The problem of illegal occupation is centralized, the supervision department is not strict in law enforcement, and the progress of local governance is slow.

It is urgent to protect the black land

  Our reporter Huang Qiuxia Yang Wenjia

  "One tael of soil and two taels of oil" is an image of the fertility of black soil.

Because of the highest organic matter content and the strongest output capacity, black land is known as "the giant panda in cultivated land".

  Recently, the second round of the fifth batch of central ecological and environmental protection inspectors reported that Suihua City, Heilongjiang Province, located in the core area of ​​black soil in northeast China, has a large number of illegal occupation of black soil arable land and other problems.

The staff found that the problem of insufficient implementation of black soil protection measures is widespread.

  It is a clear request put forward by General Secretary Xi Jinping to protect the black land and ensure that the black land is not reduced or degraded.

What are the outstanding issues reflected in this report?

What is the reason behind it?

How to draw inferences from other facts to compact responsibility?

  Two illegally promoted construction projects in Suihua City, Heilongjiang Province actually illegally occupied 18,144 mu of black soil arable land

  Located in the Hulan River Basin of the Songnen Plain, Suihua City is located in the Manchuan Mangang District in the central part of Heilongjiang Province.

  "I didn't expect that the black land in Jingui was ruined so much." He Xin, a staff member of the Central First Ecological Environmental Protection Inspectorate, told reporters that since 2018, there has been a large number of illegal occupation of black land in Suihua City. , a large number of black soil cultivated land, and even permanent basic farmland was destroyed.

In only two illegally promoted construction projects, the actual illegal occupation of black soil farmland reached 18,144 mu, including 10,923 mu of permanent basic farmland. "Similar situations are also common in other black soil distribution areas."

  How did the problem surface?

"In the early stage of the inspection of the inspectors, we reviewed a large number of audit and land inspector-related materials, and sorted out a total of 124 illegal cases of occupation of black soil and cultivated land in Suihua City since 2018." He Xin introduced that after investigation, Suihua City has vigorously promoted since 2019. Two provincial-level transportation construction projects in China started construction illegally without implementing the expropriation of agricultural land, the balance between the occupation and compensation of cultivated land, and the approval procedures for land use and the permit to start the project.

Knowing that the procedures were incomplete, the local authorities required the relevant functional departments to "unload the ideological burden of fear of accountability" and "relax law enforcement from the overall situation of the work."

During the project implementation, the stripped topsoil was not used for land reclamation and improvement treatment as required.

  在治理侵蚀沟方面,问题同样不少。侵蚀沟是东北黑土区水土流失的典型表现形式,直接导致黑土地数量减少、土层变薄。绥化市是《全国水土保持规划(2015—2030年)》明确的侵蚀沟治理重点区域,全市有1.4万余条侵蚀沟,沟壑总面积达128.9平方公里,自然损毁黑土耕地十余万亩。

  何歆指出,绥化市在治理侵蚀沟中“等靠要”思想严重,治理工作推进十分缓慢。根据《黑龙江省侵蚀沟治理工程实施方案(2017—2020年)》,绥化市应于2020年底前完成1152条侵蚀沟治理任务,实际仅完成治理256条。该市庆安县应完成128条侵蚀沟治理任务,实际一条都未完成治理,明显不作为。现场督察发现,庆安县民旺治理项目区侵蚀沟密布,大片耕地千沟百壑;海伦市共合镇多条侵蚀沟近年来仍在快速扩大。

  此外,为保护耕作层表土资源,《黑龙江省耕地保护条例》和《东北黑土地保护规划纲要(2017—2030年)》明确要求,对非农业建设项目所占用耕地的耕作层土壤应进行剥离,剥离的土壤主要用于土地复垦和改良治理。

  然而,绥化市2017年以来实施的426个已办理用地审批手续的非农业建设项目中,仅有5个项目编制表土剥离方案并实施剥离,多达1.3万余亩耕地被直接占用,超过180万立方米的黑土资源没有得到有效再利用。绥化市有关部门对以上问题监管缺位,有法不依、执法不严。

  “绥化市黑土地保护工作暴露出的短板,反映出分布广泛的黑土地亟须进行统筹保护和治理。”中央生态环境保护督察办公室有关负责人表示。

  落实黑土地保护政策大打折扣、弄虚作假,是黑土地保护和治理不力的突出问题

  记者调查发现,落实黑土地保护政策大打折扣、弄虚作假,是黑土地保护和治理不力的突出问题。

  Jilin Province is located in the hinterland of black land in the northeast, and more than 90% of the cultivated land in the province is black land.

In July 2018, the "Regulations on the Protection of Black Land in Jilin Province" came into effect, protecting black land in accordance with the law.

In September 2021, the inspection team of the Central No. 1 Ecological Environmental Protection Inspection Group found that Fuyu City did not pay enough attention to the protection of black soil, the implementation of the "Regulations" was not in place, and measures such as stripping the topsoil of black land occupied by construction and controlling the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides were not implemented. Part of the black land was destroyed.

  The inspection team pointed out that the inspectors found that from 2018 to 2020, six projects in Fuyu City occupied black land, and none of them carried out topsoil stripping in accordance with the "Regulations" and relevant policies and regulations, causing the black land to be covered and damaged, covering an area of ​​8.83 hectares.

In 2018, only the construction of the First Experimental School in Fuyu City occupied 5.78 hectares of black land; the 25,000-ton potato product project of Songyuan Bilanshi Circular Economy Fuyu Co., Ltd. was not approved and occupied 1.51 hectares of black land, not only did not implement topsoil stripping , and the black soil of the cultivated layer excavated from the construction of the waste water storage tank will be used for the construction of the roadbed.

  Another finding of the inspectors was that the local government used a unified caliber to falsify and deal with the inspectors.

The "Regulations" stipulate that the people's governments at or above the county level should organize the implementation of soil testing and formula fertilization, support the research and development, production and application of organic fertilizers, encourage land operators to accumulate and apply farmyard manure and other organic fertilizers, reduce the use of chemical fertilizers, and strictly control pesticides Usage amount.

The inspection team found that the data on fertilizer reduction and pesticide control in Fuyu City were seriously inaccurate.

  "Fuyu City did not conduct a fixed-point survey on the use of chemical fertilizers as required, but calculated the amount of use based on farmers' planting habits, and the fertilizer reduction data 'step by step'. The table shows that although the land conditions for planting are different, the reduction rate of chemical fertilizer application per unit area of ​​farmers in the same village is exactly the same; the chemical fertilizer application rate of the 8 surveyed households in Wujin Village in 2020 is reduced by 9.09% compared with 2019, and the chemical fertilizer application rate in 2019 Compared with 2018, the reduction rate of chemical fertilizer application was 5.71%; the chemical fertilizer application rate of the 10 surveyed households in Yongli Village in 2020 was reduced by 5.17% compared with 2019, and the chemical fertilizer application rate in 2019 was reduced by 3.33% compared with 2018.

  However, the inspection team randomly visited the farmers on the questionnaire and found that some farmers increased the amount of chemical fertilizers in order to increase production, which is contrary to the trend of the data reported by the local relevant departments.

  A similar situation exists in the pesticide survey statistics in Fuyu City.

According to the inspection team, the relevant departments of the city uniformly distributed the regular knowledge and precautions of black soil inspectors to all townships within their jurisdiction, and distributed theoretical reference data such as the usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, agricultural film recovery rate from 2018 to 2020, and instructed all townships to unify The caliber requires that when the inspection team asks for materials, "don't take them out at one time", and insist that the relevant data come from field investigations.

When the inspection team visited the farmers, the staff of the relevant departments repeatedly "rushed to answer" and "instructed" the farmers to pay attention to the statement. The relevant practices are really dealing with the inspectors and cheating.

  Some localities and departments have lack of responsibility, perfunctory response, insufficient supervision, and ineffective measures, forming a blind spot for supervision, opening the door for illegal mining and reselling.

  As one of the only three black soil areas in the world, the Northeast Plain has a typical black soil cultivated area of ​​278 million mu, which is a key part of maintaining the red line of 1.8 billion mu of cultivated land.

Insufficient protection of black land directly affects food production and agricultural development, and poses a huge threat to the ecological security and national food security in Northeast China.

  The relevant person in charge of the Central Ecological and Environmental Protection Inspectorate told reporters that due to long-term high-intensity development and utilization, soil erosion and other reasons, the black soil degradation problem in Northeast China is serious, the soil layer has become thinner, the fertility has become thinner, and the texture has become hard.

  "Some prefectures and cities with important black soil resources lack a deep understanding of the extreme importance of black soil protection, and the urge to protect it to make way for development is still relatively strong. , mere formality, lax and unrealistic style, resulting in the implementation of the relevant requirements less than the 'last mile', or even not implemented at all." The person in charge introduced.

  At the supervisory level, the responsibilities of the relevant departments are lacking, and the ability to perform their duties is lacking, not only the work progress is slow, but also effective measures and methods cannot be taken to manage.

"Some functional departments don't even know that they have the function of protecting black soil." He Xin admitted that the black soil stripped from the project construction should be used for land reclamation and improvement of low- and medium-yield fields, but due to the lack of supervision by relevant departments, these black soils were actually All wasted.

  The reporter combed the 2021 land violation cases reported by the Law Enforcement Bureau of the Ministry of Natural Resources and found that the problem of poor supervision is quite prominent.

In January 2021, 4 people including Ma and Wang looted peat black soil in the name of land transformation, involving 143.15 mu of cultivated land in Futai Village, Shahezi Town, Wuchang City, Heilongjiang Province. The responsible person shall be given party discipline and government sanctions.

In April 2019, an international trade company in Liaoning Province occupied 25.31 mu of arable land in Cuijiatun Village, Yiniubaozi Town, and Majiagou Village, Sanmianchuan Town, Faku County without authorization to build the Xianxia Town project. Criticism, education, admonishment talk.

  Lack of strict law enforcement and supervision and ineffective measures have formed blind and weak areas in supervision, and also opened the door for illegal harvesting and reselling.

An industry insider engaged in the landscaping industry revealed to reporters that the survival rate of green plants grown with black soil is relatively high, and black soil is quite popular in the field of landscaping. Digging black soil can earn more than 100,000 yuan a night, which is almost a huge profit without cost.” The reporter browsed several major e-commerce platforms and found that many merchants were selling “Northeast peat soil” and “Northeast humus soil”. The price is about 2 yuan per catty, and the purchase volume can also be discounted.

  "In terms of system construction, at present, the country and the Northeast region have formulated some plans and implementation plans for the protection of black land, but there are still problems such as insufficient policy synergy, no stable investment mechanism, and unclear responsibility subjects, which are easy to fight independently. , Lack of overall planning.” He Xin, for example, said that in terms of black soil erosion ditch distributed across regions, more funds are required for governance, and there is no mature working mechanism in terms of who will pay, how much, and who will supervise.

  It is imperative to protect the black land. We must strengthen political supervision, accurately regulate and make good use of accountability tools, and consolidate the main responsibility of the party committee and government.

  In order to keep the scarce black soil resources, protect and improve the quality of black soil arable land, and comprehensively control the soil erosion of black soil, it is urgent.

  Many interviewees believed that bringing the protection of black land into the track of the rule of law and strictly regulating the behavior of land use and cultivated land quality protection are the fundamental solutions.

The reporter noticed that the 32nd meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People's Congress reviewed the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Black Land (Draft), and is currently soliciting opinions.

At the local legislative level, the "Regulations on the Protection and Utilization of Black Land in Heilongjiang Province" will come into force on March 1 this year.

  It is the responsibility of the discipline inspection and supervision organs to promote the protection of black land.

Disciplinary inspection and supervision organs in relevant regions should focus on the political height, based on their duties and functions, strengthen political supervision, accurately regulate and make good use of accountability tools, and consolidate the main responsibility of the party committee and government.

  The Commission for Discipline Inspection and Supervision of Siping City, Jilin Province carried out special supervision on the protection of black land, and sent a "Reminder Letter on Doing a Good Job in the Legislative Work on the Protection of Black Land" to the municipal government. , and strengthen the assessment and accountability of black land protection work.

  The Municipal Commission for Discipline Inspection and Supervision has also formulated a task list, clarified 67 key points of supervision in 10 aspects, and quantified indicators of supervision matters, supervising and investigating problems such as the ineffectiveness of conserving black land, the ineffective implementation of policies to benefit people and rich farmers, and the ineffective supervision of agricultural production and operation. , to prevent protection work from taking forms and discounts.

In addition, the Municipal Agriculture and Rural Affairs Bureau, the Market Supervision and Administration Bureau and other departments sent the supervision work assignment sheet, requiring strengthening of supervision and law enforcement, and strictly preventing the flow of unqualified chemical fertilizers and fake and inferior pesticides to the black land.

  In order to protect valuable cultivated land resources, the Liaoning Provincial Commission for Discipline Inspection and Supervision carried out three special rectifications, namely, the construction of houses, "houses" and illegally built villas in rural areas, to strictly investigate and deal with corruption, work style and dereliction of duty, and resolutely curb them. Black soil cultivated land is non-agricultural and non-food.

Since the launch of the special rectification, the province's discipline inspection and supervision organs have given 689 party discipline and government sanctions.

  "The Northeast region must fully understand the great significance of black soil protection from the strategic perspective of ensuring national food security, the 'bigger of the country'." The relevant person in charge of the Disciplinary Inspection and Supervision Team of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and the State Supervision Commission of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment told reporters that the The work of the Disciplinary Inspection and Supervision Team is embedded in the supervision and inspection team, requiring key inspectors to implement the Party Central Committee's decision-making and deployment on the protection of black land, conduct strict and in-depth investigation and collection of evidence, determine facts, and be held accountable in a scientific and precise manner.

  In response to the ineffective protection of black land in Suihua City, the discipline inspection and supervision team required the local area to be held accountable and rectified.

At the same time, by clearly supervising the ledger and attending special meetings as non-voting means, the Party committees in the departments were given suggestions and reminders, and pragmatic measures were required to restore the black soil ecosystem and long-term protection of the black soil ecological functional areas.

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