How much do you know about hand, foot and mouth disease? (Health Through Train (19th Station))
As schools around the country resume one after another, students will also return to the school after ending the "longest holiday in history." However, with the advent of summer and rising temperatures, hand-foot-mouth disease has also entered a high incidence period. What is HFMD? How to prevent it? And listen to what the experts say.
Concern: Hand-foot-mouth disease transmission coefficient is three times that of new coronavirus
Hand, foot and mouth disease is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, mainly spread through the digestive tract or daily contact. The disease mostly occurs in infants and young children under 6 years old, with an incubation period of 2-10 days and a disease course of 7-10 days. It can cause fever and rashes and ulcers in the hands, feet, and mouth. A small number of patients can cause complications such as myocarditis, pulmonary edema, and aseptic meningoencephalitis. Individual patients with severe disease progress quickly and can easily lead to death.
Relevant data show that in 2018, China's statutory infectious disease report, hand, foot and mouth disease ranked first with 2.376 million cases. This data is beyond the expectation of many people. "Now it's time to focus on infectious diseases other than New Coronary Pneumonia." Zeng Guang, a member of the National Health and Health Commission's High-level Expert Group on New Crown Prevention and Control and the Chief Scientist of Epidemiology at the Chinese Center for Disease Control In the first "Federation of Contentment and Perseverance", the essay on prevention and control of hand, foot and mouth disease and the selection of guards for prevention and control held in 2020 stated that some parents were hesitant about vaccination due to the impact of the new coronary pneumonia epidemic and other reasons. However, the summer and autumn seasons It is a critical moment for vaccination.
"If you do n’t get vaccinated for 3 months, the risk of outbreaks will gradually increase. The measles virus transmission coefficient is 12-18, pertussis is 12-17, and the new coronavirus is 1.4-2.5. The hand-foot-mouth disease transmission coefficient is 4.2-6.5, It is three times that of the new coronavirus. "Zeng Guang believes that if the vaccination of hand-foot-mouth disease vaccine is ignored, the number of severe hand-foot-mouth disease cases may be significantly higher than the current level.
R & D: China's HFMD vaccine leads the world
In March 2008, a number of patients with hand, foot and mouth disease characterized by fever and hand, foot, and buttock rash appeared in Fuyang, Anhui. A concentrated outbreak occurred within a short period of time. After investigation, it was caused by the EV71 virus, and the virus quickly spread to 26 nationwide. province.
According to researcher Zhang Yuntao, deputy director of the Vaccine Committee of the China Biomedical Technology Association, China ’s hand-foot-mouth disease (EV71) vaccine began research and development in 2008, and it has been approved for listing for 9 years, leading the world and making many technological breakthroughs.
Zhang Yuntao said that during the development of the EV71 vaccine, Chinese scientists have also established a series of international standards such as the EV71 antigen comprehensive antibody and have been certified by the World Health Organization.
Status: The overall vaccination rate for hand, foot and mouth disease is still low
It is especially susceptible to hand-foot-mouth disease in early childhood, so parents should pay more attention to it. Hand, foot and mouth disease, which is prone to occur in summer, is not only highly contagious, but the most terrible is the large proportion of severe cases. The main transmission routes of hand-foot-mouth disease are saliva transmission, respiratory secretion transmission and digestive tract excretion transmission. Young children like to touch their mouths with small hands when playing, and the virus spreads through saliva, making them sick.
Relevant research shows that hand-foot-mouth disease requires a immunization rate of 78% or more to achieve the effect of group immunization. At present, the EV71 vaccination rate varies from 10% to 50%, which is far lower than the requirement for group immunization.
How to increase the EV71 vaccination rate? Chen Xiaoqi, a researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products, believes that in the normalization of the prevention and control of the new crown vaccine, the advantages of joint vaccination are particularly obvious. First of all, reduce the number of visits to the hospital under the premise that the new coronary pneumonia epidemic has not completely recovered. Second, in areas where there is no new coronary pneumonia epidemic, reducing the number of round trips to the outpatient clinic can also save time and reduce travel costs.
To this end, China Biotechnology Co., Ltd. conducted a joint inoculation of EV71 vaccine with hepatitis B vaccine, leprosy vaccine, and meningococcal vaccine. It should be noted that whether the EV71 vaccine is vaccinated together with other vaccines or separately, the safety is the same and the immune protection effect is the same.
Identify: "Three Fours" pulls out hand, foot and mouth disease
Hand, foot and mouth disease is spread through diet, droplets, contact, etc. Children ’s toys, tableware, bottles, towels, quilts, underwear, etc. may be contaminated with bacteria and viruses. Healthy babies are close to or exposed to these infections After something, it may make bacteria and viruses organic. In addition, some children are exposed to hand-foot-and-mouth disease virus (EV71) through caregivers and develop the disease. Adults who are infected with hand-foot-and-mouth disease virus (EV71) generally do not get sick and have no symptoms, but they can spread the virus.
April-July is the period of high incidence of hand-foot-mouth disease, which is easily confused clinically with herpes pharyngitis. Hu Bing, deputy chief physician of the Department of Infectious Medicine at the National Children's Medical Center and Beijing Children's Hospital, reminds parents that they should master identification skills, make a preliminary judgment as to whether the child has hand, foot and mouth disease, and make early detection and early treatment. Herpes pharyngitis is an acute upper respiratory tract infectious disease caused by enterovirus. The clinical manifestations are fever and oral herpes on the pharyngeal cheek. A few cases will have high fever convulsions and encephalitis. Self-limiting, the course of disease is generally 4-6 days, occasionally extended to two weeks.
Hand, foot and mouth disease is like a cold in the early stage, with an acute onset and fever. It is generally around 38 degrees Celsius. It has cough, runny nose, affects appetite, nausea, and vomiting. After 1-2 days, herpes on the palms or soles of the rice grains will appear, and the herpes will also appear on the hips and knees.
It is necessary to remember the "three fours" to distinguish the rash caused by hand-foot-mouth disease. "Tetralogy": Mainly infringes the four parts of the hands, feet, mouth and hips. "Four different": unlike mosquito bites, unlike drug rash, not like lips and gums herpes, not like chickenpox. "Four characteristics": no pain, no itching, no scabs, no scars.
Hu Bing emphasized that the best way to protect susceptible people is to get vaccinated, especially for children from 6 months to 3 years old. In addition, we must wash hands frequently, eat cooked food, drink clean water, strengthen exercise, open windows to ventilate, and avoid crowded places.
Our reporter Yu Jingying