Stockholm (AFP)

Here is the list of the winners of the last ten years of the Nobel Prize in Medicine, whose 2019 prize was awarded Monday by the Nobel Assembly of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm:

2019: William Kaelin (United States), Gregg Semenza (United States) and Peter Ratcliffe (Great Britain) for their work on adapting cells to varying levels of oxygen in the body opening perspectives in the treatment of cancer and anemia.

2018: James P. Allison (United States) and Tasuku Honjo (Japan) for their research on immunotherapy which has proved particularly effective in the treatment of virulent cancers.

2017: Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young (USA), who dismantled the complex mechanisms of the biological clock.

2016: Yoshinori Ohsumi (Japan) for his work on autophagy, a process by which our cells digest their own waste and, in the event of dysfunction, trigger Parkinson's disease or diabetes.

2015: William Campbell (Ireland / United States), Satoshi Omura (Japan) and Tu Youyou (China) for their discoveries of treatments against parasitic infections and malaria.

2014: John O'Keefe (Great Britain / USA) and May-Britt and Edvard Moser (Norway), for their research on the "internal GPS" of the brain, which could lead to advances in the knowledge of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer.

2013: James Rothman, Randy Schekman and Thomas Südhof (USA), for their discoveries on intracellular transport, which raise awareness of diseases such as diabetes.

2012: Shinya Yamanaka (Japan) and John Gurdon (Great Britain), for their work on the reversibility of stem cells, which makes it possible to create all types of tissues of the human body.

2011: Bruce Beutler (United States), Jules Hoffmann (France) and Ralph Steinman (Canada), for their research on the immune system that allows the human body to defend itself against infections, promoting vaccination and the fight against diseases like cancer.

2010: Robert Edwards (Great Britain), the father of test-tube babies.

© 2019 AFP