Let's think about the refugee problem December 15, 14:00

Those who are displaced from their hometown by conflict or persecution.

As of the end of 2020, there were approximately 82.4 million “refugees” and “internally displaced persons”.

This time, let's think about refugees.

Challenge the problem!

First, let's take a look at the entrance exam questions related to refugees.

Question


Which is the right United Nations agency, founded in 1950, to support refugees and refugees internationally and to work towards solving the refugee problem?

Choose one from the following and answer with a symbol.


A WHO


I ILO


UNHCR


E UNCTAD


(Fujimi Junior High School 2020 renamed)

The correct answer is "UNHCR", or "UN High Commissioner for Refugees" in Japanese.

What is UNHCR?

We asked Mr. Toshitsuki Kawauchi, Deputy Representative of UNHCR Office in Japan, what kind of activities he is doing.

Mr. Kawauchi


"For example, it is easy to imagine that in refugee camps, we distribute water, food, and clothing. Not only that, but also children are educated to secure opportunities to work and earn income. As a premise to receive, I will make records and documents that the person is in that country or place. It will be a very diverse job. "

The number of refugees and refugees around the world continues to grow.


In Syria in the Middle East, where the civil war continues, Venezuela in South America, where the economic downturn continues, Afghanistan where Tullivan regains power, and in Myanmar, the Rohingya, a minority of Muslims, have fled the persecution of Myanmar troops. Many are forced to live in refugee camps in neighboring Myanmar.


To support these people, UNHCR employs more than 12,000 people in 135 countries.

This is Mr. Kadiza Begom from Rohingya, who is receiving UNHCR education support in Japan.

I live with my husband who has been recognized as a refugee.

Mr. Kadiza


"I had a dream

like'come to

Japan and go to university'since I was in Bangladesh."

Mr. Kadiza was able to receive UNHCR's "Refugee Higher Education Program", a scholarship program for refugees to attend universities and graduate schools.

Supported by that system, I graduated from university and am currently studying refugee rights and challenges at graduate school.

Mr. Kadiza


"I think I have to do my best to be educated and help them, and to get to the point where they can be helped."

UNHCR history

In the 1951 Refugee Convention, refugees are defined as those who have left the border due to political persecution or other reasons.

For this reason, UNHCR has protected those who have fled the country.


The 1991 Gulf War triggered a major change in that policy.


The Kurds, who had been cracked down in Iraq after the war, uprised.

They tried to escape the Iraqi army that was in control, but many people could not cross the border and lost their place.

At that time, it was Sadako Ogata, the head of UNHCR at the time, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, who made the big decision.


Change policy after discussion.


They embarked on the protection and support of Kurds evacuating the country.

Mr. Ogata:


"It will change the rules, but I think the basic principles are the same. In other words, it means protecting refugees. To ensure the safety of life."

Internally displaced persons 48 million


refugees 26.4 million


(2020 UNHCR summary)

As of the end of 2020, the number of internally displaced persons in the world is significantly higher than the number of refugees fleeing abroad.

Mr. Kawauchi


"It was very significant that

Mr.

Ogata laid the foundation for us to deal with such a situation properly."

What is the attitude required for the accepting side?

What kind of attitude do we need to accept refugees, including us in Japan?

Mr. Kawauchi


"I actually met many refugees in the field as UNHCR staff, but like us, I hope for a happy life with my family, I am worried about work, I have goals. They are people who are studying hard and thinking and going to be completely the same as us. I think it is important to accept that they are people who can be members of society. "

Japan also recognizes refugees based on the 1951 Convention, but it has been pointed out that the recognition rate will be around 1% in 2020, which is stricter than in Europe and the United States.


In July 2021, UNHCR and the Immigration Bureau of Japan signed a memorandum of understanding to improve the refugee recognition system.


Mr. Kawauchi said that it is important to understand exactly how refugee examinations are conducted in Japan, and that he would like to work together.

In "Migake, Curiosity!" Of "Weekly Maru-Knowledge News" (broadcast at 9:00 am on Saturday), we will delve into the news every week on the subject of current affairs raised in the entrance examination.


Let's think of "why?", In fact, "in the first place" that you want to know as a Kamakura caster!



You can also review the past on the homepage of the corner.


Please take a look from the link below!

https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/special/maruwaka-migake/

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