To protect the "youth of you", the network needs to be "blocked and sparse"

  On the first anniversary of the implementation of the new "Unprotected Law", some parents believe that anti-addiction is effective. Experts say that the implementation of network protection needs to be continuously refined

  Since taking online classes at home, Xiaozhan, the son of Mr. Liu in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, has become addicted to mobile games, and the father and son have continued to "compete" for this.

On May 30, Mr. Liu told the Beijing News Shell Finance reporter that Xiaozhan's time to play games had been limited by the system, and his behavioral habits had been improved a lot.

  This year's "Children's Day" coincides with the first anniversary of the implementation of the newly revised "Minors Protection Law" (hereinafter referred to as the "Unprotected Law").

  Institutional research shows that about 90% of parents clearly support the current anti-addiction measures.

Experts said that since the implementation of the special chapter on network protection of the Unguaranteed Law, it has played a positive role in solving problems such as Internet addiction, online live broadcast rewards, cyberbullying, and online personal information leakage that affect the physical and mental health of minors.

  However, there are still some hidden dangers in the online life of minors. For example, there are still loopholes in the anti-addiction system, and online information is still mixed. At the same time, with the reduction of minors playing games, a considerable part of this group has begun to addicted to short videos again. .

  Relevant experts believe that the younger age and normalization of "touching the net" is the inevitable trend of the development of the times.

While enjoying digital dividends, Internet companies must actively fulfill their primary responsibility for protecting minors, and parents must also more actively fulfill their guardianship responsibilities.

The network protection of minors requires the joint efforts of parents, schools, and society.

  1 Anti-addiction and limited-time active children's mode makes parents more at ease

  "Anti-addiction is useful, at least the game platform limits children's game time." Mr. Yu, who lives in Beijing, told Shell Finance reporter that his daughter Xiaomei needed to take online lessons at home. Mr. Yu gave her a mobile phone, and Xiaomei began to get in touch with the Internet. game.

  In the beginning, Mr. Yu was not completely opposed to children playing online games, "It takes seven or eight hours for online classes and homework a day, and the child is very tired and needs to relax. In addition, her classmates and friends will talk about a certain game. If they don't play, it may be I can't integrate into the group." Mr. Yu stipulated that Xiaomei could not play games from Monday to Friday, and could relax on weekends.

  However, Xiaomei plays games online with her classmates on weekends, and she often loses time in it, which not only affects her study and rest, but also damages her eyesight, which makes Mr. Yu feel very conflicted.

  In the second half of 2021, the new regulations against game addiction will be implemented, and Xiaomei’s time to play games on weekends will be forcibly limited by the system.

Mr. Yu agrees with this move. "Parents are really relieved. I think at least 80% of children have reduced the time they spend playing games."

  In Anqing City, Anhui Province, Xiaoyu, a junior at a local vocational high school, was also affected by similar new regulations. He is still a few months away from turning 18.

When Xiaoyu was in junior high school, he was addicted to games. He told reporters that he had recharged thousands of yuan in games.

  In August 2021, Xiaoyu "couldn't continue to be addicted to the game" after the platform restricted him to play games for one hour a day on specific three days a week.

He has more time to plan and do other things, spend more time socializing with friends, no longer stay up late every day, and is healthier.

  Entering the third grade of vocational high school, the school management is more strict, and the mobile phone is kept by the class. Xiaoyu said, "This also greatly promotes my learning."

  In addition to the game time limit, other features on the platform, such as children's mode, also give some parents peace of mind.

Ms. Liu from Henan has two sons, an 8-year-old and a 10-year-old, who took online classes at home some time ago. Ms. Liu accidentally discovered that the children secretly switched to the game interface during the online class, which made her very worried.

  On May 27, Ms. Liu told reporters that since she learned that there is a children's mode on the platform, she has made corresponding settings. "In this mode, you can't play online games, you can only watch some children's videos."

  According to the "Progress Report on the Protection of Minors in China's Game Industry" released by Gamma Data in November 2021, 85.8% of minor users have been restricted by anti-addiction in the process of playing games.

  At the same time, about 90% of parents expressed their unequivocal support for the current anti-addiction measures.

Four out of 10 parents can directly perceive a significant or small decrease in their children's gaming time recently.

  The "2021 Game Industry Public Opinion Ecology Report" recently released by the relevant research group of the China Audio and Digital Association Game Working Committee also shows that more than 80% of the parents surveyed said that their children's game time has been reduced to varying degrees, of which 43% considered "significant reduction".

  The "Research Report on the Protection and Development of Minors on Internet Platforms" released by the research group of the Internet Literacy Research Center for Minors of Beijing Normal University shows that with the successive promulgation of national laws and regulations, four types of Internet platforms including games, live broadcasting, social networking, and audio and video have become increasingly popular. Comprehensive information prompts, technical protection, anti-addiction (comprehensive) management, emergency complaint and reporting mechanisms, privacy and personal information protection systems, scientific popularization and publicity and education, and minors' network literacy have all improved.

  2 The landing is effective but there are also loopholes, and there are hidden dangers in the network protection of minors

  "To make written laws become laws in practice requires the competent authorities to issue a series of supporting regulations and documents, and there has been great progress in this regard," said Yuan Ningning, deputy director of the Juvenile Affairs Governance and Legal Research Base of China University of Political Science and Law. say.

  Zheng Ning, director of the Law Department of the School of Cultural Industry Management, Communication University of China and director of the Cultural and Legal Research Center, said, "The effect is indeed there, at least now there is time control. In addition to the establishment of the game anti-addiction system, some platforms also It has launched its own anti-addiction function. For example, Douyin will automatically enter the youth mode for real-name authentication users under the age of 14. In this mode, it can only be used for 40 minutes a day, and cannot be used between 10:00 pm and 6:00 the next day. ."

  According to lawyer Wu Di of Beijing Deheng Law Firm, in August 2021, the Beijing Cultural Market Comprehensive Law Enforcement Team handled a typical case. The self-operated game platform of an information technology company in Beijing existed from 22:00 to 8:00 the next day. The act of providing online game services to minors.

After the investigation and evidence collection, the team interviewed the legal representative of the company, ordered the company to immediately stop the illegal behavior, and imposed an administrative penalty on the company in accordance with Article 127 of the Unguaranteed Law.

  However, the online world is all-encompassing and complex, and the hidden worries in the online life of minors have not been completely eliminated.

Shell Finance reporters noticed that on some social platforms, there are still game account rental services involving minors, and the software business replaced by face recognition still exists.

  Xiaoyu said that whether the face recognition system of some games pops up also has a probability factor, "If you play continuously for a long time every day and every day, the face recognition will often pop up, but like I now play it once, once For two or three hours, face recognition generally doesn't pop up."

  The survey of gamma data shows that there are two factors for not encountering the anti-addiction situation. On the one hand, the game account is registered as a parent; Addicted systems are difficult to function.

Xiaoyu said that over time, the anti-addiction system on the game platform gradually showed more loopholes.

  Liu Wenjie, a professor at the School of Comparative Law of China University of Political Science and Law, said, "In response to the situation of minors using adult accounts fraudulently, leading companies have set up a behavior model for minors and used algorithms to detect suspicious account activities, and further initiate identity verification on this basis. Or manual review. At the same time, install care software on minors’ mobile phones or other mobile devices to supervise their online behavior and length of time.”

  After the game time was reduced, Xiaoyu and his classmates began to spend a lot of time on short videos, and there was also a tendency to become addicted. "If you don't play for a while, you will feel uncomfortable."

  The report "The Impact of Internet Products on the Socialization of Chinese Teenagers" released by the relevant research group of the School of Journalism, Communication University of my country shows that the time spent by Chinese teenagers on games is limited, and more time is devoted to short video consumption.

According to data provided by CCTV Sofure, in the six months from June to November 2021, netizens between the ages of 15 and 22 spent an average of 42 minutes a day on short video products, slightly more than game products. time (average 30 minutes per day).

  "There are still many problems in the protection of minors on the Internet. For example, the implementation of the Internet real-name system has not been fully implemented, and there are many loopholes; the guardianship responsibilities of parents are not in place, and some parents indulge their children to indulge in the Internet; Internet information is mixed, which is still not conducive to future development. Information about the physical and mental health of adults is disseminated on the Internet; the protection of children's personal information needs to be further strengthened, and the system that requires the consent of guardians to process children's personal information has not been implemented yet," Zheng Ning said.

  Yuan Ningning also said that platform Internet companies now abide by the rules, but there is still a long way to go before they truly meet the legal requirements and the original intention of the law.

"There are also obviously some content that is not suitable for minors to watch on the short video platform."

  3 The main responsibility of the platform needs to "compact" parents, schools, and society to "link"

  In 2018, there were media reports on the phenomenon of milk tea shops renting out mobile phones to minors to play games in Nanchang, Jiujiang and other places, which once caused heated discussions.

  Zheng Ning said that if there is a milk tea shop to carry out this kind of business, it is definitely illegal, and "the relevant regulatory authorities should crack down on this kind of behavior."

  Yuan Ningning said that some loopholes in the anti-addiction of minors will continue to appear with new forms, and these new evasion measures and loopholes need to be studied in different categories.

"For example, game renting requires relevant departments to strengthen law enforcement, and relevant platforms must also perform supervisory duties."

  In Yuan Ningning's view, there are still various loopholes and problems in the protection of minors online, mainly due to two reasons. First, some platforms think that the regulations of the competent authorities are not very clear, so it is difficult to implement.

Another possibility is that the platform has not really incorporated the legal responsibility of protecting minors into its entire corporate governance and decision-making.

  "For example, the Unguaranteed Law stipulates that an information classification standard must be determined, and then the competent authorities need to issue more detailed regulations. There is still room for improvement in the implementation of the Unguaranteed Law."

  Yuan Ningning believes that under the premise of creating a good, healthy and safe network environment for minors, it is necessary to further clarify and condense the specific content of the legal provisions that the Internet platform needs to implement.

"After the Unprotected Law came into effect, protecting minors has become not only a social responsibility, but also a legal responsibility."

  Parents and Internet product service providers who are primarily responsible for the safety of minors on the Internet have always had different understandings.

In this regard, Yuan Ningning said that the principle he adheres to is "whoever creates and provides it will take the main responsibility." "Enterprises have won a lot of digital dividends in the development of the Internet, so at the beginning of product design and in operation, they should Targeted measures, don’t always make amends after the fact.”

  Zheng Ning also believes that solving the current problems requires the participation of various forces. "The government should increase law enforcement efforts to punish illegal acts; schools should join hands with parents to improve the Internet literacy of parents and children. Internet companies should increase technology research and development efforts, continue to Optimize the content pool of the juvenile model. The judiciary must establish a judgment standard through typical cases."

  Zheng Ning emphasized that now the parent link is relatively weak, and the linkage mechanism between home and school is not smooth enough.

  "Many parents actually indulge their children's behavior on the Internet, and it is difficult for children to have self-control." Zheng Ning believes that the improvement of parents' Internet literacy and the promotion of home-school cooperation are very necessary.

"The "Family Education Promotion Law" will be implemented on January 1, 2022. How to make parents truly play the responsibility of the first person responsible for family education and improve their family education level requires the efforts of the whole society. If this area can be improved, the entire future There will also be a big improvement in online protection for adults.”

  Yuan Ningning believes that in the process of consolidating platform responsibility, it is indeed necessary to further improve the awareness and ability of parental guardianship responsibility in the digital age through various means.

  Zheng Ning also said that the community can also participate, "for example, the family education guidance center established by the community to make up for the lack of parents' supervision ability, provide some psychological counseling for children, and provide some service counseling for parents."

  4 "Touching the Internet" at a younger age is worse than reducing the Internet literacy education ecology to be formed

  Liu Wenjie, a professor at the School of Comparative Law, China University of Political Science and Law, analyzed to Shell Finance reporter that in today's world where mobile devices have become a necessity of life, the younger and normalized "touching the Internet" is an inevitable trend in the development of the times, and the network protection of minors requires parents, Schools and society work together.

  "As far as the use of mobile devices such as mobile phones and the Internet are concerned, the focus of work should not be blindly on blocking, but also pay attention to dredging, that is, use positive, lively and interesting content to attract the attention of minors, and avoid blunt preaching and rhetoric. Mandatory management, only when minors are willing to cooperate with their home and school on the issue of accessing the Internet, and even report to their home and school in a timely manner for online inducement and fraud, can the governance work achieve the desired effect.”

  Zheng Ning emphasized the importance of offline activities.

"The phenomenon of Internet addiction among minors in the United States is not particularly prominent. A very important reason is that their daily offline activities are very rich, which makes people feel that the social interaction between people is more interesting. In the case of not violating the epidemic control policy, our The community, schools and parents should also strive to create a richer offline social scene for their children."

  In order to do a good job in the protection of minors on the Internet, it is necessary to further improve the Internet literacy of minors.

According to the Survey Report on Internet Literacy of Chinese Teenagers (2022) released by the Internet Literacy Research Center for Minors, School of Journalism and Communication, Beijing Normal University, the average score of Internet literacy among young people is 3.56 points (out of 5 points), slightly higher than the passing line.

  "At present, we have not yet formed an online literacy education ecosystem that is coordinated by individuals, families, schools, society, and the government. Youth Internet addiction, victims of Internet fraud, cyber violence, cyber crimes, and cyber anomie have also become a problem for the government and society. , schools and social issues that every family is concerned about.” Fang Zengquan, director of the Internet Literacy Research Center for Minors, School of Journalism and Communication, Beijing Normal University, pointed out that this is an era of rapid development of the Internet, and the majority of young people are faced with all kinds of information from all directions. It is very important for the growth and development of young people to improve the network literacy of young people and to build a healthy and civilized network ecology in the future.

  In this regard, Qi Xuejing, deputy director of the Internet Literacy Research Center for Minors, School of Journalism and Communication, Beijing Normal University, believes that "it is necessary to continue to improve the youth model, establish a rich content pool for youth, and strengthen the review and function optimization of content under the youth model; regular monitoring. Data risk, realize the standardized management of the platform; build a comprehensive information prompt matrix to optimize the use environment for minors; the platform can cooperate with professional science popularization institutions and youth education institutions, and use the platform's products and community advantages to empower popular science content, let More young users can ignite their passion for science through Internet platforms."

  (At the request of the interviewee, Xiaozhan, Xiaomei and Xiaoyu in the text are all pseudonyms)

  Beijing News Shell Finance reporter Sun Wenxuan