Life is a hundred years, standing in early childhood.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the reform and development of preschool education has affected thousands of households.

  "In the past ten years, my country's preschool education has achieved leapfrog development, and its popularization level ranks among the top in the world. The majority of school-age children have a fair opportunity to receive preschool education; in the past decade, preschool education resources have undergone pattern changes, and the background of public welfare and inclusiveness. More clearly, the people's sense of happiness and gain has been significantly enhanced; in the past ten years, the preschool education governance system has been continuously improved, and the level of running kindergartens has been significantly improved, laying a solid foundation for improving the quality of the people and building an educational powerhouse; this decade, preschool education has always been Based on the national conditions and the courage to innovate, we have created a preschool education development experience with Chinese characteristics and contributed Chinese solutions to the world."

  At the first "1+1" series of conferences held by the Ministry of Education on April 26, Lu Yugang, director of the Department of Basic Education of the Ministry of Education, concluded.

The "difficulty in entering the park" has been solved, and the level of popularization has been greatly improved

  Over the past ten years, the central government has made important arrangements for a comprehensive system.

The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to "run preschool education well", and the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China called for continuous new progress in the upbringing of children; It clarified the basic direction of public welfare and inclusiveness in preschool education, and proposed major policy measures to promote the development of universal, inclusive, safe and high-quality preschool education.

The state has implemented the Action Plan for ten consecutive years, the central government has established special funds to support the development of preschool education, and implemented a series of major preschool education projects.

  Lyu Yugang said that all sectors of society have gradually formed a broad consensus, and party committees, governments and relevant departments at all levels have become more aware that "investing in preschool education is investing in the future".

  Focusing on solving the "difficulty in entering the kindergarten", we will continue to expand the supply of preschool education resources to ensure "there is a kindergarten".

In the past ten years, the total amount of preschool education resources has increased rapidly. In 2021, the number of kindergartens nationwide will reach 295,000, an increase of 128,000 or 76.8% over 2011, which effectively guarantees the increasing demand for school-age children to enter kindergartens.

The gross enrollment rate continues to increase rapidly. In 2021, the number of children in kindergartens nationwide will reach 48.052 million, an increase of 13.808 million over 2011. The gross enrollment rate in the three years of pre-school will increase from 62.3% in 2011 to 88.1% in 2021. , an increase of 25.8 percentage points, and preschool education has been basically popularized.

The central and western regions and rural areas are developing the fastest. About 80% of the new kindergartens nationwide are concentrated in the central and western regions, and about 60% are distributed in rural areas.

  In Nanjing, in the past ten years, the city-level fiscal year has invested nearly 300 million yuan per year, which has been specially used for the implementation of "three projects": implementing incremental projects to ensure "parking", implementing projects to benefit the people to ensure "affordable", Implement the improvement project to ensure "good performance".

  "More and more parents in Nanjing are happy to choose a kindergarten at their doorstep," said Sun Baijun, director of the Nanjing Education Bureau.

To solve the "expensive entry into the park", inclusive resources are widely covered

  Ten years ago, my country's nine-year compulsory education was fully popularized, the high school stage developed rapidly, and higher education entered the popular stage. Preschool education has become the biggest shortcoming of my country's education.

  "In fact, the so-called 'difficult to enter the kindergarten' is 'difficult to enter the public kindergarten', there is a shortage of public education resources in various places, and the 'expensive to enter the kindergarten' is the 'expensive to enter the high-quality private kindergarten'. The fundamental solution is to adhere to the development direction of public welfare and inclusive preschool education, and accelerate the development of public welfare and inclusive preschool education.” said Zhang Zhiyong, executive director of the China Education Policy Research Institute of Beijing Normal University.

  Focusing on solving the "expensive entry into the park", efforts are made to build a park-running system with inclusive resources as the main body to achieve "affordable".

In 2021, there will be 245,000 inclusive kindergartens (including public and inclusive private kindergartens) nationwide, accounting for 83% of the total number of kindergartens, of which 128,000 are public kindergartens, an increase of 149.7% over 2011. It plays an important role in protecting the bottom line, maintaining basics, stabilizing charges, and leading the way.

In 2021, the proportion of children in inclusive kindergartens nationwide will reach 87.8%, an increase of 20.5 percentage points over 2016 (the proportion of children in inclusive kindergartens will be counted since 2016), of which 12 provinces exceed 90%, effectively guaranteeing The vast majority of children enjoy inclusive preschool education, and the level of inclusiveness has been greatly improved.

  Lyu Yugang introduced that the country adheres to the principle of "government investment should be the mainstay and families should reasonably share", and the investment mechanism for preschool education funds has been continuously improved.

In the past ten years, financial investment has continued to increase. In 2020, the national fiscal preschool education expenditure will be 253.2 billion yuan, a five-fold increase from 41.6 billion yuan in 2011. The proportion of fiscal education expenditure will increase from 2.2% in 2011 to 2020. of 5.9%.

The central government has invested more than 170 billion yuan in the special funds for the development of preschool education in ten years, which has effectively stimulated the rapid growth of local financial investment and provided a strong guarantee for the development of preschool education.

  From the central to the local level, policies and measures to accelerate the development of preschool education are unprecedented.

"Three key links have been grasped: first, focus on investment, especially the central government's establishment of special funds to drive local governments to continuously increase financial investment; second, expand resources, take measures to vigorously develop public kindergartens, and strengthen inclusive kindergartens in urban communities. Supporting construction, actively support inclusive private kindergartens, encourage enterprises, institutions, and rural collectives to run kindergartens; the third is to strengthen the team and introduce a series of policies to speed up the construction of kindergarten teachers." Zhang Zhiyong believes.

Crack the "primary school" and significantly improve the quality of care and education

  As an early childhood educator who has been working in the front line for 35 years, Yu Lin, the principal of Chengdu No. 16 Kindergarten, has participated in the previous reforms of preschool education and felt a huge leap in the quality of preschool education. "The development process from "high-quality inclusive benefits" to "young children with good education".

  "In the past ten years, we have fully realized the great value of games to children's growth." Yu Lin said with emotion.

She told a little story from her own experience - seeing the leaves of the yellow juicy tree on the playground, the children spontaneously played the game of falling leaves raining and fighting leaves.

Teachers seized this opportunity to guide parents to participate together, and supported the children to carry out game activities around fallen leaves for nearly a month.

From simply playing, to paving the road with fallen leaves, to numbering hundreds of fallen leaves, they study why the leaves that have just fallen are moist but dry up after a few hours?

How many different kinds of leaves are there in kindergarten?

Pieces of small leaves carry interesting games and questions worth exploring, forming a silent but meaningful educational world.

This is the teaching routine of "playing as the basic activity", integrating learning into children's lives, and writing confidence into the children's hearts.

  Focusing on solving the "primary school", the country adheres to the simultaneous advancement of pre-school education connotation construction and career development, and strives to ensure "good gardens".

Lu Yugang introduced that in the past ten years, the scientific concept of education protection has been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, and professional guidance has been continuously strengthened. The Ministry of Education has successively issued a series of documents such as the "Guidelines for Kindergarten Education" and "Guidelines for the Learning and Development of Children aged 3 to 6", establishing a relatively complete guidance system. , to provide strong professional guidance for scientific education.

Carry out in-depth special governance of "primary school", actively promote the "connection between young and primary school", vigorously promote the typical experience represented by "Anji Games", continuously improve the pre-school teaching and research system, and promote the effective implementation of "game-based activities" to effectively promote Healthy physical and mental growth of children.

  At the same time, the scale of teacher training has continued to expand over the past decade. In 2021, there will be 1,095 colleges and universities offering preschool education majors nationwide, with 265,000 graduates, providing strong support for the continuous replenishment of kindergarten teachers.

The staffing of teachers has basically met the standard, and the student-teacher ratio has dropped from 26:1 in 2011 to 15:1 in 2021, basically reaching the staffing standard of "two teachings and one guarantee", and the problem of teacher shortage has been effectively solved.

The quality of teachers has been significantly improved, and the educational structure has been further optimized. In 2021, the proportion of principals and full-time teachers with a college degree or above will reach 87.8%, an increase of 24 percentage points from 2011.

The "National Training Program" for kindergarten teachers has been continuously implemented. From 2012 to 2020, a total of 4.3 billion yuan has been invested in training more than 2.43 million kindergarten teachers, and the professional level of teachers has been significantly improved.

  Education must follow the laws of human physical and mental development.

Zhang Zhiyong said that the promulgation of a series of policy documents for preschool education, the development of multiple governance actions, and the promotion of scientific parenting knowledge for many years are all done on the basis of respecting the laws, and they are also continuing to advance on the basis of respecting the laws. Yes, this is an important prerequisite and guarantee for the healthy and happy growth of children.

(Reporter Jin Xiaoyan of this newspaper)

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