In recent years, online courses have become an indispensable teaching method, and many schools carry out teaching activities through conference software and live broadcast platforms.

And cyber violence represented by "online class blasting" has also begun to invade online classrooms, and many teachers and students have been deeply disturbed by it.

Some time ago, news of the death of a teacher from Xinzheng No. 3 Middle School in Henan Province after his online class was hacked caused widespread concern.

This incident pushed the term "online class blasting" into the public eye.

  A few days ago, the Central Cyberspace Affairs Office issued the "Notice on Effectively Strengthening the Governance of Cyber ​​Violence", proposing to "establish and improve the early warning and prevention mechanism of cyber violence, strengthen the protection of the parties involved in cyber violence, strictly prevent the spread of information about cyber violence, and strictly deal with and punish it in accordance with the law." Effectively strengthen the governance of Internet violence, further consolidate the main responsibility of the website platform, improve and improve the long-term working mechanism, effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of the majority of netizens, and maintain a civilized and healthy Internet environment.

  What exactly is "online class blasting"?

Why does it appear in the online classroom?

What measures should we take to stop the "blasting of online courses" and ensure the safety of online courses?

The reporter launched an interview on this.

1. Who is disrupting the teaching order

  The incident of teachers from Xinzheng No. 3 Middle School being "exploded in online classes" made many people start to be vigilant, and teachers have also become targets of cyber violence.

  A relative of a teacher from Xinzheng No. 3 Middle School who suffered from "blasting of online classes" introduced that the teacher used to teach history in Xinzheng No. 3 Middle School. For a period of time, her online classes often encountered "invasion" and "blasting".

During the online class on the evening of October 28, another strange netizen broke into the live broadcast room of the online class and insulted him, interfered with the projection of the courseware, and forced the teacher to withdraw from the online class.

She was found dead at home two days later, and the death certificate identified her as sudden death.

At present, the local public security, education and other departments are involved in the investigation of the matter.

  How is "online class blasting" implemented?

The reporter's investigation found that an "online class blast" often has several or even a dozen participants, and it is not as simple as a "prank".

  What is "online class blasting" has not yet been clearly defined.

Summarized based on the cases that have occurred, "online class blasting" is an act of maliciously invading online classrooms and disrupting the order of online classrooms.

When the meeting numbers and passwords of online classes were leaked, some people “invaded” online classes in an organized way, maliciously disturbing the teaching order by forcibly dominating the screen, swiping the screen to send harassing messages, even insulting teachers and students, and playing indecent videos.

These intruders are known on social media as "blasters".

  "Blasters" organized a series of "blasts" through social media. Some "blasts" came from the students themselves, and some came from professional organizations with clearly marked prices.

In the organized "blasting", the insider leaks the time and room number of the online class. After the special "organizer" issues the "blasting order", the participants gather to "blast" the online class at a fixed time.

According to existing reports, whether it is the students who leaked internally or the specialized "blasters", the participants in the "online class blasting" are mostly young students.

  The "National Research Report on Internet Use by Minors in China in 2021" shows that in 2021, the number of minor Internet users in my country will reach 191 million, and the Internet penetration rate of minors will reach 96.8%.

The proportion of underage netizens who were satirized or abused online was 16.6%; the proportion of themselves or their relatives and friends who were maliciously harassed online was 7.0%.

  In the digital age, it is difficult for people to leave the Internet, and the continuous innovation of network technology also gives space for the development of cyber violence.

Shen Yi, director of Fudan University Cyberspace International Governance Research Base, pointed out in an interview: "'Online class blasting' is not ordinary cyber violence, but the penetration of cyber violence into normal classroom teaching activities. It is a new type of cyber violence. At present,' Online course blasting' shows two new features: first, it has the characteristics of 'interference', that is, it tries to block normal network communication and exchange, so that the teaching cannot continue. Second, it has the characteristics of 'violence', that is, it uses Offensive language, harassing videos, and even indecent words that violate public order and morals and are personally offensive, attack specific targets or generalized non-specific targets, in order to achieve the purpose of disrupting order."

  The malicious act of "blasting online courses" has often become a sharp weapon to hurt people through the amplification and dissemination of the Internet.

On November 4, Luo Xiang, a professor at China University of Political Science and Law, released a video saying: "This kind of behavior really makes people very angry, because as an educator, I can often put myself into it. I am thinking, if I face similar situation, how would you act?"

  "Different from cyber violence, which is generally manifested in a simple sense of justice, 'online class blasting' manifests itself in the irrational carnival of participants in the process of disrupting classroom order, and most of the participants are young students." Director of the Center for Media Convergence, Communication University of China Tang Yuanqing said in an interview that "blasting online classes" has a non-negligible destructive effect on classroom order, and has caused great harm to both students and teachers.

2. Lack of contingency plans and management methods

  The Internet has become an important learning, social and entertainment tool for contemporary minors.

How did cyber violence represented by "online class blasting" spread and develop?

  The anonymity of the Internet is one of the reasons for the existence of "online class blasting".

"The natural difficulty of governance in the online world is that even software that introduces a 'whitelist' mechanism cannot completely solve the real-name system problem. And even if the real-name system problem is solved, the experience of communicating with others while wearing a 'digital mask' is completely different. With the experience of face-to-face interaction offline, it is easier for people to release their inner extreme emotions without using their real identities." Shen Yi said.

  "Teachers have different levels of operation and different levels of familiarity with the Internet. These are factors that cannot be ignored. At the same time, the school and the platform lack a corresponding response mechanism in terms of pre-plan and early warning." Tang Yuanqing said.

  Shen Yi also said, "The large-scale transfer of teaching behavior from offline to online started under the background of the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, so it was also carried out under the premise of lack of prior preparation, and the management of online courses , did not keep up with the development of online classes."

  As the phenomenon of "blasting online courses" continues to surface, the trend of organization and black production behind it is worthy of vigilance.

Shen Yi explained his concerns: "We need to pay attention to the development trend of 'exploding online courses'. The first is the trend of 'ecologicalization'. Some participating students take it for granted that as long as they don't like a certain course, they can find someone to enter it." They are making trouble in the classroom, and they are not aware of the incorrectness of the approach. The second is the trend of 'organization'. Some groups or circles formed relying on social software are accepting these orders for 'blasting'. The third is the trend of 'traffic' Precursor. To a certain extent, "online class blasting" already has the precursor of "traffic-based survival". On the verge of violating public order and good customs or laws and regulations. Fourth, participants in cyber violence can gain the so-called sense of accomplishment, sense of belonging, and pleasure of venting negative emotions from the disruption, impact, and destruction of normal social order.”

3. Multi-party efforts are still needed to maintain the order of online courses

  "As an important place for schools to carry out educational and teaching activities, online classrooms must be guaranteed for their teaching quality. The governance of 'online classroom blasting' requires the joint efforts of many parties: the public security organs crack down on illegal and criminal acts that disrupt the order of online classrooms in accordance with the law, and punish the formation of Effective deterrence; schools must pay attention to the guidance and education of students, and strengthen the training of teachers' ability to deal with emergencies in online courses; relevant departments must improve the supervision and supervision mechanism to promote the platform to fulfill its main responsibility." Tang Yuanqing said.

  At present, a number of online conferencing platforms have relevant countermeasures, carried out inspections and processing, cleaned up relevant illegal content and banned some illegal accounts, and set up corresponding blocking functions for "online class blasting".

For example, Tencent Conference provides a variety of permission setting methods before, during and after the meeting to ensure the safety of online classrooms and meet the teaching needs of various scenarios such as classrooms, seminars, and defenses; 'Only the host can invite members', which restricts the participating students to share the meeting number with strangers.

At present, the reporter searched on some social platforms and found that some social groups that were active with the keyword "online class blasting" had no search results.

  At the same time, the school also took action to do a good job in prevention, early warning and post-event processing.

The education departments in some areas have noticed the frequent occurrence of "online class bombings" and have required schools to take measures to strengthen online classroom security, including authorizing students to enter with their real names, requiring each school to set up network monitors, and strengthening front-line teacher training.

Outside the classroom, we should also use publicity and education methods to guide students to correctly understand the Internet, develop good Internet habits, abide by Internet rules, and regulate their words and deeds on the Internet.

"The overall network environment is the result of the interaction and construction of each individual in it, and everyone is responsible for their words and deeds in cyberspace. Preventing the 'blasting of online courses' requires not only the efforts of the school, but also the government to improve governance from a more macro level capabilities, build a governance system, and provide support for the school.” Shen Yi said.

  Cyberspace is not a place outside the law. It is imperative to maintain order in online classrooms and punish violent chaos in online classrooms.

Luo Xiang said that for disrupting the normal work order and teaching order, the current law provides many ways to regulate, whether it is the Education Law, the Public Security Management Punishment Law, or the Criminal Law, there are corresponding punishment measures.

Especially for blatantly insulting others, Article 246 of the current Criminal Law stipulates the crime of insulting others. Publicly insulting others by violence or other means, if the circumstances are serious, can be sentenced to a maximum of 3 years in prison.

  In recent years, the Cyber ​​Security Law, the Personal Information Protection Law, the E-Commerce Law, and relevant judicial interpretations have all provided strong legal support for combating cyber trolls and addressing cyber violence.

In this year's special crackdown on Internet violence, key website platforms have intercepted more than 65.41 million pieces of information involving attacks, abuse, rumors and defamation, and disposed of 78,000 illegal accounts.

In the "Personal Information Protection Law of the People's Republic of China", which was officially implemented in November last year, it clearly mentioned the obligation to strengthen important Internet platforms, as well as strengthen the punishment mechanism and intensity for infringement of personal information.

  A few days ago, the "Notice on Effectively Strengthening the Governance of Cyber ​​Violence" issued by the Central Cyberspace Affairs Office pointed out that the website platform should establish and improve emergency protection functions according to its own characteristics, and provide settings such as one-click closing of strangers' private messages, comments, forwarding, and @messages.

When a user encounters the risk of cyberbullying, the website platform should send system information in a timely manner, prompting them to activate one-click protection to avoid harassment from cyberbullying information.

Set up quick complaint and report portals for cyberbullying information in comments, private messages, etc. on the website platform, simplify the complaint and reporting procedures, and the website platform should deal with information that is clearly cyberbullying information as soon as possible.

Provide users with functions such as one-click evidence collection for cyberbullying information, so that parties can quickly collect evidence.

Adhere to the principle of being most beneficial to minors, and give priority to handling reports of cyberbullying involving minors.

  "Creating a clear cyberspace, recognizing the nature and dangers of 'blasting online courses', ensuring the safety of online classrooms, and building a strong campus network security firewall are inseparable from multi-party efforts and long-term success." Tang Yuanqing said.

(Guangming Daily reporter Chang Ying)