There is a new guide on how Chinese people "eat" (Health Express (stop 88))

  On March 6 this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out when he visited the members of the agricultural sector, social welfare and social security sectors who participated in the fifth session of the 13th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and participated in the joint group meeting, "We must establish a big food concept, from better satisfaction The people’s good life needs to start, grasp the changing trend of the people’s food structure, and ensure the effective supply of meat, vegetables, fruits, aquatic products and other foods while ensuring the supply of food.

  The starting point and end point of the "big food concept" is to ensure that people eat safe, healthy and nutritionally balanced.

So, what is more nutritious to eat?

How to eat healthier?

After a lapse of 6 years, the "Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents", known as the Chinese dietary collection, has been updated again recently, with new guidelines on how to "eat".

  Since the "Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents" was first issued in 1989, China has revised and released it three times in 1997, 2007 and 2016.

Recently, the Chinese Nutrition Society officially released the "Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2022)" (referred to as the "Guidelines").

The "Guide" was revised and completed by nearly 100 experts organized by the Chinese Nutrition Society in the past three years. It is suitable for healthy people aged 2 and above, and will play an active role in guiding residents to improve their nutritional health and prevent chronic diseases through a balanced diet.

  Balanced diet, the cornerstone of immunity

  "There are three conditions that determine a person's health quality: genetics, nutritional intake, acquired learning or training, including physical exercise, etc. Genetics are difficult to change in the short term, but lifestyle changes, especially dietary patterns. Changes and changes in physical activity have a very large impact on our physical condition." Professor Yang Yuexin, chairman of the Chinese Nutrition Society and director of the Expert Committee on Revision of Dietary Guidelines, pointed out that strengthening basic nutrition plays an important role in improving immunity.

  Each dietary guideline is formulated according to the principles of nutrition science and the new problems and new characteristics of the diet of Chinese residents.

The "Guidelines" revised the 6 "core recommendations" of the 2016 edition into 8 "dietary guidelines".

Among them, "food variety, mainly cereals" was adjusted to "food variety, reasonable collocation".

  "Balanced diet is the basic principle to protect human nutrition and health. Diversity of food is the foundation of a balanced diet, and a reasonable combination is the guarantee of a balanced diet." Yang Xiaoguang, vice chairman of the Chinese Nutrition Society and deputy director of the Expert Committee on Revision of Dietary Guidelines, pointed out that a balanced diet should be To achieve a variety of food, an average of more than 12 kinds of food should be consumed every day, and more than 25 kinds of food should be consumed every week.

In a balanced diet, carbohydrates provide 50%-60% of the body's energy, protein provides 10%-15% of energy, and fat provides 20%-30% of energy.

  Does the change from "food diversity, mainly cereals" to "food diversity and reasonable collocation" means no longer insisting on cereals?

"No. Grain-based is an important feature of a balanced dietary pattern. This revision emphasizes the overall role of the dietary pattern and highlights the importance of reasonable matching." Yang Yuexin said.

  At present, many people are more resistant to carbohydrates. Is this right?

Research at home and abroad has found that too high and too low carbohydrate intake is not conducive to human health, and the best balance is achieved when the carbohydrate energy supply ratio is 50%-60%.

Therefore, the "Guide" advocates a higher intake of whole grains.

  Why the special emphasis on eating whole grains?

"Because we eat too much refined grains in our current diet, which will directly lead to an increase in the risk of obesity and diabetes." Chang Cuiqing, vice chairman of the Chinese Nutrition Society and deputy director of the Dietary Guidelines Revision Expert Committee, pointed out that whole grains Food is an important source of B vitamins, dietary fiber, etc., and plays an important role in preventing chronic diseases and promoting human health.

Studies have shown that whole grains are also beneficial for regulating intestinal flora, so it is recommended to eat more whole grains.

  "Balanced diet is the foundation of improving immunity." Yang Yuexin emphasized that countless cells in the human body are constantly undergoing metabolism, including cells in the immune system. All cells need adequate and reasonable nutrition to achieve optimal functions. Balanced nutrition is the key to the human body. Fundamental to keeping the immune system alive.

Domestic and foreign studies have also shown that following a balanced diet pattern can significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, rectal cancer, and type 2 diabetes.

  Two principles, new highlights

  Compared with the 2016 version of the Dietary Guidelines, the "Guidelines" have added two new criteria: "eating regularly, drinking enough water" and "being able to cook, choose, and read labels".

  "The reason for the increase of 'regular meals' is that the proportion of regular meals is decreasing year by year, and we must be vigilant about this." Yang Yuexin reminded that irregular meals may increase the risk of overweight, obesity and diabetes.

  According to data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, from 2000 to 2018, the proportion of people over the age of 2 in my country who eat three meals a day has dropped from 84.3% in 2000 to 80.4% in 2018.

The "Guide" reminds that regular meals require three meals a day, regular rations, and a moderate diet. Breakfast should be eaten every day, and appropriate adjustments should be made according to work and rest time, labor intensity, etc.

  "Drinking water is mainly for adults. Men and women who are physically active should drink 1,700 ml and 1,500 ml of water per day, respectively." Yang Yuexin introduced.

Surveys show that about 2/3 of the residents in my country lack drinking water.

Inadequate water intake can reduce the body's mobility and cognition, and it can also increase the risk of urinary tract diseases.

Therefore, the "Guide" advocates drinking enough water, taking the initiative to drink water, and drinking a small amount of water frequently. At the same time, it is recommended to drink boiled water or tea, and drink less or no sugar-sweetened beverages.

  "You must drink water actively, and you can't drink when you are thirsty. Thirst is already a signal that the body is obviously dehydrated." Yang Yuexin said that everyone should learn to judge whether they are dehydrated, which can be judged by the amount of urine and the color of urine.

When the water intake is sufficient, the normal urine color is transparent yellow or light yellow. When the urine color deepens, it indicates that the body may consume less water, and water should be replenished in time.

  "Knowing how to cook, choose, and read labels" advocates healthy eating plans at all stages of life.

  "Nowadays, dining out and purchasing finished dishes for takeout are more and more in people's lives. This time, the principle of 'knowing how to cook, choose, and read labels' is proposed. Eat a reasonable diet to improve immunity; on the other hand, I hope to mobilize everyone to cook at home, choose food reasonably, experience the joy of cooking, and promote family happiness.” Yang Yuexin introduced that it is necessary to understand the nutritional characteristics of various foods, Choose fresh, nutrient-dense foods, learn to read food labels, and choose healthier packaged foods by comparing food nutrition labels. "I hope everyone practices a balanced diet at home, and carefully plans three meals a day. Better Reduce salt, oil, and sugar to achieve balanced nutrition and promote good health. When ordering meals, you should also take the initiative to put forward nutritional and health appeals, such as requiring less food, whole grain food, and less fried food, so as to create a healthy population for the whole people. environment."

  One old and one young, nutrition first

  In order to provide guidance on special issues for special populations, the Guidelines also formulated dietary guidelines for nine populations including pregnant women, nursing mothers, infants and young children.

Yang Yuexin reminded that among the 9 specific groups, special attention should be paid to the dietary nutrition of the "old and young" groups of the elderly and infants.

  As the average life expectancy of Chinese residents continues to increase, the proportion of elderly people aged 80 and above has gradually increased.

The functions of various systems in the body of most elderly people have declined significantly, and they often suffer from a variety of chronic diseases, requiring more professional, refined and individualized dietary guidance.

  For the "one-old" crowd, the "Guide" points out that the elderly should pay attention to a variety of foods and encourage multiple ways to eat.

Choose foods that are soft in texture and high in energy and nutrient density.

Eat more fish, poultry, eggs, milk and beans, and a moderate amount of vegetables and fruits.

Weight monitoring, nutritional assessment and dietary guidance should be performed frequently.

  There is a folk saying that "money can't buy old people to be thin", and many elderly people also agree with this very much, thinking that thinness means good health.

However, scientific research shows that this view is not correct.

According to Yang Yuexin, a number of research results at home and abroad have shown that being too thin in the elderly will lead to reduced resistance and increased risk of death.

Moreover, the judging threshold of the body mass index (BMI) for the elderly is not the same as that of young and middle-aged people. The basic consensus formed by experts and scholars is that the weight of the elderly should not be too low, and the BMI of 20.0-26.9 is more suitable. .

  "Elderly people should monitor their weight frequently. When the body weight is too low or the BMI is less than 20, special attention should be paid to medical nutrition assessment, to analyze what causes the weight loss, and to assess whether there is weakness and malnutrition." Yang Yuexin It is said that after entering old age, no matter whether you are too fat or too thin, extreme measures should not be taken to make a large change in weight in a short period of time.

  Experts remind that in addition to the elderly, children in the growth and development stage, their BMI judgments can not use the judgment standards of adults.

Children at different stages of growth and development should be judged according to different ages and genders.

  For the "small" group, the "Guide" points out that breastfeeding is the best way to feed babies after birth, and should insist on exclusive breastfeeding within 6 months of age. Complementary food must be added to babies from the age of 6 months, starting from iron-rich mud paste. start with similar foods and continue breastfeeding until 2 years of age or older.

  "Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months after the baby is born is something we have repeatedly emphasized. This edition of the "Guide" expresses the importance of breastfeeding infants and young children in firmer language." Yang Yuexin said that breastfeeding can not only reduce the risk of breastfeeding The risk of infectious and allergic diseases in infants also helps reduce the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood.

It is recommended to start breastfeeding within 1 hour after giving birth, attach importance to early sucking, promote responsive feeding, and supplement vitamin D appropriately. Once you have any thoughts or actions that shake breastfeeding, you must consult a doctor or other professionals and let them help make a decision.

  Wang Meihua