The latest "Science" rumor list revealed that the bigger the bag, the stronger the mosquito's toxicity?

Chickenpox is a "patent" for children?

It's all rumors. In addition - after the vaccine expires quickly, it is easy to contract the new crown?

There is a big misunderstanding here!

  In the process of containing the new crown epidemic again and again, more and more people have begun to realize the importance of vaccination.

However, the public's misunderstanding of vaccine knowledge has also kept the rumors about the new crown vaccine updated.

No, the Internet has begun to rumor that the new crown vaccine will fail quickly after inoculation, and its effectiveness has become "negative", and it is even more likely to be infected with the new crown.

Actually, there is a big misunderstanding here.

The latest issue of the "Science" rumor list specifically refuted the rumors.

In addition, there are also popular health rumors that everyone has paid attention to recently. Let's take a look at the truth together!

  The monthly "scientific" rumor list is guided by the Beijing Association for Science and Technology, the Beijing Municipal Internet Information Office, and the Capital Internet Association.

  Myth: Chickenpox is a childhood disease

  The truth Although chickenpox mostly occurs in children aged 2-10, it is not a "patent" for children. Adults can also develop chickenpox. If they are not isolated and treated in time, it is easy for other members of the family to suffer.

Chickenpox is an acute infectious disease caused by the primary infection of the varicella-zoster virus.

Chickenpox provides life-long immunity with little chance of reinfection, thus creating the impression that "adults don't have chickenpox".

  In fact, people who have never had chickenpox and who have never been vaccinated against chickenpox are highly susceptible to chickenpox, and adults are no exception.

In addition, after the chickenpox was cured, the virus did not disappear, but lurked in the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord.

When the immune function of the human body is weakened, it may induce the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, which spreads to the skin along the peripheral nerves, resulting in herpes zoster.

The patient's rash contains high concentrations of the varicella-zoster virus, and direct contact with the blister fluid can cause chickenpox in people who have never had chickenpox.

The symptoms of chickenpox infection in adults are often more severe than those in children, and are often complicated by disseminated nodular pneumonia. The fatality rate is as high as 10% to 40%. Therefore, adults should also pay attention to preventing chickenpox.

  Myth: Vaccine effectiveness goes 'negative' and is counterproductive

  The truth There are some articles on the Internet recently claiming that studies have shown that the effectiveness of the new crown vaccine has become negative in just a few months, which means that those who have been vaccinated are more likely to be infected.

There are some misunderstandings here.

According to the original study, the effectiveness of the vaccine will decline over time, but the decline in effectiveness in the study was for mild cases.

In addition to mild symptoms, vaccines still have a good effect on preventing severe illness, reducing the risk of hospitalization, and reducing the risk of death.

  Therefore, it is biased to say that the vaccine is ineffective when the effectiveness of protection against mild cases is reduced.

  At the same time, a negative number of vaccine effectiveness does not mean that the vaccine is counteracting (increasing the risk of infection), and the negative number is caused by a potential bias in the statistical process of the data.

The so-called "vaccine effectiveness becomes negative" means from a scientific point of view that there is no evidence that the vaccine is effective in reducing the risk of symptomatic infection, which is consistent with the meaning of zero effectiveness.

The effectiveness of vaccines is multi-layered, and even if the effectiveness of preventing infection declines, the new crown vaccine still provides a very critical effectiveness in preventing severe illness.

  Myth: The pungent odor emitted by Flammulina velutipes is formaldehyde

  The truth We may encounter this situation when buying enoki mushrooms every day - after opening the bag, you smell a pungent odor.

Some people think that this is because the merchants use formaldehyde to "bleach" it, which not only damages the liver and kidneys after eating, but also causes cancer.

In fact, I really don't think so.

  When unpacking the Flammulina velutipes, you may smell a pungent odor. This is not due to the addition of formaldehyde, but because the temperature changes during transportation, which causes Flammulina velutipes to switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic respiration, which in turn produces some volatile aldehyde gases.

  Flammulina velutipes were originally yellow, and the reason why they "turned white" was not the result of bleaching with formaldehyde.

Today, most of the enoki mushrooms on the market are new varieties from Japan. Researchers found a genetically mutated white enoki mushroom in the yellow enoki mushroom, and then kept it for cultivation.

This enoki mushroom not only has good color and luster, but also grows fast and has high uniformity.

my country's "Food Safety Law" and "Agricultural Product Quality Safety Law" clearly stipulate that formaldehyde shall not be used as a food processing aid for production and operation.

  Myth: The bigger the mosquito pack, the more toxic it is

  The truth After a rain, it's time for mosquitoes to be rampant again.

Some people think that the size of the swollen lump after being bitten by a mosquito can tell the strength of the mosquito's toxicity.

The larger the mosquito pack, the more toxic it is.

In fact, after being bitten by a mosquito, the size of the bag has nothing to do with the "toxicity" of the mosquito, but is closely related to the mechanism of the individual's immune system.

  The process of human response to mosquito bites is an allergic process.

There are four types of allergies in humans: Type I allergies, also known as immediate allergies, occur relatively quickly, and the human body reacts more violently. Common ones include penicillin allergic reactions, drug-induced drug eruptions, and food-induced allergic gastroenteritis. , asthma attack, anaphylactic shock, etc; Glomerulonephritis, etc.; Type IV allergy is also known as delayed allergy.

The first exposure will not produce a reaction, and after the second exposure to the antigen, it will cause a reaction.

For example, organ transplant rejection, certain autoimmune diseases, etc.

  The reactions to mosquito bites are generally divided into local reactions and systemic reactions.

The typical reaction is a local reaction: usually an immediate wheal rash with redness, swelling and itching, which is most pronounced 20 minutes after the bite.

Local reactions generally have the following characteristics: people who have never been exposed to a certain mosquito will not respond to the first bite of such mosquitoes, and subsequent re-bites will cause a delayed local skin reaction, which will produce immediate wind. group.

  Therefore, this type of local reaction belongs to type I allergy (also known as immediate allergy), which occurs relatively quickly and the human body reacts violently.

However, people who were bitten repeatedly by the same mosquito eventually lost their immediate response.

Therefore, the local reaction of adults to mosquito bites is not as severe as that of children, because adults are "bitten" by mosquitoes.

  Myth: Disposable gloves are useless because they are not oil-resistant

  The truth is that when we eat crayfish, fried chicken and other foods, we often wear disposable plastic gloves. First, we feel that it is hygienic and secondly, it can prevent our hands from being polluted by oil.

But after eating, my hands are still full of greasy.

Therefore, some people think that such disposable plastic gloves are completely useless.

In fact, gloves are "wrong".

  When touching food, the biggest role of wearing disposable gloves is not to prevent oil, but to block bacteria.

Disposable gloves made of polyethylene material have the effect of blocking bacteria.

Wearing it when eating crayfish can effectively prevent the bacteria on the hands from entering the body, so as to achieve the purpose of healthy eating.

  The polyethylene used in the production of disposable gloves is mainly made of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE).

According to the principle of "like dissolves like", low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene may swell to a certain extent when in contact with grease, allowing grease molecules to pass through disposable gloves from voids that are invisible to our naked eyes.

Therefore, it is difficult to completely block the greasy even with disposable gloves.

  It is worth noting that when using disposable gloves, try to buy products produced by regular manufacturers.

Poor-quality disposable gloves can have significantly compromised performance and may also contain harmful substances.

Text/Reporter Li Jie