Chinanews.com, Hangzhou, December 16th, title: Hangzhou Cultural Tourism Observation: Who are the people who can inscribe on the mountains of West Lake?
Reporter Tong Xiaoyu
What to see in Hangzhou West Lake?
"Ten Scenes of West Lake" must be on the list.
But many people have overlooked one point: the inscription on the cliff.
On December 15, "Engraving on Lakes and Mountains—Exhibition of Rubbings of Inscriptions on Cliffs of the West Lake in Hangzhou" opened in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. 208 pieces of rubbings were exhibited on site, fully displaying the essence of inscriptions on cliffs of West Lake since the Tang Dynasty.
Cliff inscriptions refer to the content carved by people on natural stone walls, including various kinds of text stone carvings, stone carvings and statues.
Since the Tang and Song Dynasties, thousands of cliff inscriptions have been formed around the West Lake in Hangzhou.
The inscriptions of the Tang Dynasty are concentrated in Tianzhu Temple, Dingshan Fengshui Cave and other places. The inscriptions of Wuyue in the Five Dynasties are mainly statues. The inscriptions of the Song Dynasty are concentrated in Feilai Peak, Nanping Mountain, Yanxialing and other places. For statues, Ming Dynasty inscriptions are mainly big-character list books.
Who are the people who can inscribe on the mountains of West Lake?
Wei Zhuting, the person in charge of the exhibition and deputy director of the Wuyue State History and Culture Research Center (under preparation) of the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, said that it depends on the dynasty.
At present, the earliest inscriptions found on the mountains of West Lake come from the Tang Dynasty, and the most extant inscriptions are from the Northern Song Dynasty.
During this period, most of the inscriptions were literati with official titles, such as Su Shi, a litterateur in the Northern Song Dynasty, Sima Chi, the magistrate of Hangzhou, and the father of Sima Guang.
During the Wuyue Kingdom and the Southern Song Dynasty, Hangzhou was "at the feet of the Son of Heaven", and literati did not dare to write inscriptions at will, so there are few existing inscriptions.
Because kings and emperors can inscribe, such as the inscription on the suburban altar of King Qian Liu of Wu and Yue, and the inscription of the word "loyalty" in italics in Shengguo Temple by Zhao Gou, Emperor Gaozong of Song Dynasty.
Why write the word "faithful"?
Wei Zhuting speculates that after the Southern Song Dynasty established the capital in Hangzhou, the Shengguo Temple was changed into the front office of the palace.
Zhao Gou's "loyalty" was written for the Imperial Forest Army.
In the Qing Dynasty, Kangxi and Qianlong had the most inscriptions, among which there are still dozens of Qianlong inscriptions.
Photo courtesy of Wei Zhuting, Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty's "Into the Cloud" list book
In 1699, Emperor Kangxi made his third southern tour.
At this time, the world was peaceful, and Kangxi was so happy that he wrote the title of "Ten Scenes of West Lake".
Later, Qianlong made six trips to the south of the Yangtze River, engraving his poems on the back of Kangxi's inscription each time, a total of 60 poems.
Due to some historical reasons, among the steles of "Ten Views of West Lake", only "Spring Dawn on Su Causeway" and "Wind Lotus in Quyuan" are authentic works inscribed by Emperor Kangxi and Qianlong.
In addition, on Nanping Mountain by the West Lake in Hangzhou, there are two characters "Ruyun" inscribed by Qianlong, and a poem "You Xiaoyou Tianyuan Climb to the Top" inscribed.
Apart from these dignitaries, Wei Zhuting said that ordinary people also have needs for inscriptions, but most of them invite monks to make portraits.
Nowadays, inscriptions in tourist attractions are uncivilized. Why did they become fashionable and become a trend in ancient times?
Wei Zhuting said that this was related to the social atmosphere at that time.
In Chongwen of the Northern Song Dynasty, literati and inkmen put their love on the natural landscape, and inscribed on the mountain every time they visited. This was the style of refined scholars at that time, and it was worth following and advocating.
Later, the times changed, and this custom was handed down.
For future generations, this is a wealth of landscape and culture. It is not only ornamental, but also a supplement to the literature of past dynasties.
For example, the poem "You Tianzhu Temple" left by Lu Yuanfu, the governor of Hangzhou in the Tang Dynasty, in the Buddhist nun stupa courtyard on Feilai Peak in Hangzhou, can make up for the lack of "Complete Tang Poems".
Song Zhezong Yuanyou five years (1090) on the second day of the third month of the lunar calendar, where Su Shi went to play in the West Lake, the academic circles are also studying.
Since the Southern Song Dynasty, people have always believed that on this day Su Shi went from Zhouzhi to Ciyunling, passed Longhua Temple, visited Damailing, and finally arrived at Tianzhu Temple and Taoguang Temple.
Su Shi Damailing inscription Wei Zhuting photo courtesy
However, according to the rubbings that Wei Zhuting found in the warehouse of the Zhejiang Provincial Museum, it was determined that Su Shi went to Gushan Zhiguoyuan instead of Tianzhu Temple on this day, which overturned the "convention" of Su Shi's travels for more than 800 years.
He speculated that the day Su Shi went to Damailing and Tianzhu Temple might be the second day of February of the same year.
In the eyes of many people, the research on Su Shi's whereabouts can only be used as an anecdote, but for literature and history lovers, the research on his whereabouts has been detailed every day.
From the perspective of historical research, it is worth considering whether officials in the Northern Song Dynasty set off from the north gate or the south gate of Hangzhou Zhouzhi to visit the lake.
In this process, the inscriptions on the West Lake and mountains are an excellent evidence.
A city's historical relics, cultural relics, and cultural heritage are part of the city's life.
This year marks the 20th anniversary of the free opening of West Lake.
In the reporter's opinion, the inscriptions on the cliffs of West Lake are a living fossil of Chinese calligraphy and poetry culture, and they are also a physical witness to the development history of West Lake landscape in Hangzhou.
However, this historical and cultural landscape must not only be viewed and studied, but also be well protected and utilized so that future generations can nostalgic and visit it.
On the one hand, it is necessary to improve the protection level of these cliff inscription cultural relics.
It is reported that in Hangzhou, there are very few inscriptions on cliffs that are "nationally protected", and some of them are not even culturally protected.
The harsher truth is that the inscriptions are becoming smoother, disappearing faster than ever before due to acid rain.
Do waterproof protection for cliff inscriptions, such as building drainage ditches, setting up protective covers, or the most simple and easy method at present.
On the other hand, a good article on the integration of culture and tourism should be done.
Cliff inscriptions are the embodiment of the tour routes of the ancients. The cultural and tourism department can restore part of the tour routes and launch the route of "following historical celebrities to visit the West Lake", so that contemporary tourists can follow the paths of Bai Juyi and Su Shi and see the scenery they have enjoyed. This not only revitalizes the culture and history of West Lake, but also prevents tourists from taking a fancy tour, allowing them to have a deep understanding of the city of Hangzhou, which is precisely the embodiment of the integration of culture and tourism.