The "Three Summers" are busy in the vast land of our country.

According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, as of May 29, the country has harvested 44.66 million mu of wheat, and the harvest progress is 14.6%.

Among them, the wheat harvest in Sichuan has come to an end, nearly 85% in Hubei, 20% in Anhui, nearly 150% in Henan, and sporadic harvests in Jiangsu, Shaanxi and Shanxi.

The "Sanxia" large-scale wheat harvest has been in full swing.

  As the saying goes, "Spring fights for the sun, summer fights for the time", summer harvesting, summer planting, summer management, it should be sooner rather than later.

What exactly is "Sanxia" busy with?

Has the weather helped this year?

What meteorological disasters and pests and diseases need to be focused on defense?

What kind of service measures will the Meteorological Department provide?

A few days ago, Li Sen, deputy director of the Ecology and Agricultural Meteorology Office of the National Meteorological Center, accepted an exclusive interview with reporters and answered them one by one.

"Sanxia" is very busy, what are you busy with?

  Li Sen: "Sanxia" is the abbreviation of summer harvest, summer seed and summer management. It usually starts in mid-May every year and ends in June and July.

The summer harvest is mainly to harvest winter wheat and rapeseed.

Summer sowing refers to the preparation of the land for sowing summer corn, summer soybeans and transplanted rice after the summer harvest.

Summer management is the field management of spring and summer crops, mainly irrigation, fertilization, weeding, and spraying.

  The busy season of "three summers" is a key stage that links the previous and the next and involves the annual agricultural harvest. It is not only related to the mature harvest of summer crops, but also an important stage for the sowing of summer crops and the growth and development of spring crops (that is, the main body of autumn crops).

Whether the "Three Summers" work can be carried out smoothly is directly related to the harvest of autumn grain and annual grain.

During the "Three Summers" this year, what is the weather like in the main production areas of the country, is it conducive to summer harvesting and summer planting?

  Li Sen: Summer harvest and summer seed have different requirements for weather.

Sunny days are good for crop harvesting and are good weather for summer harvests.

Different from the summer harvest, it is best to have rain when planting in summer, and the moisture content is improved after the rain, which is conducive to the emergence and growth of the seeds.

  It is expected that in the next 10 days, the northern winter wheat area will be sunny and less rainy, which will generally be beneficial to the wheat grain filling and mature areas and harvesting and drying.

From May 31 to June 4, there will be high temperature weather in North China, Huanghuai, Shaanxi Guanzhong and other places, and there will be 1 to 4 days of dry and hot wind in central and southern Hebei, central and northern Shandong and other places. Adverse effects of ripening and maturation.

Shandong, central and southern Hebei, northern Jiangsu and other places need to pay attention to prevent the lodging of winter wheat at the grain filling and milk maturity stage that may be caused by strong winds and strong convective weather.

There are more sunny and hot weather in Jianghuai and Jianghan, which is conducive to the maturity of winter wheat and the widespread development of summer harvest.

Guizhou, Chongqing, western and southern Sichuan, eastern and western Yunnan have more rainfall, which is likely to cause wet and waterlogging damage to low-lying farmland, affecting summer harvesting and drying of summer grains.

  It is expected that in June, most of the northern winter wheat area will have high temperature and more sunny and hot weather. The light, temperature and water conditions are generally favorable for the later grain filling and maturity of winter wheat, which is conducive to the development of large-scale mechanized harvesting.

In the northern summer seeding areas such as Huanghuai and central and southern North China, due to high temperature, rapid soil moisture loss, and deviation of surface moisture in some areas, it is not conducive to the growth of summer seeds and seedlings.

Most of the summer seeding areas in the southwest, central and northern Jianghuai, and Jianghan have normal or slightly excessive precipitation, which is conducive to the seeding and emergence of summer crops. Periodic high temperature weather is unfavorable for summer sowing and seedling growth.

It is recommended that farmers pay attention to the weather forecast warning information issued by the meteorological department in time, and do a good job in field management according to the situation.

As the saying goes, harvesting wheat is like putting out a fire, and Longkou grabs the grain.

"Longkou takes food" from where and how?

  Li Sen: "Longkou grabbing grain" refers to grabbing crops in the face of natural disasters.

Strong convective weather such as dry and hot wind, "bad field rain" and strong wind and hail are natural disasters that need to be paid attention to during the "Three Summers".

  Dry and hot wind generally refers to a disastrous weather with high temperature, low humidity and certain wind force during the wheat blooming and filling period, which will cause the wheat to lose its water balance, and the grain filling will be insufficient, which will affect the wheat yield.

To prevent dry and hot wind, it is necessary to pour grouting water and wheat yellow water in a timely manner according to the site, reduce the surface temperature of wheat fields and increase the field humidity; do a good job of "one spray and three defenses"; from the perspective of agricultural infrastructure construction, the construction of shelter forests can improve the field. Microclimate, effectively reduce the adverse effects of hot and dry wind.

  "Bad rain" is a large-scale continuous rain or heavy rain during the mature harvest of wheat, which will cause the mature wheat and rapeseed grains to germinate and become mildewed.

Strong convective weather, such as strong storms, hail, etc., may cause lodging and grain fall off.

In the face of "bad field rain" and strong convective weather, farmers should pay close attention to weather changes, take precautions in advance, do a good job in mechanical scheduling, and rush to harvest and dry in time.

"Insects grab food" is very important to ensure a bumper harvest. How should we focus on preventing pests and diseases during the "Three Summers" period?

  Li Sen: Since the beginning of this year, the weather and climate situation has been complex and changeable, and the risk of agricultural pests and diseases outbreaks is high.

At present, with the concerted efforts of the meteorological, agricultural and rural departments, the prevention and control of wheat pests and diseases has achieved good results.

Next, the diseases and insect pests of rice and corn will enter a high incidence stage.

According to the forecast of the agricultural and rural departments, the occurrence of rice planthoppers, sheath blight and other rice diseases and insect pests in the early rice area will be heavier than that of the previous year; the "two migratory" pests of rice and the major migratory pest of corn, Spodoptera frugiperda, will also further spread to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River for one season. The rice and corn planting areas spread; in addition, the summer rainfall in the north is high, which is conducive to the re-emergence of diseases and insect pests such as corn borer and corn leaf spot in the northern corn producing areas.

  The situation of pest prevention and control is severe, and the task of "insects taking food" is arduous. It is even more necessary to continue to do a good job in meteorological monitoring and forecasting services for the occurrence and development of diseases and insect pests in autumn crops such as corn and rice.

Farmers should pay attention to the relevant service products released by the meteorological department and the agricultural department, and seize the opportunity to do a good job in the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests.

In view of the busy "three summers" this year, what service measures does the meteorological department have?

  Li Sen: The China Meteorological Administration attaches great importance to the "three summers" meteorological service, and organizes meteorological departments across the country to carry out meteorological services for the entire chain of agricultural production.

Provide refined services, make full use of satellite remote sensing and other technologies, strengthen the application of intelligent grid forecast products, provide refined agricultural production meteorological services by region, time period, and disaster type, and organize meteorological technicians to go deep into the fields to carry out special services.

Strengthen departmental cooperation, jointly conduct regular consultations with agricultural and rural departments, jointly issue early warning of dry-hot wind risk of winter wheat and early warning of meteorological conditions for the prevention and control of scab, and provide meteorological services to 3 million agricultural machinery operators, agricultural machinery operation managers and major grain growers.

  In the next step, the China Meteorological Administration will improve the service level of severe weather forecast and early warning services, scientifically study and judge the meteorological conditions of various agricultural diseases and insect pests, and carry out artificial rain enhancement and hail prevention operations in a timely manner, so as to help agriculture "grab the dragon's mouth" and "the insect's mouth" to ensure the summer grain. Harvest in time, return the pellets to the warehouse, and successfully sown summer crops at the right time.

  Reporter: Yu Ziru and Yanhong

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