local conditions, summarize experience, and gradually push forward" provides an action guide.

With the great victory of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the problem of absolute poverty that has plagued the Chinese nation for thousands of years has been historically resolved. The navigation map of reform and development is being comprehensively laid out, comprehensively planned, and fully launched.

Scientifically and efficiently coordinate "rich" and "common"

(1) Promoting common prosperity for all people is a systemic change, and it is necessary to establish a set of institutional mechanisms and policy frameworks to promote common prosperity.

  General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that China wants to achieve common prosperity, but not for egalitarianism, but first to make the "cake" bigger, and then to divide the "cake" through reasonable institutional arrangements. More equitably benefit all people.

This discourse fully reflects the dialectics of promoting common prosperity in the new development stage, that is, we must rely on high-quality development, optimize the distribution structure, increase the proportion of middle-income earners, and combine "rich" and ""rich" in the process of promoting quality change, efficiency change, and dynamic change. Coordinate together, and organically unify making the "cake" bigger and dividing the "cake" well.

  There has never been a precedent in human history for a large country with a population of more than 1.4 billion to promote common prosperity for all its people.

This is a pioneering undertaking and a systemic change. It is necessary to establish a set of institutional mechanisms and policy frameworks to promote common prosperity, such as ensuring a market competition environment with fair opportunities, fair rules, and fair rights, and coordination and matching of primary distribution, redistribution, and three distributions. The basic institutional arrangement of China, the olive-shaped social structure with the middle-income group as the main body... A series of goals point to a harmonious and creative high-income society supported by a modern economic system. Only by promoting more vitality and innovation Only the high-quality development of strength and competitiveness will be realized.

(2) Focus on the practice of the new era, creatively implement the new development concept, and continue to expand the "cake".

  How to do and how to change, so that the people can see, touch, and feel the good part of the "cake"?

This requires focusing on new topics raised by new practices based on the situation and tasks at different stages of development, and creatively implementing the decisions and deployments of the Party Central Committee into the work of all regions and departments.

  In June 2021, the "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Supporting Zhejiang's High-quality Development and Construction of a Demonstration Zone for Common Prosperity" was officially released.

Guided by the pilot program, Zhejiang Province clearly stated that it will explore a number of institutional and institutional innovation models for common prosperity, including building a modern industrial system led by the digital economy, a high-quality employment and entrepreneurship system, planning for the reform of the income distribution system, and a reasonable increase in wages and income. Mechanisms, a large social security system for mutual wealth, a fiscal and tax policy system, the integrated reform of strengthening villages and enriching the people, and the common prosperity of migrant workers in cities.

The practice is also advancing steadily. For example, the "one county, one policy" formulated around the 26 counties in the mountainous area has achieved full coverage, providing a breakthrough and a powerful starting point for promoting the leap-forward high-quality development of the mountainous counties and effectively narrowing the regional gap.

(3) From theory to practice, the key word is "high-quality development", which is a "shared experience" of universal significance.

  A distinctive feature of high quality is reflected in the efficient coordination of "richness" and "commonness".

The Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China proposed that "economic and social development should focus on promoting high-quality development", which is a scientific judgment based on changes in my country's development stage, development environment and development conditions.

When analyzing the outstanding problems of unbalanced and insufficient development in my country, General Secretary Xi Jinping mentioned that "the innovation ability does not meet the requirements of high-quality development", "the agricultural foundation is not stable", "the gap between urban and rural regional development and income distribution is large", and "ecological environmental protection has a long way to go". "There are shortcomings in people's livelihood security" and "social governance still has weaknesses" in six aspects.

To solve these problems, we must rely on high-quality development, so that the overall economic level and income level can reach a higher level of prosperity, and at the same time achieve a greater degree of sharing, including the sharing of development achievements, development opportunities, and public services. .

"Make the cake bigger" with higher quality

  Common prosperity is a long-term goal and a historical task that requires a process. We must fully estimate its long-term, arduous and complex nature.

To do this well, we cannot wait or rush. We must make solid progress, and it cannot be done overnight.

Some developed countries have been industrializing for hundreds of years, but due to social system reasons, the issue of common prosperity has not yet been resolved, and the problem of the disparity between the rich and the poor has become more and more serious.

We must have strategic determination and historical patience, and do one thing at a time in a down-to-earth manner to improve effectiveness.

  There is no shortcut to common prosperity, and it must be advanced in the process of high-quality development and building a modern country.

Whether it is to promote reform and innovation, stimulate new momentum for economic development, ensure employment and people's livelihood, and satisfy people's yearning for a better life, all aspects of economic and social development must move towards high-quality development.

Han Wenxiu, deputy director of the Central Finance Office in charge of daily work, believes that the relationship between development and distribution must be properly handled.

"Although my country's economy is already huge, its per capita national income is only about a quarter of the average of developed countries, and the gap is still very large. Even if all the national income is distributed equally, it cannot be said to be common prosperity. This is particularly important. However, due to the constraints of various conditions, it is difficult to reproduce the high-speed economic growth in our country in the past, and the potential growth rate will gradually decrease. If you grow bigger, common prosperity will become an empty phrase.”

  According to the goals set in the "14th Five-Year Plan", my country's economic growth rate needs to be maintained at an average annual rate of at least 5% in order to reach the level of moderately developed countries in per capita GDP in 2035.

To this end, on the basis of building a new pattern with the domestic cycle as the main body and the domestic and international dual cycles promoting each other, we must adhere to the "two unswerving", rely on various forces, and take multiple measures to maintain the sustained and stable growth of the national economy.

To further expand the "cake" of social wealth, at the industrial level, it is necessary to deeply implement the strategy of manufacturing a strong country, optimize the industrial structure, develop a modern industrial system, cultivate leading and pillar industries, and promote the integrated development of producer services. Promote the upgrading of the life service industry to high quality and diversification; at the enterprise level, we must strive to build a large number of large and advantageous enterprises with international competitiveness, support and maintain the development of small, medium and micro enterprises, and provide support for stability and expansion of employment; At the level of workers, we must continue to encourage entrepreneurship, innovation and creation, guide workers to strive to improve their quality and ability, and form a good atmosphere in the whole society that respects labor, knowledge, talents, and creation.

  Common prosperity is not a slogan. It must be achieved through the joint efforts of all the people.

A happy life is achieved through struggle, and common prosperity depends on hard work and wisdom.

We must insist on ensuring and improving people's livelihood in the process of development, strive to create a social environment with equal opportunities, create more inclusive and fair conditions for the people to improve their education level and enhance their development capabilities, improve the human capital and professional skills of the whole society, and improve their employment and entrepreneurship capabilities. Enhance the ability to get rich.

Liu Shangxi, president of the Chinese Academy of Fiscal Sciences, believes that a sufficient condition for common prosperity is to ensure that all people have access to fair opportunities and basic capabilities.

"If the income gap is only narrowed in terms of distribution results, and even the wealth gap is narrowed, but the ability gap is not narrowed, the gap will reappear when entering the next economic cycle. Therefore, the change and improvement of ability are The most important thing. In this sense, to achieve common prosperity is to realize the common development of people and the common improvement of people's abilities; Instead, it will continue to expand.”

  High-quality development requires high-quality workers. Only by promoting common prosperity, increasing the income of urban and rural residents, and improving human capital can we increase total factor productivity, consolidate the driving force for high-quality development, and further strengthen the precondition for common prosperity.

When common prosperity and people's all-round development promote each other, everyone can become talented and everyone can develop, which is a vivid portrayal of the superiority of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics.

"Separate the cake" at a higher level

  Common prosperity mainly includes two dimensions, namely "abundance" and "fairness". Prosperity depends on development, and common prosperity depends on fairness.

An ideal state of course is to divide the cake while making it bigger, so as to make the cake bigger and better. However, the development practice of various countries shows that making the cake bigger and dividing the cake is not a natural unity. If there is no active regulation by the government , the income gap cannot automatically narrow.

  The widening income gap will undoubtedly aggravate the contradiction between production and consumption, destroy social reproduction, and then transform a large amount of industrial capital into virtual capital and financial capital. The social security system is used to ensure the living standard of low-income people.

However, Piketty proves with solid data in "Capital in the 21st Century" that inequality in Western countries such as the United States has reached or exceeded the highest level in history, unchecked capitalism has exacerbated wealth inequality, and will continue to deteriorate.

As of the end of March 2020, the richest 10 percent of Americans owned more than two-thirds of the country's wealth, and the top 1 percent owned 31 percent, according to Federal Reserve data.

The storm of the new crown pneumonia epidemic has even more clearly washed the gap between the rich and the poor in American society. Marked by the "unprecedented impact" on the US Congress, the political polarization and political division in the United States are extremely serious. "Darkest Hour" in Political History.

  Li Shi, a professor at Zhejiang University, believes that these problems in wealth distribution in developed countries should be taken as a warning.

The rapid economic growth in the past 40 years has enabled many low- and middle-income groups to share the fruits of economic development and maintain social stability. Whether it can benefit from economic development is a question mark; if the income gap and distribution problems cannot be effectively solved for a long time, it is also a question mark whether social stability can still be maintained.

“In order to eliminate these variables, we must speed up the reform of the income distribution system. In the field of primary distribution, the focus is on solving the problem of unbalanced distribution of benefits caused by imperfect and distorted markets. In the field of redistribution, the focus is on strengthening the adjustment mechanism of income distribution through taxation. , improve the social security system, narrow the differences in social security systems, and increase transfer payments to low-income groups and relatively poor people."

  The distribution structure of income and wealth is directly related to the realization of common prosperity and social fairness and justice, which in turn has a negative effect on social production and efficiency.

In recent years, our party has not only put forward that common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism from the perspective of strategic goals, but also put forward the main measures to gradually realize common prosperity in the field of distribution, emphasizing "improving the wage system, improving the mechanism of reasonable wage growth, and focusing on improving low-income countries. Increase the income of income groups and expand the middle-income group. Improve the policy system for distribution according to factors, improve the mechanism for various production factors to be determined by the market, and explore the use of land, capital and other factors. Increase the property income of urban and rural residents. Improve the redistribution mechanism, increase the intensity and accuracy of adjustment of taxation, social security, transfer payment, etc., reasonably adjust excessive income, and ban illegal income. Give play to the role of the third distribution, develop philanthropy, and improve income and the pattern of wealth distribution”.

As the "Second Centenary" begins, these major deployments highlight the strategic significance and strategic importance of promoting common prosperity in the new stage of development.

  In the new era, China, in the face of changes unseen in a century, the risks and challenges of the middle-income trap, and the era proposition of building a community with a shared future for mankind, is taking precautions, changing its development philosophy, and accelerating the establishment of a more equitable income distribution system.

  First, in the primary distribution dominated by the market mechanism, based on the principle of "efficiency", the distribution is reasonably and legally distributed according to the contribution of factors.

This contribution includes various factors that are beneficial to the creation of profits. It is necessary to give full play to the advantages of distribution according to work and fully increase the proportion of labor remuneration in the primary distribution, and to play the role of the market to improve labor, capital, land, knowledge and technology. Production factors such as management, data and other production factors are evaluated by the market, and the remuneration is determined according to the contribution, thereby stimulating and guiding the innovation and entrepreneurship creation boom in the whole society, stimulating the enthusiasm of the owners of different production factors to pursue high-efficiency investment, and encouraging more people to compete through the market. Create more wealth, embark on the road to prosperity, and improve the efficiency of the entire economy.

  Second, in the redistribution led by the government to play the regulating function, the principle of "fairness" is to promote the equalization of basic public services, promote balanced development, and maintain social stability.

Aiming at the income gap caused by different endowments of individuals and differences in the possession of production factors in the initial distribution, the redistribution should give full play to the adjustment function of the government. Part of the income of industries or institutions is then converted into social income, and the low-income class is the main beneficiary of income redistribution, thereby limiting the excessive disparity of income among various types of people in the society and realizing a relatively fair income distribution.

  Third, in the three distributions mainly in the form of public welfare and charity, based on the principle of "voluntary", we will strive to make charitable donations play their due positive role, and encourage high-income groups to give back more to the society.

Chinese culture contains a profound philanthropic tradition. Giving charitable aid and helping one side in difficulty and all sides supporting each other are the cultural genes of the Chinese nation.

The tertiary distribution is a voluntary and conscious behavior of social forces under the influence of morality, culture, and habits. The distribution of social resources and social wealth by means of charitable public welfare such as collection, donation, and funding is a useful supplement to the initial distribution and redistribution.

At different stages of social development, the proportion of the three distributions will change, but its "supplementary" attribute will remain largely unchanged. Those who expect to "rapidly achieve common prosperity" through the three distributions, Obviously, the role of the three allocations is too magnified, which is untenable.

The tenth meeting of the Central Financial and Economic Commission emphasized the role of three distributions, "encouraging high-income groups and enterprises to give back more to the society", not forcing high-income people to "equalize the rich and the poor", but to emphasize common prosperity in the whole society. The values ​​of awareness and social justice inspire people to voluntarily donate to give back to the society and promote the common prosperity of all people.

  Common prosperity is a "protracted war", not a "surprise war". It must be based on national conditions and reality, and move forward step by step and step by step.

On this journey, we must realize the coordination of government, market and society, that is, let the market mechanism play a decisive role in the initial distribution, let the government fulfill its due responsibilities in the process of redistribution, and mobilize social forces to fulfill their respective responsibilities in the third distribution.

The basic system of primary distribution, redistribution, and coordination of three distributions is the embodiment and practice of the Chinese characteristics of getting rich first and getting rich later, and will definitely play a role in promoting national development and improving people's well-being.

The surging power is "expanding"

Correctly Understanding and Grasping the Strategic Objectives and Practical Ways of Realizing Common Prosperity (Middle)

  Under the new development stage and complex situation, what is the path to achieve common prosperity?

Starting from my country's current reality, in addition to continuing to expand the "cake" of social wealth and improving the basic system of three distributions, an important starting point should be to accelerate the formation of a larger and higher-quality middle-income group.

  The rich people in the country care about the rich people.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has repeatedly emphasized that "expanding the size of the middle-income group should be an important policy goal", which contains the surging power to promote the common prosperity of all people and is closely related to everyone.

Looking back at the beginning of reform and opening up, encouraging some people to get rich first, mobilized the enthusiasm of hundreds of millions of people for production, and countless people showed their wisdom and skills, changed their own destiny, and changed the destiny of the times, and promoted an ancient agricultural country to become a productive country. The country with the longest history of extremely dynamic business and rapid economic growth.

Walking on the road of Chinese-style modernization, in another historical stage of "rich first and then rich", let the vitality of all labor, knowledge, technology, management and capital burst out, and let all the sources of social wealth flow fully, from the people. This valuable historical experience will also illuminate the future journey of all people towards common prosperity.

The effect of "expanding China" is a concrete manifestation of the substantive progress of common prosperity

  The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made a "two-stage" strategic arrangement for the second centenary goal: in the first stage, "people's life will be more affluent, the proportion of middle-income groups will be significantly increased, and the urban-rural development gap and the gap in residents' living standards will be significantly narrowed. , the equalization of basic public services has been basically achieved, and solid progress has been made in the common prosperity of all the people.” In the second stage, the common prosperity of all the people has been basically realized.

The Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China further proposed that during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, "focus on increasing the income of low-income groups and expand the middle-income group", and by 2035 "the middle-income group will significantly expand".

It can be said that the continuous expansion of the middle-income group is a concrete manifestation of solidly promoting common prosperity to achieve more obvious and substantive progress.

  So, if the middle-income group is portrayed, what are the characteristics of this group?

Experts believe that, generally speaking, the middle-income group refers to the group in the economy with a middle-level income and a relatively well-off life. Their income level and consumption level are relatively stable, and most of them have higher human skills and higher education levels. , engaged in relatively professional work.

  Wang Yiming, vice chairman of the China Center for International Economic Exchanges, pointed out that from the perspective of urban and rural areas, the urban household population accounts for about 3/4 of the middle-income group in my country, and the rural residents and agricultural transfer population account for about 1/4.

From a regional perspective, the regional distribution of the middle-income group is roughly consistent with the level of economic development. About 60% of the middle-income group is located in the eastern region, while only 40% in the central and western regions.

According to Zhang Zhanbin, Dean of the School of Marxism at the Central Party School (National School of Administration), the middle-income group is no longer a concept that can be accurately defined, explained and described based on a single indicator of "income", but a concept that includes income level, quality of life, The concept of comprehensive indicators of occupation, national quality, income distribution system and social structural characteristics.

  Data from the National Bureau of Statistics shows that in the past 20 years, the size of my country's middle-income group has increased by more than 54 times, and now there are more than 400 million people and about 140 million families.

In terms of scale, my country undoubtedly has the largest and most growing middle-income group in the world; but in terms of proportion, based on the base of 1.4 billion people, the middle-income population accounts for less than 30%, which is significantly lower than that of developed countries by 50%. % to 75%, there is still a big gap from the olive-shaped distribution structure.

  From a pyramid-shaped distribution structure with a large scale of low-income groups and a small proportion of middle and high-income groups to a flat distribution structure with common prosperity, it is inevitable to experience an olive-shaped distribution structure in which the scale and proportion of middle-income groups continue to expand.

Historically, from the 1920s to the mid-1960s, developed countries in Europe and the United States successively entered a mass consumption society dominated by the middle-income class, which not only changed the long-term situation of overproduction and underconsumption, but also greatly promoted scientific and technological progress, driving wealth growth.

Japan and the "Asian Tigers" have cultivated a large middle-income group with measures such as the "National Income Multiplication Plan", the plan to support small and medium-sized enterprises, and the improvement of social security. The production and sales of high-end durable consumer goods have expanded rapidly, forming a strong The huge pulling effect of economy and industrialization has achieved economic take-off through the close combination of expanding exports and expanding domestic demand.

  The expansion of the middle-income group means the continuous optimization of the social wealth distribution pattern and the continuous improvement of social justice.

Countries that have also experienced economic take-off, whether their growth dividends are enjoyed by a small number of people or benefit the public, different countries have chosen different paths.

Only those countries that have achieved the expansion of the middle-income group and the narrowing of the income gap over a long period of time will be able to overcome the middle-income trap and achieve sustainable economic growth and social prosperity.

The experience and lessons are worthy of our study and reference.

  The expansion of the middle-income group means that the consumption momentum is more surging.

The marginal propensity to consume of the middle-income group is relatively high, which will have a significant stimulating effect on consumption growth.

From the actual situation, the growing middle-income group can expand residents' consumption, and promote technological innovation and industrial upgrading through consumption upgrading, forming a virtuous circle of income increase-consumption upgrading-industry optimization-economic growth-people's livelihood improvement. The development pattern, giving full play to the advantages of my country's super-large economy, and promoting the quality of life of urban and rural residents into a new realm all have a strong supporting role.

  The expansion of the middle-income group means that the "stabilizer" of the social structure and the "buffer layer" of social contradictions are more substantial and stable.

Those who have perseverance have perseverance.

In the olive-shaped social structure, the middle-income group with relatively stable occupation, income, consumption capacity and production capacity has the enthusiasm to consciously maintain social stability, and can often actively alleviate many contradictions and confrontations in the social field. The whole society establishes a good image and exemplary role of hard work and hard work, and maintains long-term economic and social stability in various aspects.

Accurately "expanding the middle-income group", allowing more low-income people to enter the ranks of the middle-income group

  At present, expanding the middle-income group is both a must and a solid foundation.

Based on a solid foundation of comprehensive national strength, the "14th Five-Year Plan" period is a critical period for my country to become a high-income country. Many experts and scholars have suggested that the middle-income group should be doubled.

Liu Shijin, deputy director of the Economic Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and former deputy director of the Development Research Center of the State Council, proposed to use 10 to 15 years, that is, by 2030 to 2035, to promote the middle-income group to reach 800 million to 900 million people, accounting for 800 million to 900 million people. about 60% of the total population.

Wang Yiming judged from various conditions that by 2035, my country will achieve a doubling of the middle-income group, and it is achievable to expand the size of the middle-income group from the current 400 million to 800 million.

  Some areas are exploring the way first.

For example, as a demonstration area for high-quality development and construction of common prosperity in my country, Zhejiang Province proposed in its "expansion" and "lowering" action plan that by 2025, the proportion of households in Zhejiang with an annual disposable income of 100,000 to 500,000 yuan should be Reach 80%, and the proportion of the 200,000-600,000 yuan group should reach 45%.

Some provinces have also clearly put forward the goal of doubling the middle-income group. For example, Anhui Province proposed to "adhere to the goal of common prosperity and promote the project of doubling the middle-income group". Income Group Multiplication Action Plan".

So, who are the most likely potential middle-income groups?

  Li Shi, a professor at Zhejiang University, believes that the low-income population is huge, and a considerable number of them have an income that is not much different from the lower limit for defining middle-income, and some of them are relatively poor.

"Therefore, we should identify those low-income groups with the greatest potential to become middle-income earners, and adopt more targeted support policies for this group." We have seen that the "14th Five-Year Plan" and the 2035 Vision Outline It is proposed to "continuously increase the proportion of middle-income groups with a focus on graduates from colleges and vocational colleges, skilled workers, and migrant workers."

The "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Supporting Zhejiang's High-Quality Development and Construction of a Common Prosperity Demonstration Zone" proposes to "implement the action plan to expand the middle-income group, and stimulate the vitality of key groups such as skilled talents, scientific researchers, small and micro entrepreneurs, and high-quality farmers."

Some local plans can also be used as a reference.

For example, Guangdong Province proposed in its "Government Work Report" this year, "to promote more college graduates, skilled workers, small and medium-sized business owners and individual industrial and commercial households, migrant workers in cities, and grass-roots front-line personnel to enter the middle-income group."

  Experts generally believe that migrant workers are the key groups that need to be paid attention to in the future expansion of middle-income groups.

Yang Weimin, member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and deputy director of the Economic Committee, believes that the agricultural transfer population who has been employed for a long time in cities is the largest and closest to the middle-income group.

According to the "2020 Migrant Workers Monitoring and Investigation Report", the total number of migrant workers in my country is 286 million. If these people can be turned into middle-income groups, it will be of great significance.

  There is consensus, foundation, and goals. The key is to grasp the key points and implement precise policies to promote more low-income people to enter the ranks of middle-income groups.

First, keep economic growth within a reasonable range, and strive to promote resident income growth and economic growth in sync.

  Productivity is highly developed, social wealth is prosperous, and the macroeconomic environment continues to be stable, and the size of the middle-income group can continue to expand.

Especially in the face of the unprecedented changes in the world in a century and the impact of the epidemic of the century, we must continue to strengthen the economic foundation and concentrate on running our own affairs. The most important thing at present is to stabilize the macroeconomic market.

  In the recent period, the central government has intensively issued various policies and guidelines for stabilizing the economy, clearly requiring all regions and departments to take responsibility and speed up their implementation.

In the work of "six stability" and "six guarantees", the first "stability" is to stabilize employment, the first "guarantee" is to ensure the employment of residents, and stable growth is mainly to stabilize employment.

my country is a large country with a population of more than 1.4 billion, with a labor force of nearly 900 million, more than the total working-age population of all developed countries in the world. If we stabilize the economy, achieve relatively full employment, and steadily increase the income of residents, we can create wealth, increase income, and improve. People's livelihood and economic growth also have solid support.

The key to stabilizing employment is stabilizing market players. my country's small, medium and micro enterprises and individual industrial and commercial households are large in number and wide in scope, and are the micro-foundation of the economy. Recently, production and operation have encountered many difficulties.

In this regard, the finance, financial and other departments and governments at all levels should strengthen the measures to reduce the burden and help these market entities to tide over the difficulties and consolidate the foundation for the stable operation of the economy.

Second, expand human capital investment so that more ordinary workers can enter the middle-income group through their own efforts.

  Improving human capital conditions plays a vital role in improving total factor productivity, increasing income, expanding the size of the middle-income group, and achieving common prosperity, and is also more conducive to the all-round development of human beings.

Liu Shangxi, president of the Chinese Academy of Fiscal Sciences, believes that "common" means fairness and everyone has a share; "prosperity" refers to economic efficiency, and without efficiency, there is no wealth at all.

"What can combine the two is human ability. If you only have the ability to do simple work, it can only be low efficiency and low income; if you have the ability to do creative work, such as the ability to create inventions, you will naturally Bring high efficiency and high income. If the ability of social members is generally improved, the collective ability gap is eliminated, everyone has the opportunity to move upward, and social equity and efficiency will naturally merge.”

  If education is prosperous, the country will be prosperous, and if education is strong, the country will be strong.

General Secretary Xi Jinping proposed that it is necessary to "create more inclusive and fair conditions for the people to improve their education levels and enhance their development capabilities, smooth the channels for upward mobility, create opportunities for more people to get rich, and form a development environment in which everyone participates." In the spirit of the instruction, it is necessary to deepen education reform, promote education fairness, and improve the quality of higher education.

Vocational skills training and improving the treatment of skilled workers are important channels for industrial workers to enter the middle-income group. It is necessary to enhance the adaptability of vocational education, accelerate the construction of a modern vocational education system, and cultivate more high-quality technical and skilled talents and skilled craftsmen.

Third, promote a new type of urbanization with people as the core, and smooth the upward flow channels.

  The agricultural transfer population has stabilized employment and settlement in cities, which will help expand the middle-income group.

By 2021, the urbanization rate of the permanent resident population in my country will reach 64.72%, and the urbanization rate of the registered population will increase to 46.7%.

This is the first time that the gap between the two urbanization rates has narrowed since the 13th Five-Year Plan, but there is still a large gap between the two.

  At present, urbanization has entered the "second half", but there are still some basic public services that have not yet fully covered the resident population transferred to the city.

Recently, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the "14th Five-Year Plan for New Urbanization Implementation Plan", which clearly relaxes the restrictions on settlement except for individual megacities. The next step is to increase efforts to eliminate the shortcomings of the system and mechanism, and to speed up the equalization of basic public services. , to build a rational, just, smooth and orderly social mobility pattern to prevent the solidification of social classes.

Fourth, improve the mechanism for reasonable wage growth, and increase the property income of urban and rural residents through multiple channels.

  How can people's pockets be fuller?

On the one hand, it is necessary to increase the proportion of labor remuneration in the primary distribution, and improve the mechanism for reasonable wage growth.

On the other hand, it is necessary to actively expand the property income channels of urban and rural residents, and explore to increase the factor income of low- and middle-income groups through the use rights and income rights of land, capital and other factors.

Encourage enterprises to carry out employee stock ownership plans, innovate more financial products that meet the needs of family wealth management, improve the dividend distribution system for listed companies, and create a more open and transparent investment market environment.

Accelerate the introduction of rural collective construction land into the market and the transfer of homesteads to increase the property income of farmers; promote the revitalization of rural industries based on local characteristic resources, and improve the mechanism for linking interests, so that farmers can share more of the value-added benefits of the industry.

In addition, it is necessary to appropriately increase the salaries of civil servants, especially grass-roots front-line civil servants and grass-roots employees of state-owned enterprises and institutions; protect property rights and intellectual property rights, protect legal enrichment, and enhance the people's sense of property security.












































  “务农重本,国之大纲。”让农业强、农村美、农民富是农村改革的目标所向,是扎实推动全体人民共同富裕的必然选择;走向共同富裕的战略安排,也为扎实解决好“三农”问题、推动我国由农业大国向农业强国的战略性转变提供了历史性机遇。我们要充分发挥党的领导的政治优势、社会主义的制度优势,以更有力的举措汇聚更强大的力量,在全面推进乡村振兴、加快农业农村现代化、带领农民走向共同富裕的新征程中,不断取得新的更大成就。(调研组成员/本报记者齐东向 曾金华 熊丽 银晟)