On this day June 14, 767 AD, the anniversary of the death of Imam Abu Hanifa al-Numan bin Thabet comes after a long life spent in research and teaching, during which he set up a legal judicial system to regulate the conditions of Muslims, and his doctrine became a reference for millions of Muslims.

Abu Hanifa is considered one of the most prominent scholars of Islamic jurisprudence, and the founder of the Hanafi school, one of the most prevalent Islamic schools of thought.

Abu Hanifa al-Nu’man ibn Thabit al-Kufi al-Taymi was born in Kufa in the year 80 AH according to the most correct sayings, and in it he grew up and was working in the silk trade, and he took jurisprudence from its sheikhs and the elders of Mecca, and he is considered one of the followers because he met a group of the companions of the Messenger of God Muhammad (peace be upon him). ) According to the writer and historian Khaled Osi Al-Adhamy.

Al-Azami adds to Al-Jazeera Net that Abu Hanifa obliged Sheikh Hammad bin Abi Suleiman, the chief scholar of Iraq, graduated from him and continued his studies for 18 years, and did not leave his sheikh until he died, and he named his son "Hamad" out of pride in his Sheikh.

And he continues: Abu Hanifa was good-looking, good-looking, good-natured, good-looking, generous, generous, kind-hearted to his brothers, very humble, meek and pious, and he used to perform many pilgrimages and recite the Holy Qur’an. He emigrated from Kufa to Mecca and resided there for several years, and completed his studies. Jurisprudence in it on Ata bin Abi Rabah and his companions, followers of the school of Abdullah bin Abbas in jurisprudence.

Al-Ani: Abu Hanifa used to spend money on sheikhs and students of knowledge (Al-Jazeera)

pious merchant

Abu Hanifa inherited his wealth and his trade in silk from his father, who inherited it from his grandfather, and he was successful in his trade for his honesty, integrity and strength of persuasion, and his trade brought him abundant profit, says researcher Raad Al-Ani.

He adds to Al-Jazeera Net that Abu Hanifa used to spend money on sheikhs and students of knowledge, and he told them, "Spend for your needs, and do not praise anyone but God, because I did not give you anything of my money, but from God's grace on me."

He points out that Abu Hanifa was characterized by honesty, honesty and integrity in his trade, so many compared him to Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may God be pleased with him. .

Al-Ani continues: Abu Hanifa, despite working in commerce, is known for his piety, asceticism, and his dependence on the afterlife. This was evident when he refused to take over the judiciary during the time of the Abbasid Caliph Abu Jaafar al-Mansur, so he ordered his imprisonment.

Dr. Ali: Imam Abu Hanifa was characterized by many qualities that made him an example in trade and dealing (Al-Jazeera)

His scientific position

After the death of his sheikh Hammad, the leadership of the Fiqh Circle passed to Abu Hanifa and the people came to him, and they found abundant knowledge with him, along with good sympathy and patience in what they asked for that they did not find with anyone else, so they adhered to him and took from him, as the history professor Dr. Muhammad Ali says.

He shows to Al-Jazeera Net that Imam Abu Hanifa was characterized by many qualities that made him an example to follow in trade and transaction, as is the peak among scholars, he was rich in soul, great honesty, tolerant, and God protected him from the evil of himself, intense in worship, and perhaps these qualities combined had an impact big in his business dealings.

Abu Hanifa al-Numan Mosque in Baghdad (Al-Jazeera)

He points out that the status of Imam Abu Hanifa increased until he reached the horizons of the world, because he was distinguished by a number of characteristics that distinguished him from other imams, and it was a sign of his distinction among the scholars of his time, including that he was born in the time of a group of companions and met some of them, and he worked hard and issued fatwas in the time of the followers. The great imams narrated from him, and he took from 4 thousand sheikhs from the followers and others.

He was also agreed upon by his companions unless other imams agreed, and he was the first to codify the science of jurisprudence and arrange its chapters, and his jurisprudence spread in regions where there was no other, such as India, Sindh, the Romans and others, and other reasons that came together for Imam Abu Hanifa to have this high rank and honorable position.

Ali quotes some of what was said about him, and praising him, as a statement of his standing with the scholars, including the saying of Imam al-Shafi’i: Malik bin Anas was asked, “Have you seen Abu Hanifa and saw him?”

He said, "Yes, I saw a man who, if he looked at this pole and it was made of stones, and said that it was gold, he would perform his Hajj.

As Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal described him by saying, “Abu Hanifa is of knowledge, piety, asceticism, and preference for the Hereafter in a place that no one realizes.” Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak said about him, “As for the most knowledgeable of people, it is Abu Hanifa.”

Abdul-Wahhab attributes the reasons for the spread of the Hanafi school of thought to the facilitation that dominates it (Iraqi press)

spread of his doctrine

The emergence of sects generally begins when there is a diligent jurist who has students who wrote down his sayings, verified them, discussed them and studied them on their origins. At that point, it reaches the later generations and is called a madhhab, i.e. jurisprudential opinions imitated by those who do not improve ijtihad. The Great Imam.

Dr. Abdel Aziz explains to Al-Jazeera Net that the students of "Al-Nu'man" loved him and knew his status and knowledge and discussed him, and he was allowing discussion and debate with them, and they might disagree with him and infer it, and he may refer to their saying, so his doctrine is similar to the jurisprudence councils in terms of collective ijtihad.

He points out that among the most prominent students of Abu Hanifa who used to discuss him, learn from him, write down his doctrine and spread it to those after them: Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaibani, Abu Yusuf Al-Qadi, Zafar bin Al-Hadhil, these three are the most famous, then Al-Hassan bin Ziyad, who was not very famous in the books of jurisprudence, but He was also one of the publishers of the doctrine of Abu Hanifa and one of his students.

The doctrine of Abu Hanifa - according to Dr. Abdul Aziz - was distinguished as a realistic doctrine that is easy to apply, suitable in matters of the judiciary and in the affairs of the state, and Abu Yusuf Al-Qadi was the practical model for the jurisprudence of Abu Hanifa, and it is said that this is one of the most important reasons for the spread of Abu Hanifa's doctrine and the large number of its followers.

In turn, Dr. Abd al-Wahhab Ahmed Hassan al-Taha, the imam and preacher of the Imam Abu Hanifa mosque in Baghdad, says that the jurisprudence of Abu Hanifa is distinguished by being unconventional and not instructive. Rather, it is the jurisprudence of dialogue and consultation, and depends on the textual evidence and then analogy, and he and his students assumed events that did not happen, and therefore it is described as Jurisprudence foreseeing the future.

He explains this to Al-Jazeera Net by saying: For example, suppose that if a large bird carried a man and threw him in a far place the distance of shortening the prayer in a blink of an eye, can he shorten the prayer or take the license?

We find that Abu Hanifa and his students assume and anticipate the future and what life's affairs can lead to.

He attributes Dr.

Al-Taha causes the spread of the Hanafi school to the ease and facilitation that prevails, as well as because it is an applied jurisprudence that is served, its foundations were laid by Imam Abu Yusuf, and its branches were written by Imam Muhammad bin Al-Hassan. .

And he continues by saying: When the state of Bani Abbas weakened, the Seljuks came, and after them the Ottomans, they adopted the doctrine of Abu Hanifa and spread it in various places and regions, in India, Pakistan, the countries of the Turks, the Balkans, the Caucasus and other countries that conquered and spread Islam in it until it reached China.

Hamdoun: People crowded at the funeral of Abu Hanifa, where about 50,000 people prayed for him (Al-Jazeera)

his death

And after a life full of scholarly giving to Abu Hanifa al-Nu’man, in which the proximate and far-off testified to the Imamate in jurisprudence, and after him people became dependents on him, he died in prison while he was prostrating, in Rajab 150 AH / 767 AD when he was 70 years old, and was buried in the bamboo cemeteries in Baghdad, according to Dr. Muhammad Taha Hamdoun, head of the House of Jurisprudence and Impact in Iraq.

He tells Al Jazeera Net how people crowded at the funeral of Abu Hanifa, where about 50 thousand prayed for him, which is a large number at his time, and Mansour came and prayed on his grave, and people stayed praying on his grave for more than 20 days.

The tomb of Imam Abu Hanifa in the Adhamiya area of ​​Baghdad (Al-Jazeera)

Dr. Hamdoun notes that the news of his death was a major catastrophe for the burial of jurisprudence and its master on a difficult day, and for the imam of the Iraqi school of science to be absent, after spending his life supporting religion, suppressing heresy, raising the banner of Islam, and preparing the nation for a generation of scholars and reformers.

Al-Dhahabi was quoted as describing the tomb of Abu Hanifa by saying, “It has a great dome and a luxurious scene in Baghdad, and the tomb of the imam of the Hanafi school is still on it and it has a building topped by a dome, and next to it is a mosque in which Friday and congregational prayers are held, and it has a courtyard in which people gather on religious holidays and seasons.”