Patients with four types of chronic diseases can eat like this during the New Year

  Supervisor: Dr. Chen Chaogang, Chief Physician, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University; Wang Cheng, Chief Physician, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University

  Every year during the Spring Festival holiday, many patients with chronic diseases seek medical treatment due to improper eating and drinking, which may cause aggravation or acute attack.

Chief Physician Wang Cheng, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, said that patients with common chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, and gout cannot eat as much as they want, or eat whatever they want.

  Chief Physician Chen Chaogang of the Clinical Nutrition Department of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University pointed out that patients with chronic diseases must "hold the bottom line and pay attention to basic principles" during the Spring Festival holiday in order to eat with peace of mind and peace of mind, so that they and their families can enjoy the new year.

  Text/Guangzhou Daily All-Media Reporter Ren Shanshan Correspondents Huang Rui and Liu Haiqing

  Diabetic patients: pay attention to control the total amount and order of meals

  In addition to following the basic requirements of daily diabetic diet recommended by nutritionists, sugar friends should also pay attention to the following three points during dinner during the New Year.

  One is to add a small meal in advance:

  In theory, diabetic patients should eat on time. However, most families eat late during the holidays, and many people at the table will drink some "little wine" to add to the fun. Therefore, nutritionists suggest that diabetic patients can add meals between 15:00 and 17:00 in the afternoon. Meals and snacks can not only avoid eating too late to induce hypoglycemia, but also help control the amount of meals on the New Year’s Eve and reduce the health damage caused by drinking.

It is worth noting that the total amount of extra meals should not be too much, and there are also requirements for food varieties. It is better to have a combination of carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and other comprehensive nutrients.

It is recommended that 1 fruit with a low glycemic index (150-200g), plus one of the following three, a few nuts (for example, 15 peanuts in shell or half a handful of melon seeds), or 1 box of fresh milk (200- 250 ml), or about 30 grams of coarse grains such as oats.

  The second is to pay attention to the order of food:

  For most family dinners, meat, fish and seafood are "coming together".

In order to prevent high blood sugar after meals, sugar friends should follow the order of "vegetables, meats and staple foods".

All kinds of vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, have a very low glycemic index. You should mix as many vegetables as possible before or when eating high-protein foods such as meat.

The total amount of vegetables in a meal should not be less than half a catty (250 grams raw weight).

When eating the above foods, you should also eat a certain amount of staple foods such as cereals, and it is advisable to match coarse and fine grains, such as corn ballast, red rice and millet, etc. cooked with white rice, or black rice, millet, oatmeal, etc. Or a variety of porridge, or eat corn on the cob directly.

Not eating any staple food is against the basic dietary principles of diabetes.

  The third is to control the total amount:

  The usual medication or insulin dosage of many sugar friends is designed according to the daily diet. If you eat too much, the daily medication or insulin dosage may not be effective.

Therefore, as an alternative, non-staple foods such as meat and fish can be increased by about 50 grams on a usual basis, and staple foods such as cereals can be appropriately reduced by 1/3.

If you really need to drink wine and beverages, it is recommended to choose dry red wine and sugar-free beverages, both of which are controlled at 100-150 ml.

  Patients with gastrointestinal diseases: "One change" and "two taboos"

  One is to choose foods that are easy to digest:

  Choose warm food, which is easier to digest than raw and cold food.

Especially for sticky foods such as glutinous rice, after being cold, polysaccharide chains aggregate and the solubility decreases, and the degradation efficiency of digestive enzymes decreases, making it difficult to digest.

Also avoid hard foods, such as fried foods and cold glutinous rice products, which increase the burden on the digestive tract.

You should also avoid flatulence foods, such as whole beans, potatoes, onions and garlic that are not finely processed.

  The second is to avoid irritating food:

  Spicy and irritating foods such as hot peppers are the enemy of gastrointestinal diseases. Generally, patients with chronic gastrointestinal diseases need to avoid them.

Drinking alcohol can also cause irritation to the stomach.

It’s common for relatives and friends to gather for a New Year’s Eve dinner to have a few drinks. However, patients with gastrointestinal, liver and spleen diseases should avoid drinking alcohol.

Alcohol has great damage to the gastric mucosa, especially for patients with gastrointestinal diseases. Heavy drinking can even cause gastric bleeding or perforation.

  The third is to avoid overeating:

  Overeating can increase the burden on the stomach and intestines, and it is undoubtedly worse for patients with gastrointestinal diseases. Once they are overwhelmed, they will induce acute attacks.

Therefore, it is necessary to "slow down" at gatherings. You can't eat as much as you want. Chewing slowly can help control food intake and facilitate digestion and absorption.

Vegetables, meat, fish, and staple foods are eaten cyclically in order to avoid excessive intake of high-protein foods in a short time and increase the burden of gastrointestinal digestion.

  Gout patients: "Three taboos" and "three mores" in diet

  "Three taboos":

  "Three taboos" refer to avoid drinking broth and beer, avoid eating offal and certain seafood (most seafood with shells), and avoid eating soybeans.

  These foods are high in purine content, about 150 milligrams or more per hectogram of purine, which are high-purine foods.

The purine content of each 100ml of thick broth (juice) (including fish soup, chicken soup, bone soup, mushroom soup, etc.) is 100-500 mg, so it is forbidden to drink, including hot pot soup containing the above ingredients.

  The following is the content of purines per 100g of edible part of food (mg): clams 316, hairtail 391.6, dried bream 366.7, mullet 183.2, clam 426.3, white pomfret 238, silver carp 202.4, scallop 390 , Chicken liver 293.5, dried small fish 1538.9, shiitake mushroom (dry) 404.9, oyster 239, duck liver 301.5, conger 159.5, shiitake mushroom 214, pig small intestine 262.2, saury 355.4, beef liver 169.5, pig liver 229, soybean 218, black bean 137.4, pork belly 132.4, these foods are high-purine foods, should avoid eating.

  In addition, the purine content of commonly eaten meat is also moderately high. The total amount of meat for the New Year's Eve dinner for patients with chronic gout should be strictly limited, not exceeding 100 grams or less.

The purines (mg) in edible parts of common meats per 100g are: chicken thigh 140.3, chicken breast 137.4, chicken gizzard 138.4, duck 138.4, pork 132.6, it is recommended to blanch or eat stewed meat before cooking. .

Purine is easy to dissolve in water, and part of the purine can be removed.

  Although the purine per 100g of beer is only 60-90 mg, because the beer is easy to drink, the accumulated purine content is very large. Liquor and wine will produce acetic acid in the body, lower the urine pH value, and reduce the excretion of uric acid. All kinds of wine are not suitable for drinking.

  "Three more":

  "San Duo" refers to drink more water and milk, eat more fruits and vegetables, and eat more grains.

  Drinking plenty of boiled water and light tea during meals can help excrete uric acid in time and reduce excessive uric acid deposition.

"Tea instead of wine", which is often said at entertainment dinners, is very suitable for gout patients.

  In animal foods rich in high-quality protein, the purines of milk and eggs are very low, and intake can be increased appropriately. For example, during meals, use low-fat or skimmed milk instead of alcohol or beverages to respect friends and relatives, which is healthy and courteous.

Eggs have high cholesterol, so the number of eggs should also be controlled at 1-2.

  Fresh fruits and vegetables are alkaline foods, which help increase uric acid excretion.

Fresh vegetables, especially leafy vegetables, can appropriately relax the requirements. The total amount of vegetables is 300-500 grams, especially when the meal starts, you can deliberately eat a few more bites of vegetables to "base".

You can eat 200-400 grams of fruit before or after a meal, but not too much, because the fruit is rich in fructose, excessive fructose is also one of the reasons for the increase in uric acid, so it is not suitable to drink fruit juice, and it is not suitable to use fruit juice as wine Come to cheers."

  The purine content of cereals is generally very low, so eating more cereals has the advantage of "satisfaction", thereby reducing the consumption of various meats.

  Cardiovascular patients: diet should be "three low" and "three more"

  During the New Year’s Eve dinner, the principle of "three lows and three more" needs to be implemented.

  "Three Lows":

  "Three lows" refers to low fat, low salt and low sugar.

  One is low-fat: high-fat food is a risk factor that induces hyperlipidemia and increased blood viscosity.

High-fat foods are divided into three main sources. One is visible fat, such as fatty meat, "pork belly", fried and fried foods, fatty sausages, bacon, bacon, and other fatty foods. These foods should be strictly restricted, and the total amount should be minimized or avoided as much as possible; the second is "invisible fat", that is, it is not easy to detect, such as pure milk, lean meat, various nuts, biscuits and other snacks, as well as eggs, squid, Cuttlefish, animal organs, etc., all contain a certain amount of fat or cholesterol, and the intake should be appropriately controlled; third, for dishes that use too much oil or cooking oil, on the one hand, control the intake, on the other hand, you can soak and clean with tea before eating .

  The second is low salt: the sodium content in table salt is high, the latter is an important factor in causing high blood pressure.

Patients with high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease should control the intake of salt per meal at 2-3 grams or less. When eating, if the dishes are salty, it means that more salt is put in, and you should avoid eating or use tea. Eat after washing.

In addition, pickles, salted fish, various processed and preserved foods, snacks, etc., contain or may contain more salt, and should be controlled or avoided.

  The third is low sugar: increased triglycerides have a certain relationship with the excessive intake of fructose. Therefore, all sugar-containing beverages should be controlled, pure juices and fruits should not be too much, and cereals such as staple foods should be properly controlled.

In addition, drink alcohol carefully, especially in patients with high blood pressure. Alcohol can increase blood pressure.

  "Three more":

  "San Duo" refers to more vegetables, more soybean food, and more sea fish.

  One is to eat more fresh vegetables: Fresh vegetables are rich in vitamins and minerals, which are good for heart health, and their high dietary fiber content also helps reduce the absorption of sugar and fat.

Each meal should eat no less than 250 grams of vegetables, and the types and colors are rich and varied.

However, vegetables for New Year's Eve dinner are often oily and salty, so it is better to wash them with warm water or light tea before eating.

  The second is to choose more soy foods: Soy foods contain high-quality protein and soy isoflavones, which are good for heart health.

The traditional New Year’s Eve dinner should include soybean kelp soup, black fungus fried dried tofu (dried tofu), fish head tofu soup, etc., which are all delicious dishes of soybeans or their products. You can even use sugar-free soy milk as a drink at the banquet. "This is healthier.

Soybean or its products can replace part of meat and fish as a source of high-quality protein nutrition for human body.

  The third is to choose more marine fish: marine fish, including hairtail, pomfret, mackerel, mackerel, salmon, etc., contain high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which help regulate blood lipids and protect heart function.

You can choose several kinds of sea fish appropriately to replace other meat foods, thereby reducing meat consumption.