Who has more practice and who has less books? How to balance both burden reduction and high-quality development——


  "Double reduction" spawns the reconstruction of the after-school education system

【First-line exploration】

  The "double reduction" policy was implemented for 100 days, triggering a chain reaction, and after-school education started a historic system reconstruction.

At present, the focus of after-school education in various places has begun to shift from basic services to professional design. Schools have extensively consulted on course projects and coordinated social resources.

The winter vacation is approaching, how do we grasp our direction and goals?

How is the architecture guaranteed?

How to draw lessons from Chinese and foreign experience?

After-school education involves the development of 200 million students, it is necessary to follow the high-quality development policy, and carry out system design, professional structure, and ecological layout according to social development needs, human growth laws, and learning principles.

"Double reduction" is strongly driven, and the needs are multiple and superimposed. How to grasp the positioning of after-school education reconstruction?

  "Double reduction" has overcome difficulties and opened up the way for the reconstruction of after-school education.

However, the reconstruction of after-school education is a social system project that cannot be rushed. It not only has a large body, high requirements, and many loads, but also has a complex structure and diverse forms. Work collaboration such as the human mode is faced with the challenge of multiple overlapping demands.

At present, after-school education in the world can be divided into four categories from the perspective of elements: first, quality improvement, including art, technology, sports, creativity and other projects, with the main purpose of skill learning, expansion and improvement; second, coursework tutoring, including mathematics and science The courses of chemical biology, language and sound and body beauty are divided into the main points of checking supplements, proficiency, and improvement; the third is cognitive development, including science, society, humanities, Chinese studies, etc., with the main themes of gaining knowledge, solving puzzles, and asking questions ; The fourth is social practice, including community activities, community services, social participation and life skills and other activities, with the main purpose of organization, collaboration and overall planning.

From this, it is not difficult to see that after-school education covers all aspects of basic education and lifelong growth, and can be regarded as the cornerstone of students' comprehensive and individual development.

  Then, from the perspective of talent training goals, what are the guiding concepts that run through these activities?

I boil it down to one sentence, developing skills, integrating knowledge, and developing literacy through hands-on participation in the problem-solving process.

This is the essence of after-school education and the fundamental difference between after-school education and in-class studies and out-of-school practice.

Therefore, after-school education has an independent function of educating people, and to grasp its positioning, three key points should be emphasized: complete education includes three basic functions, and after-school education carries one of them, which is indispensable; after-school education functions are like "three links" , the absence and dislocation of this joint will lead to obstruction of the whole chain; after-school education is an "advanced" in-class education and should be developed into a higher level of education.

  From the perspective of the function of educating the whole person, since the emergence of modern schools in the 18th century, the functions of education have been divided into three.

One is the teaching of book knowledge, which is mainly completed in class; the other is the acquisition of practical knowledge, which is mainly completed outside the school.

Third, there is a connection and bridge from books to practice, and the connection, integration and reprocessing of various elements of knowledge application are completed mainly after class.

According to the needs of social development for education, before all kinds of talents enter the society, they must not only complete the accumulation of basic knowledge, build a good and open knowledge structure, but also learn to do things, be able to cope with lifelong learning and basic life problems, and have a certain amount of knowledge. Practical experience, completion of basic socialization education, and preparation for workplace creation.

Basic education lasts 15 years. If there is a lack of "knowledge and action integration" after school, it means that this integration function should be postponed to the workplace, which will not only be more wasteful, but also difficult to achieve a high level of "integration of knowledge and action".

  From the perspective of the process of educating the whole sports person, after-school education undertakes the input of knowledge in the classroom, and then connects with the output of practice outside the school, that is, it should play the role of "three links".

According to the law of human growth, the integration of after-school education is an intermediate joint from "knowing" in the classroom to "creating" outside the school. Before creating, you must learn how to do it, and reach the level of "knowing" to form "knowing" - "knowing" "—"Create" a complete pass.

Without the "knowing to do" joint, it's hard to get across to the "create" level.

According to the logic of the education profession, the "three links" are substantive functions. It is necessary to apply the knowledge, concepts, methods, etc. learned in the class smoothly to practice through special course projects, connect them to the real situation, and support the solution of real problems. It is also the essence and value of after-school education.

  From the perspective of the human mechanism of education and sports, global education has undergone continuous changes in the 70 years after World War II, mainly focusing on the way of educating people, and the core is the integration and balance of knowledge teaching and practical activities. Integrated teaching has evolved into the current project-based teaching and interdisciplinary practice.

Nowadays, the primary and secondary school classrooms in the developed regions of the world represented by the United States are mostly "work-style" classrooms with problem solving as the axis. Students can study problems like experts and experience the complete exploration process of solving various problems. and building knowledge in practice.

At present, we are basically still teaching subjects, and it has come to the time when we must make breakthroughs.

"Double reduction" drives the reconstruction of after-school education at the right time. Without subverting the existing education and teaching system and examination and evaluation model, we should learn from the experience of project-based teaching and develop an integrated after-school education form with problem solving as the main body. , to connect the in-class, after-class, and out-of-school to achieve overall optimization, quality improvement, and efficiency increase.

  Looking at the century-old reform of Chinese and foreign education, it basically focuses on who has more knowledge and practice and how to balance the interaction between the two.

In the early international exploration of this issue, most of them adopted the idea of ​​"two-in-one" integration of knowledge and practice.

Entering the 21st century, George W. Bush promulgated the "Leave a Child Left Behind" Act in 2001, which proposed seven priority issues including performance accountability and high standards, annual academic monitoring, and compulsory remedial education.

This plan has been criticized for strengthening book knowledge and one-sided pursuit of scores.

At the end of 2015, Obama signed the "Let Every Child Succeed" Act, reducing testing, weakening accountability, and promoting comprehensive learning and interdisciplinary practice, providing a creative space for a number of innovative teaching methods such as project-based learning and STEM.

In the more than 20 years since the resumption of the college entrance examination to the end of the last century, my country has adopted an examination-oriented traction strategy and focused on knowledge teaching. At the beginning of this century, a large-scale curriculum reform was launched in 2001, focusing on solving students' lack of innovation, practice and responsibility. In addition to the curriculum content system, teaching methods In addition to the reform of examination and evaluation, a special subject of "comprehensive practice activities" has also been set up.

The revelation of the past 20 years is that a single discipline cannot support such a comprehensive structural change, the gap between knowledge instillation and application practice is still difficult to bridge, and the underlying logic of the unity of knowledge and action is still difficult to construct.

It is necessary to reduce the burden and develop high-quality development. What is the logic behind the reconstruction of after-school education?

  Among the many expectations of "double reduction", some value ease and simplicity, some value individual choice, and some value improving quality and efficiency. Different subjects such as government, schools, families and society and their different levels have different demands.

  These expectations are transmitted to the reconstruction of after-school education, which not only considers the logic of social needs, but also considers the logic of student development and education.

With the normal operation of after-school education, more attention should be paid to the logic of education.

At present, most schools mainly arrange homework tutoring, free reading, scattered projects and other activities after school, which are at the basic operation level and can only meet the primary needs of social families. How to give full play to the special education function of after-school education should be the core issue currently facing .

In the past, our inertial thinking believed that after-class was an extension, supplement or expansion of the class, and it seemed to be related to whatever content was filled. Of course, the entire education system was regarded as a linear structure and logical chain centered on in-class knowledge teaching.

However, in the 1990s, this concept was terminated on a global scale, and new learning theories based on situational construction, social participation, and collaborative learning were established. Classrooms in developed regions have evolved into scenario-based, project-based, and comprehensive After class, it is mostly an interdisciplinary practice and research project paradigm.

Therefore, we emphasize that after-school education should return to the professional logic, according to the functional orientation of "three links", to be a "double reduction" flood channel, an energy storage bank for improving quality and efficiency in class, and a research field for out-of-school practice and innovation .

  After-school education is the "double reduction" flood discharge, focusing on integration, integration and integration.

By doing things, we can connect inside and outside the school, inside and outside the classroom, and unify multiple learning elements in one thing. We will do it deeply and thoroughly, and use one to control ten, so as to realize "reduction and increase" and change the "incremental" thinking.

At present, the United States emphasizes solving the problem of "one mile wide and one inch deep" in curriculum teaching. Classes on the east and west coasts generally adopt project-based learning, problem-based learning, and work-based learning, which is also a good reminder for us.

  After-school education can improve the quality and efficiency of the classroom, and focus on real situations, real problems, and real experiences.

Emphasize "background", explore in real situations, restore knowledge to real events, let students find the source of learning, discover the ins and outs of knowledge, and enhance observation, understanding and positioning ability; emphasize "problems", study needs real solutions It connects the project activities to real life production affairs, so that students have the opportunity to figure out the essence of learning, discover the value of knowledge, experience the meaning of doing things, and enhance internal drive, control and sense of gain; emphasizing "experience", Construct experience in project activities, and in project activities can talk to self, society, and the world, and guide students to explore the essence of life, to discover a better self, to open up a larger world, to enhance introspection, Mental ability and sense of growth.

  After-school education should lay the foundation for practical innovation, focusing on discovering potential, exploring potential, and developing potential.

At present, the classrooms of primary and secondary schools in my country are still mostly large-class lectures based on knowledge learning.

According to the principles of sociology, this kind of unified learning model is always about one-third adapted, one-third forced, and one-third blocked.

Children's "unsuccessful" learning is often not the child's own problem, but mostly because the curriculum form, teaching method, and space environment are not suitable enough. Children are eager to find their own development channel.

This requires more choice in after-school, home and social learning settings.

To discover potential is to make after class a time and space for students to explore in depth.

After-school services are designed in accordance with the new classroom concept of comprehensive learning, with real learning projects as the main content, activities and practice as the main implementation methods, and strive to allow each student to have independent study projects, venues and environments.

To explore potential is to make after-school a time and space for students' academic empowerment.

Design after-school study activities in accordance with the project-based learning method, highlight ability improvement, strengthen problem solving, teamwork and creative innovation, and strive to give every student the opportunity to solve problems and express themselves.

(Author: Lv Wenqing, former head of the Academic Committee of Zhongguancun University)

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