Russian and U.S. presidents Vladimir Putin and Joe Biden opened the discussion at their meeting in Geneva, but no major breakthroughs were seen on Wednesday.
However, the presidents described in their own press conferences that the spirit of the meeting was constructive and positive.
The countries agreed to start discussions on strategic stability and the future of nuclear arms control.
According to Biden, the leaders had discussed weapons systems in detail.
Both Putin and Biden mentioned that they spoke at the meeting about the Arctic and how to ensure that the North remains an area of cooperation rather than confrontation.
In contrast, the decision mentioned by Putin to return U.S. and Russian ambassadors to their posts in Moscow and Washington was not mentioned at Biden’s press conference.
Biden justified the summit by saying that it was important to meet face to face and get to say why there was disagreement on some issues.
"I believe that there is a real opportunity to significantly improve relations between our countries without us having to give up anything based on our principles and values," Biden said.
According to Biden, it remains to be seen how well the issues dealt with now can proceed in the coming months.
After the meeting, Putin described Biden as an experienced statesman and estimated this to be different from his predecessor, Donald Trump.
During the meeting, the United States and Russia agreed to launch consultations on cyber security.
Prior to the meeting, U.S. allegations of cyber-attacks from Russia have been on the agenda.
However, Putin reversed the situation at a press conference, noting that most of the cyber attacks in the world originated in the United States.
In his own press conference, Biden said Putin knew that the United States has significant capabilities in the cyber world and that the country is ready to respond if Russia acts against basic norms.
"I think the Cold War is the last thing he (Putin) wants now," Biden said.
Biden said he stressed at the meeting that certain critical infrastructures should not be subjected to cyber or other attacks.
At Putin's press conference, he was asked about the imprisonment of opposition politician Alexei Navalny.
According to Putin, "this person knew he was breaking the law in Russia."
In February, Navalnyi was sentenced to two and a half years in prison for old charges of embezzlement, widely regarded as political.
The verdict was handed down shortly after Navalnyi returned to Russia from Germany, where he received treatment for a neurotoxic attack.
Navalnyi accuses the Russian security service FSB of the poisoning attempt.
A Russian court ruled last week that the Navalnyin organizations would be classified as extremist organizations.
The US-Russia talks in Geneva did not initially have high expectations of a breakthrough.
Both presidents had noted that current U.S.-Russia relations were the worst since the Cold War.
Even before the meeting, Putin denied in a TV interview U.S. allegations of cyber-attacks by Russia or interference in the U.S. election.