How to steadily move towards common prosperity?

Economic Daily heavyweight research report→

  Entering a new stage of development, my country's internal and external environment for development has undergone profound and complex changes, and is facing many new major problems.

At the Central Economic Work Conference held at the end of last year, General Secretary Xi Jinping clearly put forward the correct understanding and grasp of five major theoretical and practical issues.

How to steadily move towards common prosperity?

How to make capital regulation develop in a healthy and orderly manner?

How to ensure the supply of primary products?

How to focus on avoiding major risks?

How to steadily and orderly promote carbon neutralization?

These problems are not only practical problems that must be faced and solved at present, but also forward-looking, strategic and long-term problems for the development of the Party and the country.

  Since the beginning of this year, focusing on five hot issues, the Economic Daily has formed a special research group of more than 30 people to conduct in-depth interviews with ministries, scholars, think tanks, and enterprises. After more than three months, a research report of more than 90,000 words has been formed, which will be published one after another from today. , for readers.

The deepest foundation lies in high-quality development

Correctly Understand and Grasp the Strategic Objectives and Practical Ways of Realizing Common Prosperity (Part 1)

  Socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, and reform and opening up has entered a new stage driven by strengthening top-level design and building social consensus. It is necessary to continuously promote theoretical innovation and practical innovation on the basis of summarizing historical experience. , to realize the organic unity of value pursuit and system design.

How to understand, grasp and promote the common prosperity of all people is one of the grand propositions.

  Common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism, an important feature of Chinese-style modernization, and the ardent expectation of the people for a better life.

Committed to achieving common prosperity is our party's consistent position, policy and pursuit.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has adhered to the people-centered development philosophy, and has launched a series of pioneering measures to promote common prosperity and achieve fairness and justice.

From building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, to "people's life and health first" in the fight against the new crown pneumonia epidemic; from winning the battle of poverty alleviation to promoting a new type of urbanization with people at the core; Enjoy more tangible development results... The party puts the people at the top of its heart and has never changed, wavered, or hesitated.

  In the past 10 years, "unswervingly following the path of common prosperity" has laid an important cornerstone for our party's governance of the country, and "more obvious and substantive progress in common prosperity for all people" has been included in the core goal of initially realizing socialist modernization , "Adhere to step-by-step progress, fully estimate the long-term, arduous, and complex nature of common prosperity, encourage localities to explore effective paths according to local conditions, summarize experience, and gradually push forward" provides an action guide.

With the great victory of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the problem of absolute poverty that has plagued the Chinese nation for thousands of years has been historically resolved. The navigation map of reform and development is being comprehensively laid out, comprehensively planned, and fully launched.

Scientifically and efficiently coordinate "rich" and "common"

(1) Promoting common prosperity for all people is a systemic change, and it is necessary to establish a set of institutional mechanisms and policy frameworks to promote common prosperity.

  General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that China wants to achieve common prosperity, but not for egalitarianism, but first to make the "cake" bigger, and then to divide the "cake" through reasonable institutional arrangements. More equitably benefit all people.

This discourse fully reflects the dialectics of promoting common prosperity in the new development stage, that is, we must rely on high-quality development, optimize the distribution structure, increase the proportion of middle-income earners, and combine "rich" and ""rich" in the process of promoting quality change, efficiency change, and dynamic change. Coordinate together, and organically unify making the "cake" bigger and dividing the "cake" well.

  There has never been a precedent in human history for a large country with a population of more than 1.4 billion to promote common prosperity for all its people.

This is a pioneering undertaking and a systemic change. It is necessary to establish a set of institutional mechanisms and policy frameworks to promote common prosperity, such as ensuring a market competition environment with fair opportunities, fair rules, and fair rights, and coordination and matching of primary distribution, redistribution, and three distributions. The basic institutional arrangement of China, the olive-shaped social structure with the middle-income group as the main body... A series of goals point to a harmonious and creative high-income society supported by a modern economic system. Only by promoting more vitality and innovation Only the high-quality development of strength and competitiveness will be realized.

(2) Focus on the practice of the new era, creatively implement the new development concept, and continue to expand the "cake".

  How to do and how to change, so that the people can see, touch, and feel the good part of the "cake"?

This requires focusing on new topics raised by new practices based on the situation and tasks at different stages of development, and creatively implementing the decisions and deployments of the Party Central Committee into the work of all regions and departments.

  In June 2021, the "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Supporting Zhejiang's High-quality Development and Construction of a Demonstration Zone for Common Prosperity" was officially released.

Guided by the pilot program, Zhejiang Province clearly stated that it will explore a number of institutional and institutional innovation models for common prosperity, including building a modern industrial system led by the digital economy, a high-quality employment and entrepreneurship system, planning for the reform of the income distribution system, and a reasonable increase in wages and income. Mechanisms, a large social security system for mutual wealth, a fiscal and tax policy system, the integrated reform of strengthening villages and enriching the people, and the common prosperity of migrant workers in cities.

The practice is also advancing steadily. For example, the "one county, one policy" formulated around the 26 counties in the mountainous area has achieved full coverage, providing a breakthrough and a powerful starting point for promoting the leap-forward high-quality development of the mountainous counties and effectively narrowing the regional gap.

(3) From theory to practice, the key word is "high-quality development", which is a "shared experience" of universal significance.

  A distinctive feature of high quality is reflected in the efficient coordination of "richness" and "commonness".

The Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China proposed that "economic and social development should focus on promoting high-quality development", which is a scientific judgment based on changes in my country's development stage, development environment and development conditions.

When analyzing the outstanding problems of unbalanced and insufficient development in my country, General Secretary Xi Jinping mentioned that "the innovation ability does not meet the requirements of high-quality development", "the agricultural foundation is not stable", "the gap between urban and rural regional development and income distribution is large", and "ecological environmental protection has a long way to go". "There are shortcomings in people's livelihood security" and "social governance still has weaknesses" in six aspects.

To solve these problems, we must rely on high-quality development, so that the overall economic level and income level can reach a higher level of prosperity, and at the same time achieve a greater degree of sharing, including the sharing of development achievements, development opportunities, and public services. .

"Make the cake bigger" with higher quality

  Common prosperity is a long-term goal and a historical task that requires a process. We must fully estimate its long-term, arduous and complex nature.

To do this well, we cannot wait or rush. We must make solid progress, and it cannot be done overnight.

Some developed countries have been industrializing for hundreds of years, but due to social system reasons, the issue of common prosperity has not yet been resolved, and the problem of the disparity between the rich and the poor has become more and more serious.

We must have strategic determination and historical patience, and do one thing at a time in a down-to-earth manner to improve effectiveness.

  There is no shortcut to common prosperity, and it must be advanced in the process of high-quality development and building a modern country.

Whether it is to promote reform and innovation, stimulate new momentum for economic development, ensure employment and people's livelihood, and satisfy people's yearning for a better life, all aspects of economic and social development must move towards high-quality development.

Han Wenxiu, deputy director of the Central Finance Office in charge of daily work, believes that the relationship between development and distribution must be properly handled.

"Although my country's economy is already huge, its per capita national income is only about a quarter of the average of developed countries, and the gap is still very large. Even if all the national income is distributed equally, it cannot be said to be common prosperity. This is particularly important. However, due to the constraints of various conditions, it is difficult to reproduce the high-speed economic growth in our country in the past, and the potential growth rate will gradually decrease. If you grow bigger, common prosperity will become an empty phrase.”

  According to the goals set in the "14th Five-Year Plan", my country's economic growth rate needs to be maintained at an average annual rate of at least 5% in order to reach the level of moderately developed countries in per capita GDP in 2035.

To this end, on the basis of building a new pattern with the domestic cycle as the main body and the domestic and international dual cycles promoting each other, we must adhere to the "two unswerving", rely on various forces, and take multiple measures to maintain the sustained and stable growth of the national economy.

To further expand the "cake" of social wealth, at the industrial level, it is necessary to deeply implement the strategy of manufacturing a strong country, optimize the industrial structure, develop a modern industrial system, cultivate leading and pillar industries, and promote the integrated development of producer services. Promote the upgrading of the life service industry to high quality and diversification; at the enterprise level, we must strive to build a large number of large and advantageous enterprises with international competitiveness, support and maintain the development of small, medium and micro enterprises, and provide support for stability and expansion of employment; At the level of workers, we must continue to encourage entrepreneurship, innovation and creation, guide workers to strive to improve their quality and ability, and form a good atmosphere in the whole society that respects labor, knowledge, talents, and creation.

  Common prosperity is not a slogan. It must be achieved through the joint efforts of all the people.

A happy life is achieved through struggle, and common prosperity depends on hard work and wisdom.

We must insist on ensuring and improving people's livelihood in the process of development, strive to create a social environment with equal opportunities, create more inclusive and fair conditions for the people to improve their education level and enhance their development capabilities, improve the human capital and professional skills of the whole society, and improve their employment and entrepreneurship capabilities. Enhance the ability to get rich.

Liu Shangxi, president of the Chinese Academy of Fiscal Sciences, believes that a sufficient condition for common prosperity is to ensure that all people have access to fair opportunities and basic capabilities.

"If the income gap is only narrowed in terms of distribution results, and even the wealth gap is narrowed, but the ability gap is not narrowed, the gap will reappear when entering the next economic cycle. Therefore, the change and improvement of ability are The most important thing. In this sense, to achieve common prosperity is to realize the common development of people and the common improvement of people's abilities; Instead, it will continue to expand.”

  High-quality development requires high-quality workers. Only by promoting common prosperity, increasing the income of urban and rural residents, and improving human capital can we increase total factor productivity, consolidate the driving force for high-quality development, and further strengthen the precondition for common prosperity.

When common prosperity and people's all-round development promote each other, everyone can become talented and everyone can develop, which is a vivid portrayal of the superiority of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics.

"Separate the cake" at a higher level

  Common prosperity mainly includes two dimensions, namely "abundance" and "fairness". Prosperity depends on development, and common prosperity depends on fairness.

An ideal state of course is to divide the cake while making it bigger, so as to make the cake bigger and better. However, the development practice of various countries shows that making the cake bigger and dividing the cake is not a natural unity. If there is no active regulation by the government , the income gap cannot automatically narrow.

  The widening income gap will undoubtedly aggravate the contradiction between production and consumption, destroy social reproduction, and then transform a large amount of industrial capital into virtual capital and financial capital. The social security system is used to ensure the living standard of low-income people.

However, Piketty proves with solid data in "Capital in the 21st Century" that inequality in Western countries such as the United States has reached or exceeded the highest level in history, unchecked capitalism has exacerbated wealth inequality, and will continue to deteriorate.

As of the end of March 2020, the richest 10 percent of Americans owned more than two-thirds of the country's wealth, and the top 1 percent owned 31 percent, according to Federal Reserve data.

The storm of the new crown pneumonia epidemic has even more clearly washed the gap between the rich and the poor in American society. Marked by the "unprecedented impact" on the US Congress, the political polarization and political division in the United States are extremely serious. "Darkest Hour" in Political History.

  Li Shi, a professor at Zhejiang University, believes that these problems in wealth distribution in developed countries should be taken as a warning.

The rapid economic growth in the past 40 years has enabled many low- and middle-income groups to share the fruits of economic development and maintain social stability. Whether it can benefit from economic development is a question mark; if the income gap and distribution problems cannot be effectively solved for a long time, it is also a question mark whether social stability can still be maintained.

“In order to eliminate these variables, we must speed up the reform of the income distribution system. In the field of primary distribution, the focus is on solving the problem of unbalanced distribution of benefits caused by imperfect and distorted markets. In the field of redistribution, the focus is on strengthening the adjustment mechanism of income distribution through taxation. , improve the social security system, narrow the differences in social security systems, and increase transfer payments to low-income groups and relatively poor people."

  The distribution structure of income and wealth is directly related to the realization of common prosperity and social fairness and justice, which in turn has a negative effect on social production and efficiency.

In recent years, our party has not only put forward that common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism from the perspective of strategic goals, but also put forward the main measures to gradually realize common prosperity in the field of distribution, emphasizing "improving the wage system, improving the mechanism of reasonable wage growth, and focusing on improving low-income countries. Increase the income of income groups and expand the middle-income group. Improve the policy system for distribution according to factors, improve the mechanism for various production factors to be determined by the market, and explore the use of land, capital and other factors. Increase the property income of urban and rural residents. Improve the redistribution mechanism, increase the intensity and accuracy of adjustment of taxation, social security, transfer payment, etc., reasonably adjust excessive income, and ban illegal income. Give play to the role of the third distribution, develop philanthropy, and improve income and the pattern of wealth distribution”.

As the "Second Centenary" begins, these major deployments highlight the strategic significance and strategic importance of promoting common prosperity in the new stage of development.

  In the new era, China, in the face of changes unseen in a century, the risks and challenges of the middle-income trap, and the era proposition of building a community with a shared future for mankind, is taking precautions, changing its development philosophy, and accelerating the establishment of a more equitable income distribution system.

  First, in the primary distribution dominated by the market mechanism, based on the principle of "efficiency", the distribution is reasonably and legally distributed according to the contribution of factors.

This contribution includes various factors that are beneficial to the creation of profits. It is necessary to give full play to the advantages of distribution according to work and fully increase the proportion of labor remuneration in the primary distribution, and to play the role of the market to improve labor, capital, land, knowledge and technology. Production factors such as management, data and other production factors are evaluated by the market, and the remuneration is determined according to the contribution, thereby stimulating and guiding the innovation and entrepreneurship creation boom in the whole society, stimulating the enthusiasm of the owners of different production factors to pursue high-efficiency investment, and encouraging more people to compete through the market. Create more wealth, embark on the road to prosperity, and improve the efficiency of the entire economy.

  Second, in the redistribution led by the government to play the regulating function, the principle of "fairness" is to promote the equalization of basic public services, promote balanced development, and maintain social stability.

Aiming at the income gap caused by different endowments of individuals and differences in the possession of production factors in the initial distribution, the redistribution should give full play to the adjustment function of the government. Part of the income of industries or institutions is then converted into social income, and the low-income class is the main beneficiary of income redistribution, thereby limiting the excessive disparity of income among various types of people in the society and realizing a relatively fair income distribution.

  Third, in the three distributions mainly in the form of public welfare and charity, based on the principle of "voluntary", we will strive to make charitable donations play their due positive role, and encourage high-income groups to give back more to the society.

Chinese culture contains a profound philanthropic tradition. Giving charitable aid and helping one side in difficulty and all sides supporting each other are the cultural genes of the Chinese nation.

The tertiary distribution is a voluntary and conscious behavior of social forces under the influence of morality, culture, and habits. The distribution of social resources and social wealth by means of charitable public welfare such as collection, donation, and funding is a useful supplement to the initial distribution and redistribution.

At different stages of social development, the proportion of the three distributions will change, but its "supplementary" attribute will remain largely unchanged. Those who expect to "rapidly achieve common prosperity" through the three distributions, Obviously, the role of the three allocations is too magnified, which is untenable.

The tenth meeting of the Central Financial and Economic Commission emphasized the role of three distributions, "encouraging high-income groups and enterprises to give back more to the society", not forcing high-income people to "equalize the rich and the poor", but to emphasize common prosperity in the whole society. The values ​​of awareness and social justice inspire people to voluntarily donate to give back to the society and promote the common prosperity of all people.

  Common prosperity is a "protracted war", not a "surprise war". It must be based on national conditions and reality, and move forward step by step and step by step.

On this journey, we must realize the coordination of government, market and society, that is, let the market mechanism play a decisive role in the initial distribution, let the government fulfill its due responsibilities in the process of redistribution, and mobilize social forces to fulfill their respective responsibilities in the third distribution.

The basic system of primary distribution, redistribution, and coordination of three distributions is the embodiment and practice of the Chinese characteristics of getting rich first and getting rich later, and will definitely play a role in promoting national development and improving people's well-being.

The surging power is "expanding"

Correctly Understanding and Grasping the Strategic Objectives and Practical Ways of Realizing Common Prosperity (Middle)

  Under the new development stage and complex situation, what is the path to achieve common prosperity?

Starting from my country's current reality, in addition to continuing to expand the "cake" of social wealth and improving the basic system of three distributions, an important starting point should be to accelerate the formation of a larger and higher-quality middle-income group.

  The rich people in the country care about the rich people.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has repeatedly emphasized that "expanding the size of the middle-income group should be an important policy goal", which contains the surging power to promote the common prosperity of all people and is closely related to everyone.

Looking back at the beginning of reform and opening up, encouraging some people to get rich first, mobilized the enthusiasm of hundreds of millions of people for production, and countless people showed their wisdom and skills, changed their own destiny, and changed the destiny of the times, and promoted an ancient agricultural country to become a productive country. The country with the longest history of extremely dynamic business and rapid economic growth.

Walking on the road of Chinese-style modernization, in another historical stage of "rich first and then rich", let the vitality of all labor, knowledge, technology, management and capital burst out, and let all the sources of social wealth flow fully, from the people. This valuable historical experience will also illuminate the future journey of all people towards common prosperity.

The effect of "expanding China" is a concrete manifestation of the substantive progress of common prosperity

  The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made a "two-stage" strategic arrangement for the second centenary goal: in the first stage, "people's life will be more affluent, the proportion of middle-income groups will be significantly increased, and the urban-rural development gap and the gap in residents' living standards will be significantly narrowed. , the equalization of basic public services has been basically achieved, and solid progress has been made in the common prosperity of all the people.” In the second stage, the common prosperity of all the people has been basically realized.

The Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China further proposed that during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, "focus on increasing the income of low-income groups and expand the middle-income group", and by 2035 "the middle-income group will significantly expand".

It can be said that the continuous expansion of the middle-income group is a concrete manifestation of solidly promoting common prosperity to achieve more obvious and substantive progress.

  So, if the middle-income group is portrayed, what are the characteristics of this group?

Experts believe that, generally speaking, the middle-income group refers to the group in the economy with a middle-level income and a relatively well-off life. Their income level and consumption level are relatively stable, and most of them have higher human skills and higher education levels. , engaged in relatively professional work.

  Wang Yiming, vice chairman of the China Center for International Economic Exchanges, pointed out that from the perspective of urban and rural areas, the urban household population accounts for about 3/4 of the middle-income group in my country, and the rural residents and agricultural transfer population account for about 1/4.

From a regional perspective, the regional distribution of the middle-income group is roughly consistent with the level of economic development. About 60% of the middle-income group is located in the eastern region, while only 40% in the central and western regions.

According to Zhang Zhanbin, Dean of the School of Marxism at the Central Party School (National School of Administration), the middle-income group is no longer a concept that can be accurately defined, explained and described based on a single indicator of "income", but a concept that includes income level, quality of life, The concept of comprehensive indicators of occupation, national quality, income distribution system and social structural characteristics.

  Data from the National Bureau of Statistics shows that in the past 20 years, the size of my country's middle-income group has increased by more than 54 times, and now there are more than 400 million people and about 140 million families.

In terms of scale, my country undoubtedly has the largest and most growing middle-income group in the world; but in terms of proportion, based on the base of 1.4 billion people, the middle-income population accounts for less than 30%, which is significantly lower than that of developed countries by 50%. % to 75%, there is still a big gap from the olive-shaped distribution structure.

  From a pyramid-shaped distribution structure with a large scale of low-income groups and a small proportion of middle and high-income groups to a flat distribution structure with common prosperity, it is inevitable to experience an olive-shaped distribution structure in which the scale and proportion of middle-income groups continue to expand.

Historically, from the 1920s to the mid-1960s, developed countries in Europe and the United States successively entered a mass consumption society dominated by the middle-income class, which not only changed the long-term situation of overproduction and underconsumption, but also greatly promoted scientific and technological progress, driving wealth growth.

Japan and the "Asian Tigers" have cultivated a large middle-income group with measures such as the "National Income Multiplication Plan", the plan to support small and medium-sized enterprises, and the improvement of social security. The production and sales of high-end durable consumer goods have expanded rapidly, forming a strong The huge pulling effect of economy and industrialization has achieved economic take-off through the close combination of expanding exports and expanding domestic demand.

  The expansion of the middle-income group means the continuous optimization of the social wealth distribution pattern and the continuous improvement of social justice.

Countries that have also experienced economic take-off, whether their growth dividends are enjoyed by a small number of people or benefit the public, different countries have chosen different paths.

Only those countries that have achieved the expansion of the middle-income group and the narrowing of the income gap over a long period of time will be able to overcome the middle-income trap and achieve sustainable economic growth and social prosperity.

The experience and lessons are worthy of our study and reference.

  The expansion of the middle-income group means that the consumption momentum is more surging.

The marginal propensity to consume of the middle-income group is relatively high, which will have a significant stimulating effect on consumption growth.

From the actual situation, the growing middle-income group can expand residents' consumption, and promote technological innovation and industrial upgrading through consumption upgrading, forming a virtuous circle of income increase-consumption upgrading-industry optimization-economic growth-people's livelihood improvement. The development pattern, giving full play to the advantages of my country's super-large economy, and promoting the quality of life of urban and rural residents into a new realm all have a strong supporting role.

  The expansion of the middle-income group means that the "stabilizer" of the social structure and the "buffer layer" of social contradictions are more substantial and stable.

Those who have perseverance have perseverance.

In the olive-shaped social structure, the middle-income group with relatively stable occupation, income, consumption capacity and production capacity has the enthusiasm to consciously maintain social stability, and can often actively alleviate many contradictions and confrontations in the social field. The whole society establishes a good image and exemplary role of hard work and hard work, and maintains long-term economic and social stability in various aspects.

Accurately "expanding the middle-income group", allowing more low-income people to enter the ranks of the middle-income group

  At present, expanding the middle-income group is both a must and a solid foundation.

Based on a solid foundation of comprehensive national strength, the "14th Five-Year Plan" period is a critical period for my country to become a high-income country. Many experts and scholars have suggested that the middle-income group should be doubled.

Liu Shijin, deputy director of the Economic Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and former deputy director of the Development Research Center of the State Council, proposed to use 10 to 15 years, that is, by 2030 to 2035, to promote the middle-income group to reach 800 million to 900 million people, accounting for 800 million to 900 million people. about 60% of the total population.

Wang Yiming judged from various conditions that by 2035, my country will achieve a doubling of the middle-income group, and it is achievable to expand the size of the middle-income group from the current 400 million to 800 million.

  Some areas are exploring the way first.

For example, as a demonstration area for high-quality development and construction of common prosperity in my country, Zhejiang Province proposed in its "expansion" and "lowering" action plan that by 2025, the proportion of households in Zhejiang with an annual disposable income of 100,000 to 500,000 yuan should be Reach 80%, and the proportion of the 200,000-600,000 yuan group should reach 45%.

Some provinces have also clearly put forward the goal of doubling the middle-income group. For example, Anhui Province proposed to "adhere to the goal of common prosperity and promote the project of doubling the middle-income group". Income Group Multiplication Action Plan".

So, who are the most likely potential middle-income groups?

  Li Shi, a professor at Zhejiang University, believes that the low-income population is huge, and a considerable number of them have an income that is not much different from the lower limit for defining middle-income, and some of them are relatively poor.

"Therefore, we should identify those low-income groups with the greatest potential to become middle-income earners, and adopt more targeted support policies for this group." We have seen that the "14th Five-Year Plan" and the 2035 Vision Outline It is proposed to "continuously increase the proportion of middle-income groups with a focus on graduates from colleges and vocational colleges, skilled workers, and migrant workers."

The "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Supporting Zhejiang's High-Quality Development and Construction of a Common Prosperity Demonstration Zone" proposes to "implement the action plan to expand the middle-income group, and stimulate the vitality of key groups such as skilled talents, scientific researchers, small and micro entrepreneurs, and high-quality farmers."

Some local plans can also be used as a reference.

For example, Guangdong Province proposed in its "Government Work Report" this year, "to promote more college graduates, skilled workers, small and medium-sized business owners and individual industrial and commercial households, migrant workers in cities, and grass-roots front-line personnel to enter the middle-income group."

  Experts generally believe that migrant workers are the key groups that need to be paid attention to in the future expansion of middle-income groups.

Yang Weimin, member of the Standing Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and deputy director of the Economic Committee, believes that the agricultural transfer population who has been employed for a long time in cities is the largest and closest to the middle-income group.

According to the "2020 Migrant Workers Monitoring and Investigation Report", the total number of migrant workers in my country is 286 million. If these people can be turned into middle-income groups, it will be of great significance.

  There is consensus, foundation, and goals. The key is to grasp the key points and implement precise policies to promote more low-income people to enter the ranks of middle-income groups.

First, keep economic growth within a reasonable range, and strive to promote resident income growth and economic growth in sync.

  Productivity is highly developed, social wealth is prosperous, and the macroeconomic environment continues to be stable, and the size of the middle-income group can continue to expand.

Especially in the face of the unprecedented changes in the world in a century and the impact of the epidemic of the century, we must continue to strengthen the economic foundation and concentrate on running our own affairs. The most important thing at present is to stabilize the macroeconomic market.

  In the recent period, the central government has intensively issued various policies and guidelines for stabilizing the economy, clearly requiring all regions and departments to take responsibility and speed up their implementation.

In the work of "six stability" and "six guarantees", the first "stability" is to stabilize employment, the first "guarantee" is to ensure the employment of residents, and stable growth is mainly to stabilize employment.

my country is a large country with a population of more than 1.4 billion, with a labor force of nearly 900 million, more than the total working-age population of all developed countries in the world. If we stabilize the economy, achieve relatively full employment, and steadily increase the income of residents, we can create wealth, increase income, and improve. People's livelihood and economic growth also have solid support.

The key to stabilizing employment is stabilizing market players. my country's small, medium and micro enterprises and individual industrial and commercial households are large in number and wide in scope, and are the micro-foundation of the economy. Recently, production and operation have encountered many difficulties.

In this regard, the finance, financial and other departments and governments at all levels should strengthen the measures to reduce the burden and help these market entities to tide over the difficulties and consolidate the foundation for the stable operation of the economy.

Second, expand human capital investment so that more ordinary workers can enter the middle-income group through their own efforts.

  Improving human capital conditions plays a vital role in improving total factor productivity, increasing income, expanding the size of the middle-income group, and achieving common prosperity, and is also more conducive to the all-round development of human beings.

Liu Shangxi, president of the Chinese Academy of Fiscal Sciences, believes that "common" means fairness and everyone has a share; "prosperity" refers to economic efficiency, and without efficiency, there is no wealth at all.

"What can combine the two is human ability. If you only have the ability to do simple work, it can only be low efficiency and low income; if you have the ability to do creative work, such as the ability to create inventions, you will naturally Bring high efficiency and high income. If the ability of social members is generally improved, the collective ability gap is eliminated, everyone has the opportunity to move upward, and social equity and efficiency will naturally merge.”

  If education is prosperous, the country will be prosperous, and if education is strong, the country will be strong.

General Secretary Xi Jinping proposed that it is necessary to "create more inclusive and fair conditions for the people to improve their education levels and enhance their development capabilities, smooth the channels for upward mobility, create opportunities for more people to get rich, and form a development environment in which everyone participates." In the spirit of the instruction, it is necessary to deepen education reform, promote education fairness, and improve the quality of higher education.

Vocational skills training and improving the treatment of skilled workers are important channels for industrial workers to enter the middle-income group. It is necessary to enhance the adaptability of vocational education, accelerate the construction of a modern vocational education system, and cultivate more high-quality technical and skilled talents and skilled craftsmen.

Third, promote a new type of urbanization with people as the core, and smooth the upward flow channels.

  The agricultural transfer population has stabilized employment and settlement in cities, which will help expand the middle-income group.

By 2021, the urbanization rate of the permanent resident population in my country will reach 64.72%, and the urbanization rate of the registered population will increase to 46.7%.

This is the first time that the gap between the two urbanization rates has narrowed since the 13th Five-Year Plan, but there is still a large gap between the two.

  At present, urbanization has entered the "second half", but there are still some basic public services that have not yet fully covered the resident population transferred to the city.

Recently, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the "14th Five-Year Plan for New Urbanization Implementation Plan", which clearly relaxes the restrictions on settlement except for individual megacities. The next step is to increase efforts to eliminate the shortcomings of the system and mechanism, and to speed up the equalization of basic public services. , to build a rational, just, smooth and orderly social mobility pattern to prevent the solidification of social classes.

Fourth, improve the mechanism for reasonable wage growth, and increase the property income of urban and rural residents through multiple channels.

  How can people's pockets be fuller?

On the one hand, it is necessary to increase the proportion of labor remuneration in the primary distribution, and improve the mechanism for reasonable wage growth.

On the other hand, it is necessary to actively expand the property income channels of urban and rural residents, and explore to increase the factor income of low- and middle-income groups through the use rights and income rights of land, capital and other factors.

Encourage enterprises to carry out employee stock ownership plans, innovate more financial products that meet the needs of family wealth management, improve the dividend distribution system for listed companies, and create a more open and transparent investment market environment.

Accelerate the introduction of rural collective construction land into the market and the transfer of homesteads to increase the property income of farmers; promote the revitalization of rural industries based on local characteristic resources, and improve the mechanism for linking interests, so that farmers can share more of the value-added benefits of the industry.

In addition, it is necessary to appropriately increase the salaries of civil servants, especially grass-roots front-line civil servants and grass-roots employees of state-owned enterprises and institutions; protect property rights and intellectual property rights, protect legal enrichment, and enhance the people's sense of property security.

  需要强调的是,扩大中等收入群体,既要扩大增量,也要稳住存量,稳定现有中等收入群体规模,不能“你挤上来我就掉下去”。对中小企业主和个体工商户而言,他们是创业致富的重要群体,但其收入水平易受经济波动和外部冲击的影响,要持续改善营商环境,减轻税费负担,优化金融服务,帮助他们稳定经营、持续增收,尽可能避免其因风险冲击滑出中等收入群体行列。对老龄人口而言,退休后收入降低,养老、医疗支出增加,有可能从中等收入群体滑入低收入群体,而家庭养老压力也将影响处于劳动年龄的中等收入群体。这就需要更加公平、更可持续的社会保障制度,完善城镇职工基本养老、城乡居民基本养老、城镇基本医疗、失业、工伤、生育等保险制度,健全社会救助体系,提高社会福利水平。

聚焦“扩中”,增强改革系统性、整体性、协同性

  共同富裕是一个长远目标,不可能一蹴而就,也不可能齐头并进,对其长期性、艰巨性、复杂性要有充分估计,办好这件事,等不得,也急不得。需要明确的是,“调高、扩中、提低”不是劫富济贫,把高收入者拉回到中等收入者的行列;也要坚决防止落入“福利主义”养懒汉的陷阱。推动更多低收入人群迈入中等收入行列,要借鉴国际经验教训并结合我国实际,厘清并处理好几组关系,增强改革的系统性、整体性、协同性。

一是劳动者收入提高与企业用工成本增加的关系。

  “十四五”时期,我国将在加快培养大批高素质劳动者和技术技能人才的同时,推动提高技能人才的待遇,促进2亿技能劳动者成为中等收入群体。但对企业而言,技能型劳动者收入增加,会加大企业用工成本;如果企业发展不好,职工收入增加也成无源之水。消除这种“跷跷板”效应,要通过多重手段,构建和谐劳动关系,做到兼顾劳动收入和企业生产、兼顾就业质量和产业升级、兼顾薪酬市场决定和基本收入保障。

二是灵活就业群体扩大与劳动者权益保障的关系。

  扩大中等收入群体,不仅要关注其收入提升,而且要强化劳动者权益保障。当前我国灵活就业人员已达2亿多人,既具有灵活性、短期性、流动性和非契约性等特点,也有从业者普遍感到“收入不稳定”“保障不稳定”“不能形成长期规划”和“社会认同较低”等问题,需要完善法律法规及各项配套政策,切实维护新就业形态劳动者劳动保障权益,增强其收入和保障的稳定性。

三是技术进步与收入差距扩大的关系。

  新一轮科技革命和产业变革有力推动了经济发展,增加了劳动力市场上对高技能人群的相对需求,可能进一步加剧工资收入的不平等。受过良好教育、适应新技术的劳动者收入增速明显上升,而未受过高等教育、从事易被新技术取代的行业的劳动者则更容易失业或陷入收入增速停滞。这种劳动力市场摩擦,不能任由市场的力量优胜劣汰,要处理好公平与效率、市场与政府的关系,通过教育、培训、转移支付等手段,努力推动居民收入增长和经济增长同步、劳动报酬提高和劳动生产率提高同步。

四是物质丰裕与精神富足的关系。

  中等收入群体固然是以收入为标准划分,却并非以收入为唯一标准。促进共同富裕与促进人的全面发展是高度统一的。习近平总书记指出,“我们说的共同富裕是全体人民共同富裕,是人民群众物质生活和精神生活都富裕”。要强化社会主义核心价值观引领,加强爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义教育,发展公共文化事业,完善公共文化服务体系,不断满足人民群众多样化、多层次、多方面的精神文化需求。

  我们离“橄榄型”社会还有多远?答案是蓝图已然绘就——到2035年,全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展,基本公共服务实现均等化;到本世纪中叶,全体人民共同富裕基本实现,居民收入和实际消费水平差距缩小到合理区间。

  路虽远,行则将至;事虽难,做则必成。从根本上看,我们有中国共产党的坚强领导,有中国特色社会主义制度的显著优势,有持续快速发展积累的坚实基础,有长期稳定的社会环境,有自信自强的精神力量。始终坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,一件事情接着一件事情办,一年接着一年干,就一定能推动更多人进入中等收入群体,朝着共同富裕目标扎实迈进。

最艰巨任务在农村

正确认识和把握实现共同富裕的战略目标和实践途径(下)

  几亿农民同步迈向全面现代化,能够释放出巨量的消费和投资需求。当前,我国已全面建成小康社会,历史性解决了绝对贫困问题,这是世界经济发展史上的壮举。接下来,如何在此基础上继续缩小城乡差距,逐步实现惠及亿万农民的共同富裕,这是一个最艰巨、最繁重的任务。

农民增收是推动城乡共同富裕的关键

  党的十八大以来,党中央坚持把解决好“三农”问题作为全党工作重中之重,针对发展不平衡不协调、城乡差距较大、农村基础设施建设滞后、农民收入较低等问题,统筹推进工农城乡协调发展,出台了一系列强农惠农政策和超常规措施。习近平总书记站在“民族要复兴,乡村必振兴”的历史高度,作出了乡村振兴战略决策,按照产业兴旺、生态宜居、乡风文明、治理有效、生活富裕的总目标,扎实推进产业振兴、人才振兴、文化振兴、生态振兴、组织振兴,实现了农业连年丰收、农民收入持续提高、农村社会和谐稳定。

  从贫困到实现全面小康、再到走向共同富裕,三个历史阶段铺展出一幅乡村振兴、宜居富民的壮美画卷。来自国家统计部门的数字显示,2011年至2020年农村居民人均可支配收入年均名义增长10.6%,年均增速快于城镇居民1.8个百分点;城乡居民相对收入差距持续缩小,收入比从2010年的2.99下降到2020年的2.56。2021年农村居民人均可支配收入达到1.89万元,实际增长9.7%,高于城镇居民收入增速2.6个百分点。

  不仅如此,农业转移人口市民化加快推进。2021年末常住人口城镇化率达到64.7%,户籍人口城镇化率达到46.7%。各地坚持存量优先原则,合理确定落户条件,协同推进户籍制度改革,常住人口享有更多更好的城镇基本公共服务,新增义务教育阶段公办学校学位500多万个,农民工参加城镇职工基本医疗保险和基本养老保险的比例有所提高。11个国家城乡融合发展试验区加快落实实施方案,城乡基础设施一体化步伐加快,城乡基本公共服务均等化水平稳步提高,工农互促、城乡互补、协调发展、共同繁荣的新型工农城乡关系正在形成。所有这些发展和进步,都为进一步缩小城乡差距、实现全体人民共同富裕打下了坚实基础。

  但也要看到,眼下我国最大的发展不平衡,仍然是城乡发展不平衡;最大的发展不充分,仍然是“三农”发展不充分。国务院发展研究中心农村经济研究部部长叶兴庆认为,当前城乡之间、农村不同群体之间、不同地区农村之间依然存在明显的以收入水平为核心的发展差距。国家统计局数据显示,城乡居民人均可支配收入的倍差尽管连续13年下降,但在2020年仍达2.56,这意味着至少需要农村居民人均可支配收入增长速度高于城镇居民的2.56倍,才能缩小二者绝对差距;从农村不同群体看,收入差距的绝对值持续扩大,从2000年的4388元扩大到2020年的33839元,两者倍差为8.23,明显高于城镇居民的6.16;从不同地区看,以浙江和甘肃两省农村比较为例,绝对差距也在持续扩大,从2013年的11905元扩大到2020年的21586元,而相对差距有所减小,但也保持在高位。

  总体来看,城乡差距依然较大是通向共同富裕道路上的一大障碍。这不仅体现在收入和生产生活水平上,而且教育、医疗、社保和公共服务等方面都存在着不小差距。

  还要联系地看,扩大内需是当前必须牢牢扭住的战略基点,其中,通过促进全体人民共同富裕,推动居民收入水平提高和收入差距的合理化,可以为扩大内需提供强劲支撑和深厚底蕴;而通过提高欠发达地区、中低收入群体特别是脱贫地区、农村中低收入群体的收入水平,不仅可以填充甚至扩大高收入群体消费结构升级留下的市场空间,更有利于形成我国消费结构升级、产业市场扩张的“雁阵模式”,弥补城乡消费断层,延长我国产业发展生命周期,进而促进国内产业循环、市场循环、经济社会循环和国际大循环畅通无阻。

  农民增收是扩大消费的前提,也是“三农”工作的核心任务。正如习近平总书记所指出的:“农业农村工作,说一千、道一万,增加农民收入是关键。要加快构建促进农民持续较快增收的长效政策机制,让广大农民都尽快富裕起来。”

拓宽农民增收视野

  检验农村工作成效的一个重要尺度,就是看农民的钱袋子鼓起来没有。今年上半年,在各地区各部门努力下,农民收入实际增长4.2%,快于城镇居民2.3个百分点。但从目前情况看,这方面还面临一些现实挑战,比如因疫情散发,农民外出务工就业压力加大,部分地区农产品产销不畅,农资价格持续上涨,推高农业生产成本等。

  对于当前我国农民增收面临的主要困难和问题,中国宏观经济研究院研究员姜长云认为,一是农产品价格增长乏力或呈现较大波动,但成本却总体上呈现出较快增长态势;二是粮食主产区特别是西北、东北地区,农民增收困难问题依然突出,以农为主和低收入农户的增收问题也不可大意;三是经济下行压力加大,影响农民就业增收机会的开拓和收入水平的提高;四是农产品市场调控对于价格波动的容忍空间过小,容易因“急刹车猛给油”加剧农民收入波动风险;五是新冠肺炎疫情对农民增收的制约作用较为显著,后续影响仍有很大程度的不确定性。

  困难不小,问题不少,但同时也要看到,解决问题、克服困难的动力也很强劲。习近平总书记强调,“要充分尊重广大农民意愿,调动广大农民积极性、主动性、创造性,把广大农民对美好生活的向往化为推动乡村振兴的动力,把维护广大农民根本利益、促进广大农民共同富裕作为出发点和落脚点”。以此为遵循,近年来,聚焦乡村振兴战略发力,政策体系不断完善,有国家战略规划引领,有党内法规保障,有重要战略、重大行动和重大工程支撑,也有全方位的制度性供给,每一年的“一号文件”都是干货满满的指导“三农”工作的纲领性文件。

  希望洒满金色田野。粮食产量连续7年稳定在1.3万亿斤以上,意味着粮食生产能力的稳定提升。同时,种植、畜牧、渔业结构不断优化。各地积极培育农村新产业新业态新模式,休闲农业和乡村旅游、农村电商持续快速发展,让越来越多的基层群众搭上了“数字快车”,也为乡村带来了越来越多的致富新理念新方式。

  广阔土地大有可为。乡村振兴战略实施以来,我国一方面培育乡土人才,在全国建立新型职业农民制度;另一方面大力引进外来人才,大学生、复员军人、企业家、科技人员、农民工等各界人士返乡、下乡创业,投身农村新产业、发展新业态。这些拥有能力经验和知识储备的返乡入乡人才,不少都将成为一方致富带头人。

  务农收入、工资性收入、经营性收入、财产性收入和转移性收入,为农民收入增长提供了多元化支撑,农民的获得感、幸福感、安全感持续增强。而农民致富来源、收入结构的重大变化,使得农民增收问题已由“三农”问题,转化为国民经济和社会发展问题。由此,研究分析农民增收问题,也要跳出就农业谈农业、就农村谈农村、就农民谈农民的局限,从城乡统筹、城乡融合、促进城乡良性循环的角度,在促进农民增收上扩视野、上格局,通过发展产业、稳岗就业、推进创业、投资兴业,系统谋划促进农民增收的政策举措,千方百计保持农民增收好势头。

畅通农民增收渠道

  随着工业化、城镇化的深入推进,我国城市人口比重还将有所提高、农业占国内生产总值的份额将会进一步下降,但农业的基础地位不会改变,大量农民生活在农村的国情不会改变。“促进共同富裕,最艰巨最繁重的任务仍然在农村”,落实到具体工作部署,习近平总书记指出,“农村共同富裕工作要抓紧,但不宜像脱贫攻坚那样提出统一的量化指标。要巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果,对易返贫致贫人口要加强监测、及早干预,对脱贫县要扶上马送一程,确保不发生规模性返贫和新的致贫”。

  按照这一要求,我们务必持之以恒地高度重视“三农”工作,把推动农民增收作为一项重要工作来抓,强化以工补农、以城带乡,推动形成工农互促、城乡互补、协调发展、共同繁荣的新型工农城乡关系;强化强农惠农富农政策,加快补齐农村公共服务、基础设施和信息流通等方面的短板,让亿万农民过上更加幸福美好的新生活。

——加快发展乡村产业,拓宽农民增收致富渠道。

  习近平总书记反复强调,产业兴旺是解决农村一切问题的前提。乡村“五大振兴”中,第一个就是产业振兴。和过去不一样,现在发展乡村产业需要通过打造全产业链,拓展产业的增值增效空间。要在做优做强种养业的基础上,积极拓展农业的多种功能,挖掘乡村多元价值,重点发展农产品加工、乡村休闲旅游、农村电商等三大乡村产业;打造农业的全产业链,推动产业向后端延伸,向下游拓展,由卖“原”字号向卖品牌产品转变,推动产品增值、产业增效;促进农业与休闲、旅游、康养、生态、文化、养老等产业深度融合,丰富乡村产业的类型,提升乡村经济价值。要大力发展县域范围内比较优势明显、带动农业农村能力强、就业容量大的富民产业,科学布局生产、加工、销售、消费等环节,宜县则县、宜乡则乡、宜村则村,形成县城、乡镇、中心村分工合理的产业空间布局,引导农产品加工业更多向县域、主产区转移,支持大中城市疏解产业向县域延伸、劳动密集型产业梯度转移,打造城乡联动的优势特色产业集群,打造一批乡村产业强镇、强村、强企,着力带动农民就地就近就业增收。要引导人才和技术、工商资本与农民在产业链上优势互补,推行保底分红、股份合作、利润返还等方式,让农民更多分享产业增值收益。

——发挥农村集体经济组织作用,助推乡村振兴、共同富裕。

  习近平总书记指出:“壮大农村集体经济,是引领农民实现共同富裕的重要途径。”发展集体经济是实现共同富裕的重要保证,是振兴贫困地区农业发展的必由之路,是促进农村商品经济发展的推动力。集体经济之所以能为农民提供保障,在于参与的农民享有集体土地的承包经营权、享有向本集体申请使用宅基地的权利、享有参与分配集体经营性收入的权利、享有参与乡村自治的权利。据农业农村部2021年数据,全国已建立乡村组三级集体经济组织近90万个,清查核实集体账面资产7.7万亿元,其中经营性资产3.5万亿元。2020年8月,全国深化农村集体产权制度改革工作会议指出,5年中的5批农村集体产权制度改革试点取得显著成效,集体成员累计分红超过3800亿元。不断壮大村级集体经济,要在搞好统一经营服务上、在盘活用好集体资源资产上、在发展多种形式的股份合作上多想办法,走更高质量、更有效益、更加公平、更可持续且符合社会主义市场经济要求的农村新型集体化、集约化发展道路,更好引领实现农村农民共同富裕。

——大力推进乡村建设,更好满足农民生产生活需要。

  今后一个时期,是我国乡村形态快速演变的阶段。建设什么样的乡村、怎样建设乡村,是摆在我们面前的一个重要课题。扩内需、稳投资、搞建设,农村的欠账还很多,投资空间很大。这几年,农村基础设施有了明显改善,但往村覆盖、往户延伸还存在明显薄弱环节。要继续把公共基础设施建设的重点放在农村,短板要加快补上,加强农村道路、电力、供水等基础设施建设,特别是加快网络、新能源和冷链物流等新型基础设施建设,进一步改善农村生产生活条件;要在推进城乡基本公共服务均等化上持续发力,注重加强普惠性、兜底性、基础性民生建设,如多渠道加快农村普惠性学前教育资源、城乡学校共同体建设,提高农村教育供给水平,深入推进紧密型县域医疗卫生共同体建设,逐步提高农民医疗保障待遇,补上农村养老短板,提升县级和乡村敬老院能力水平;接续推进农村人居环境整治提升行动,重点抓好改厕和污水、垃圾处理,推进农业绿色发展,持续治理农村面源污染,强化农业资源保护利用,增加农业农村生态产品和服务供给,进一步改善农村生态环境。

——不断深化农村改革,增强农业农村发展活力。

  目前全国家庭农场、农民合作社分别达到390万家和220万个,农业社会化服务覆盖面积达到16.7亿亩次、带动小农户超过7800万户,在破解“谁来种地”、促进小农户与现代农业发展有机衔接方面发挥了重要作用。下一步,要采取有效措施提高这种新型农业经营主体实力和质量;加快发展农业社会化服务,通过服务组织将先进适用的品种、技术、装备、设施导入小农户,推动服务领域从产中向产前、产后等环节延伸,实现小农户与现代农业有机衔接。发展多种形式适度规模经营,坚持家庭经营基础性地位,创新农业经营组织方式,推动承包土地经营权规范有序流转。深化农村土地制度改革,积极探索实施农村集体经营性建设用地入市制度,建立公平合理的增值收益分配机制、土地征收公共利益用地认定机制,维护农民集体和被征地农民的权益;稳慎推进农村宅基地制度改革,探索宅基地所有权、资格权、使用权分置实现形式。深化农村集体产权制度改革,以发展特色农业、盘活土地资源为抓手,创新农村集体经济运行机制,增强集体经济发展活力,促进农民农村共同富裕。

  一定要看到,振兴乡村,不能就乡村论乡村,还是要强化以工补农、以城带乡,加快形成工农互促、城乡互补、协调发展、共同繁荣的新型工农城乡关系。当前,我国常住人口城镇化率已经突破60%。今后15年是破除城乡二元结构、健全城乡融合发展体制机制的窗口期。要从规划编制、要素配置等方面提出更加明确的要求,强化统筹谋划和顶层设计,推动城乡融合发展见实效。

  “务农重本,国之大纲。”让农业强、农村美、农民富是农村改革的目标所向,是扎实推动全体人民共同富裕的必然选择;走向共同富裕的战略安排,也为扎实解决好“三农”问题、推动我国由农业大国向农业强国的战略性转变提供了历史性机遇。我们要充分发挥党的领导的政治优势、社会主义的制度优势,以更有力的举措汇聚更强大的力量,在全面推进乡村振兴、加快农业农村现代化、带领农民走向共同富裕的新征程中,不断取得新的更大成就。(调研组成员/本报记者齐东向 曾金华 熊丽 银晟)

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