"New Vocational Teaching Law" builds a "overpass" for talents

  China's vocational education welcomes reform dividends

  Reporter Sun Yahui

  From May 1, the newly revised Vocational Education Law (hereinafter referred to as the "New Law") came into effect.

This is the first revision of the Vocational Education Law after 26 years. The length of the new law has been increased from more than 3,000 words to more than 10,000 words. It has developed new development concepts and institutional innovations, and systematically built a legal system for vocational education in the new era, which will play an important role in promoting the high-quality development of vocational education.

  Both educations are equally important

  One of the biggest highlights of this revision of the Vocational Education Law is for the first time to clarify in legal form that "vocational education is an education type that has the same important status as general education", and through the promotion of top-level designs such as general vocational integration, the real realization of vocational education from "" The transition from "level" to "type".

  "Positioning vocational education and general education as two different types of education is the basis for building a legal system for vocational education." Deng Chuanhuai, director of the Department of Policy and Regulations of the Ministry of Education, introduced that the new law stipulates that the state will promote the coordinated development of vocational education and general education; It is stipulated that vocational education is an education implemented in order to cultivate high-quality technical and technical personnel, so that the educated have the professional ethics, scientific culture, professional knowledge, technical skills and other professional comprehensive qualities and action capabilities required for engaging in a certain occupation or achieving professional development. ; stipulates that vocational school students enjoy equal opportunities with ordinary school students at the same level in terms of further education, employment, career development, etc., and prohibits the establishment of discriminatory policies.

  In fact, in the original Vocational Education Law, the purpose of vocational education was expressed as "cultivating technical and skilled talents", and the expression in the new law is "cultivating high-quality technical and technical talents".

Optimizing the positioning of vocational education types will provide high-quality human resource support for promoting economic and social development and improving national competitiveness.

  The new law focuses on establishing and improving a modern vocational education system that serves the lifelong learning of the whole people.

Specifically, a complete channel for the cultivation of technical and skilled talents is formed vertically, and it is stipulated that the education of higher vocational schools should be implemented by higher vocational schools and ordinary institutions of higher education at the junior college, undergraduate and above education levels; support for vocational enlightenment and vocational awareness in ordinary primary and secondary schools. , professional experience, etc.

Horizontal integration is to build a "overpass" between vocational education and general education, and stipulates that the state establish and improve the certification, accumulation and conversion mechanism of credits, qualifications and other learning achievements in school education and vocational training at all levels and types, and promote the learning of vocational education and general education. Achievement integration and mutual recognition; it is stipulated that vocational school education and vocational training are equally important, and vocational training institutions, vocational schools and other schools can all carry out vocational training.

  Broaden students' academic channels

  The new law abolished the expression of "general job diversion" and changed it to "adapt to local conditions and coordinate the development of vocational education and general education at different stages after compulsory education." "Cancellation of general job division after junior high school".

  "This is actually a misunderstanding." In the face of public concerns, Chen Ziji, director of the Department of Vocational Education and Adult Education of the Ministry of Education, said that the new statement is a response to the development of general vocational classification after compulsory education in my country based on "dual-track" education. To make a more scientific and standardized statement that keeps pace with the times, "It embodies the concept of high-quality and balanced development of education at all levels and types, and also provides a legal basis for the diversified development of high-quality education in my country."

  The implementation of "coordinated development of general vocational education" after compulsory education is not to cancel secondary vocational education, but to change the thinking of developing secondary vocational education and realize the basic transformation of secondary vocational education. The channel for vocational education students to grow into talents.

  "There are four key words to grasp. 'Post-compulsory education' refers to the implementation of general vocational education after junior high school education; 'different stages' refers to senior high school education and higher education, both vocational education and general education; 'according to local conditions' 'It means that there is no one-size-fits-all'. It is necessary to allow differences in the proportion of general vocational education in a certain range. The recruitment of vocational schools and ordinary schools can be reasonably planned according to the degree of regional social development, the needs of local industrial development and the construction of modern vocational education system. Scale; 'coordinated development' means that vocational education and general education are equally important, and there is no difference between the two types of education, but only the integration of school-running models and the difference in the way of educating people." Chen Ziji said.

  At the same time, the new law also makes provisions to improve the recognition and attractiveness of vocational education, and to enhance social fit and adaptability.

  The new law stipulates that the relevant majors of secondary vocational schools shall be recruited and cultivated in the same way as the education of higher vocational schools; higher vocational schools and ordinary institutions of higher learning that implement vocational education shall determine the corresponding proportion in the enrollment plan or adopt separate examination methods to recruit graduates from vocational schools exclusively. pregnancy.

This means that there is a channel between secondary vocational students and undergraduates.

  "In addition to the establishment of undergraduate-level vocational schools, the new law also reserves space for exploration in two aspects," said Chen Ziji, "One is to set up undergraduate vocational education majors in ordinary colleges and universities, and the other is to set up undergraduate vocational education majors in college-level vocational schools. All these fully demonstrate that students in vocational schools can not only study colleges, but also undergraduates, which has opened up the development channels of vocational school students from the legal level.”

  Solving the Difficulties in the Integration of Industry and Education

  The integration of production and education and school-enterprise cooperation are the basic models of vocational education and the key to running vocational education well.

However, for a long time, the lack of integration of production and education, and the lack of deep and unrealistic cooperation between schools and enterprises have always been the pain points and blocking points of vocational education.

  In the new law, the term "integration of production and education" is used to replace the "integration of production and education" in the original Vocational Education Law, and 9 "encourage", 23 "should" and 4 "must" are used to further clarify many measures.

  These include: the state plays the important role of enterprises in running schools, promotes enterprises to deeply participate in vocational education, and encourages enterprises to hold high-quality vocational education; enterprises can set up full-time or part-time positions to implement vocational education; the situation of enterprises carrying out vocational education should be included in corporate social responsibility Report.

In addition, the new law also includes incentive policies such as incentives and tax incentives for enterprises that deeply participate in the integration of industry and education and school-enterprise cooperation.

Chen Ziji said.

  According to Zhang Qihong, Secretary of the Party Committee of Beijing Electronic Science and Technology Vocational College, the implementation of the new law will surely create broad space and opportunities for the school to further promote the integration of production and education.

"This not only provides a legal guarantee for solving the 'hot' and 'cold' school-enterprise cooperation, and the integration of production and education, but also provides a legal guarantee for finding a suitable solution for both schools and enterprises under the premise of following market mechanisms and laws. The road of mutual benefit and win-win has pointed out the direction and strengthened the confidence." Zhang Qihong said.

  It is worth noting that this revision of the law also clarifies a key support and local-based investment mechanism.

Vocational education itself is a high-investment undertaking. According to the statistics of UNESCO, the cost of running vocational education is about three times that of general education.

In response to this situation, the new law adds provisions: the state shall, according to the industrial layout and the needs of industry development, take measures to vigorously develop emerging majors required by industries such as advanced manufacturing, and support the construction of high-level vocational schools and majors; The investment of education funds is in line with the development needs of vocational education, and it is encouraged to raise funds for the development of vocational education through various channels in accordance with the law; the provincial people's government shall formulate the standard of funding per student for vocational schools in its region or the standard for public funding, and the sponsors of vocational schools shall Funding standards or public funding standards are allocated on time and in full to continuously improve school-running conditions.