Members of the new government in Tunisia headed by Najla Boden took the constitutional oath before President Kais Saied at the Carthage Palace in a ceremony broadcast live on Monday, October 11, 2021.

The Boden government, which included 24 independent members, including 10 women, is the 13th government since the Jasmine Revolution, which erupted on December 17, 2010 and culminated on January 14, 2011 with the flight of the late President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali outside the country.

Mohamed Ghannouchi (European News Agency)

1. The first government of Mohamed Ghannouchi (January 17, 2011 - January 27, 2011)

- This government headed by Mohamed Ghannouchi (headed the Tunisian government during the era of Ben Ali between 1989 and January 2011) included 38 ministers and secretaries of state (deputy ministers), and this government only lasted 10 days after it witnessed many disagreements and resignations.

2 - The second government of Mohamed Ghannouchi (January 27, 2011 - March 7, 2011)

- After protests against the presence of members of the party of ousted President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the "Constitutional Democratic Rally" in important positions in the interim government and the resignation of a number of ministers, the government was reshuffled on January 27, 2011, and the Tunisian General Labor Union decided not to participate in it, but He supported this new government, which included 33 ministers and secretaries of state.

Tunisian President Beji Caid Essebsi (Al Jazeera)

3 - The government of Beji Caid Essebsi (March 7, 2011 - December 22, 2011)

- It was formed after the resignation of former Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi on February 27, 2011, and the resignation of some ministers, but most of them retained their positions after the final selection was announced in the Essebsi government, which included 31 ministers and secretaries of state.

Hammadi Al-Jabali (Getty Images)

4 - Government of Hammadi Al-Jabali (December 24, 2011 - March 13, 2013)

- The government of Hamadi Jebali - Secretary-General of the Ennahda Movement at the time - took over from its predecessor, headed by the late Beji Caid Essebsi, and it consisted of 30 ministers and 11 state clerks.

Ali Al-Arayedh (Getty Images)

5 - Government of Ali Al-Arayedh (March 13, 2013 - January 23, 2014)

Ali Al-Arayedh’s government assumed its duties from its predecessor headed by Jebali, who announced his resignation after the assassination of the leftist leader Chokri Belaid on February 6, 2013. The government consisted of 27 ministers and 10 state secretaries.

Mahdi Jomaa (Getty Images)

6 - Government of Mahdi Jomaa (January 29, 2014 - February 6, 2015)

- After the assassination of the leader of the Nasserist nationalist movement in Tunisia, Mohamed Brahmi, on July 25, 2013, a political crisis erupted, and the opposition, led by Essebsi, head of the Nidaa Tounes party (founded in June 2012), demanded the resignation of Larayedh's government.

- Beginning in September 2013, a national dialogue was held under the auspices of 4 major national organizations, namely the Tunisian General Labor Union (the largest trade union), the Tunisian Union of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts (the Employers Union), the Tunisian League for the Defense of Human Rights, and the National Authority of Tunisian Lawyers.

- The dialogue resulted in an agreement between the dialogue parties, including the Ennahda movement, to form a technocratic government that would lead the country to organize elections after the new constitution was ratified by the National Constituent Assembly (a temporary parliament elected on October 23, 2011).

- It was agreed that Mahdi Gomaa, Minister of Industry in the Al-Arayed government, would be the head of the government, and the government was formed of 21 ministers and 7 secretaries of state, all of whom were independents.

Habib Fishing (French)

7 - The first government of Habib Essid (February 6, 2015 - January 6, 2016)

- The October 2014 legislative elections resulted in Nidaa Tounes winning 85 out of 217 seats in the House of People’s Representatives. Ennahda came second with 69 seats, followed by the Free Patriotic Union with 16, the Popular Front with 15 deputies, and Afaq Tounes with 8 deputies.

- Habib Essid was assigned to form the government, which consisted of 26 ministers and 14 state secretaries.

8 - The second government of Habib Essid (January 6, 2016 - August 29, 2016)

- Essid announced a cabinet reshuffle that included the abolition of all posts of state secretaries, and the number of ministers was 32, including 9 for Nidaa Tounes, and 3 for each of Afaq Tounes and the Free Patriotic Union, and Ennahda won two ministers.

Youssef Chahed (Getty Images)

9 - Youssef Chahed's first government (August 28, 2016 - November 6, 2018)

- After Essid failed to gain Parliament's confidence again at the end of July 2016, then President Essebsi assigned Minister of Local Affairs Youssef Chahed to form a new government of 26 ministers and 14 state clerks, which won the confidence of Parliament.

10 - Youssef Chahed's second government (November 14, 2018 - February 28, 2020)

- On November 5, 2018, Chahed announced a major cabinet reshuffle, according to which he appointed 11 new members of the government, while 7 ministers left.

The ministers obtained the confidence of Parliament on November 12, and the government became composed of 28 ministers and 14 state secretaries.

Elias Fakhfakh (Anatolia)

11- Government of Elias Fakhfakh (February 28, 2020 - September 3, 2020)

After the failure of the government of Habib Jemli, nominated by Ennahda, to gain the confidence of Parliament on January 11, 2020, President Kais Saied assigned the leader of the Democratic Ettakatol Party for Labor and Freedoms (no representatives) Elias Fakhfakh, to form the government that took over from its predecessor under the chairmanship of Al-Shahed on February 28, 2020, and it included 29 ministers and 3 state secretaries.

A meeting between Tunisian President Kais Saied and former Prime Minister Hicham Al-Mashichi at the Presidential Palace in Carthage (social networking sites)

12 - Hisham al-Mashishi government (September 3, 2020 - July 25, 2021)

- Fakhfakh submitted his resignation on July 16, 2020, against the background of a conflict of interest case brought against him by the National Anti-Corruption Authority.

Subsequently, President Qais Saeed assigned the then Minister of Interior Hisham Al-Mashishi to form the government, which gained the confidence of Parliament on September 3, 2021, and continued until the president completed its mission by announcing the procedures for July 25, 2021.

- The government was made up of 25 ministers and 3 state secretaries, all of them independent, but it was supported by the Ennahda movement, the Heart of Tunisia party, the Dignity Coalition and the Long Live Tounes movement.

Naglaa Boden (Getty Images)

13- Government of Naglaa Boden (11 October 2021 - ...)

- More than two months after the dismissal of the government of Hisham Al-Mashishi, Qais Saeed supervised the ceremony of announcing the formation of the new government, headed by Najla Boden, and comprising 25 ministers and female secretary of state.

Powers of the Prime Minister in the 2014 Constitution

- Since the adoption of the 2014 Constitution of Tunisia, the head of government has had wide powers in the executive authority, part of which he shares with the President of the Republic.

- The Head of Government works in the Dar El Bey Palace, which is located in the Government Square in the Kasbah of the old city of Tunis.

- After the revolution, the prime minister became the head of the government, and he has the most important powers and tasks of the executive authority.

- According to the Law on the Temporary Organization of Public Power issued on December 16, 2011, and then the 2014 Constitution of Tunisia, the President of the Republic shall request the political party with the majority in the Legislative Council to present a candidate to head and form the government.

The 2014 constitution stipulates that the prime minister is the one who heads the cabinet and not the president of the republic, and the prime minister also has the right to create and delete ministries, and define the tasks and powers of each of the institutions that fall under the supervision of the government.

- The head of government also appoints senior civil servants, in cooperation with the minister competent in this field, and also appoints the governor of the Central Bank of Tunisia, in consultation with the President of the Republic. He can also dissolve local councils, municipal councils and regional councils.

Keywords: kais saied, government, mohamed ghannouchi, zine el abidine ben ali, state, mahdi gomaa, getty images, beji caid essebsi, ministers, deputy ministers, governments, tunisia, najla boden, jasmine revolution, resignation