Our newspaper, Taiyuan, January 19th. Reporter Li Jianbin learned from the Shanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology on the 19th that three Yuan Dynasty brick-carved tombs with imitation wood dome murals were excavated at a construction site in the High-tech Zone of Yangquan City.
The dome of the tomb is painted with a three-legged golden crow and a rabbit pounding medicine to symbolize the sun and the moon, and the rest of the place is covered with colorful paintings of colorful clouds and stars.
Experts said that the rich murals of the three tombs provide an intuitive understanding for the study of furniture shapes, clothing and living customs in the Yuan Dynasty.
The excavation area is located in the west platform of Nanyangjiazhuang Village, High-tech Zone, Yangquan City, Shanxi Province.
In September 2022, a joint archaeological team formed by the Shanxi Provincial Institute of Archeology and the Yangquan City Cultural Relics Management Center conducted archaeological excavations on the land.
The excavation area is about 400 square meters, and 29 ancient tombs have been discovered, including 7 Yuan Dynasty tombs, including 3 brick-carved imitation wood dome mural tombs, numbered M6, M11, and M15, and M15 is the most complete.
According to reports, the M15 tomb is composed of a tomb passage, a corridor and a tomb chamber.
The tomb passage is rectangular, the bottom is higher in the south and lower in the north, and the plane of the tomb is octagonal. The tomb is a brick-chambered tomb with imitation wood structure, and there are 5 ear chambers.
The bottom of the tomb is a "concave"-shaped coffin bed made of bricks, corner brick columns, and brick-carved bucket arches, rafters, tiles and other imitation wood building components.
There are murals and color paintings on the side walls and the top of the tomb.
The southwest wall and the southeast wall are painted with murals such as miscellaneous dramas and lanterns, and the side walls contain the nine palaces, eight trigrams, nine stars, aphorisms and phrases in the ink book Qimen Dunjia, as well as the "Worriless Hall", "Xingji Hall" and "Zongzu Hall" The arched eye walls are painted with broken branches and flowers, the east and west of the dome are painted with three-legged golden crows and rabbits pounding medicine to symbolize the sun and moon, and the rest of the dome is covered with colorful paintings such as clouds and stars.
Both the southeast wall and the southwest wall have ink inscriptions, indicating that the tomb was buried in the tenth year of Dade in the Yuan Dynasty (that is, 1306 AD).
The tomb also unearthed more than 30 funerary objects such as jade pot spring porcelain vases, porcelain bowls, porcelain incense burners, copper coins, wooden spoons, and clay bowls.
In addition, there are organic cultural relics such as cotton and linen hats, shoes and bamboo mats, which greatly enrich people's understanding of the Yuan Dynasty's clothing, utensils and funeral etiquette.
The other two mural tombs have the same burial structure as M15. They are also decorated with murals such as the picture of preparing banquets, the picture of lighting up the lamp, and the picture of the elderly, as well as short sentences such as "Life in life and death in burial". Chronicle inscription.
Among them, M6 is from the Yuan Dynasty to the 28th year of the Yuan Dynasty (that is, 1291 AD), and M11 is the tenth year of Dade in the Yuan Dynasty.
Archaeological experts judged based on information such as the shape and overall layout of the tombs that the owners of the three mural tombs should be local wealthy households.
The rich murals in the tomb provide an intuitive understanding for the study of furniture shapes, clothing and living customs in the Yuan Dynasty. The clear chronological inscriptions also provide a reference for judging the age of similar tombs.
(Guangming Daily, Edition 04, January 20, 2023)