Guan Yu in and out of the play

  "Thousands of miles to ride alone" is false

  A "yi" is true

  Zhang Yonghe

  In the history of China, Guan Yu is an extraordinary figure, especially popular among the people. For thousands of years, Guan Yu's stories have been widely circulated, and a far-reaching "Guan Gong" culture has been derived. The reason why Guan Yu's image is deeply rooted in people's hearts has a lot to do with the interpretation of dramas. It is precisely because of the colorful "Guan Yu Drama" that people will become familiar with Guan Yu's story.

  However, what is the difference between Guan Yu inside and outside the play?

The Complete Works of the Relics of Guan Sheng Emperor's Relics in Lu Zhan Series

  Why is "Guan Yu Opera" so popular

  On the stage of Peking Opera, there are two "Masters", one is Guan Yuguan and the other is Yue Feiyue. Guan Yu is the incarnation of the word "yi", and Yue Fei is a model of the word "loyalty". Therefore, he is respected, and even on the stage, only one surname is reported, which shows the degree of respect. There have been more than forty "Guan Yu operas" in Peking Opera, and a new business has been created-the actor playing Guan Yu is called "Hong Sheng".

  The gold content of these forty-plus Guan Yu plays is different. One of them is a big play. It is written that Guan Yu went away from Cao Ying. He searched his brother Liu Bei for thousands of miles, crossed five levels, cut six generals, and went through hardships. After nine deaths, his brother reunited in the ancient city. Fu Yanhan. This big play is made up of several zigzag plays, including "Footprint Seal", "Baqiao Picking Robe", "Five Passes", "Cut Six Generals", and "Ancient City Meeting", ending with "Training Brother", with the total name "Qianli" Walking alone, or "Twelve Years of Cao Ying".

  The plot of "One Thousand Miles Walking Alone" is quite fascinating. Guan Yu, who temporarily returned to Cao Ying, decided to resign Cao Xunxiong after learning Liu Bei's whereabouts. Cao Cao knew his intention and avoided it. Guan Yu hanged Hou Yin, the Hanshou Pavilion, and bid farewell to the gold and silver invitations, and Bao Ersao rushed out of Xuchang. Cao Cao learned that the hurried generals of the Wenchen hurried to see him off. Everyone planned to kill Guan Yu, Cao Cao let go, and said: "Invincible." Chasing to Baling Bridge, Guan Yu immediately waited. Cao Cao explained the intention and presented Jinpao. Guan Yu immediately picked up the Jinpao with a blue dragon knife, and then walked away. Guan Yu and his entourage went to Xuchang and went to Hebei, passing through five passes such as Dongling Pass, Luoyang City, Bishui Pass, Xingyang City and the Yellow River Ferry. They successively cut swords and cut Cao Jun's guards Kong Xiu, Han Fu, Meng Tan, Bian Xi, Cao General Wang Zhi, Qin Qi and other six members were put to death and succeeded in getting out of danger. They approached the ancient city where Liu Bei and Zhang Fei were entrenched. Qin Qi's uncle and Cao Ying general Cai Yang led an army to chase Guan Yu to revenge, and Guan Yu ordered Ma Tong to report to the ancient city. Zhang Fei came from Cao Yingzhong to avoid fraud. At this time, the soldiers of Cai Yang chased under the city, Guan Yu struggling to cut Cai Yiziming, Zhang Fei cleared his doubts, and welcomed Guan Yu into the ancient city. Zhang Fei was guilty of petitioning, Guan Yu admonished Zhang Fei for suspicion, and after Liu Bei persuaded him, the three brothers were reconciled as before, and then they planned to do great things.

  This play is based on the 26th to 28th episodes of "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms", and also references the "Pinghua of the Three Kingdoms" in the Yuan Dynasty and the "Guan Yun Chang Yi Yong Ci Jin", "Shou Ting Hou Wu Guan Shui Jiang", "Guan Yun Long Thousand Miles Alone", etc. The Zaju of Yuan Dynasty has also drawn some plots from the legend of Ming Dynasty's "Ancient City". The play was brilliant and the image of Guan Erye was deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.

  However, based on historical facts, many plots of this famous play are fictitious.

Stills of "A Thousand Miles Walking Alone"

  2. "Crossing five barriers, cutting six generals" is a fiction

  In history, has Guan Yu been as brave as the one shown in Peking Opera, and surpassing ten thousand people? This is true. Guan Yu is indeed superior in martial arts. According to historical books such as "Zi Zhi Tong Jian" and "Three Kingdoms", Guan Yu and Zhang Fei were called "ten thousand enemies" by Cao Cao's master planner Cheng Yu and others, and Zhou Yu even referred to these brothers as "bearing tiger generals." From the mouth of the enemy's courtiers and coaches, it also confirmed the courage of Guan and Zhang from the side.

  However, Guan Yu's "crossing five stages and severing six generals" is not historical fact, but artistic creation. Because Guan Yu was sent away by Cao Cao, Guan Yu walked calmly, not in danger.

  "Three Kingdoms · Biography of Guan Yu" contains: "At the beginning, Cao Gongzhuang was a man, and his heart was not long-lasting. He said Zhang Liao said:'Qing tried to ask it with affection.' Both Liao Yiwen asked Yu, Yu Tan said:'Wuji I know that Cao Gong treats me with generosity, but I am under the mercy of General Liu, and vow to die together, not to bear it. I will not stay, and I will act as a reward to Cao Gongnai.'Liao Yiyu said to Cao Gong, Cao Gongyi After Yu Yu killed Yan Liang, Cao Gong knew that he would go and added rewards. Yu tried to seal his gift and prayed to leave, and Mr. Ben Yu Yuanjun."

  What was Cao Cao's attitude at this time? "(Cao Ying) wants to chase it, Cao Gong said:'Each is his master, don't chase it.'" ("Zizhi Tongjian·Hanji Fifty-five") Since Cao Cao is in this attitude, to Guan Yu this This kind of "righteousness" that does not forget the old Lord is very appreciated, and when Guan Yu left Cao Benliu, he ordered the right and left Wenwu not to catch up, so "crossing the five levels and cutting the six generals" is fictional. Of course, Guan Yu passed the stage and cut down the generals, writing extremely vivid and vivid, which is amazing! But the so-called "Five Passes" have problems in choosing a location.

  When Guan Yu solved Bai Liangwei and cut off Yan Liang, he learned that Liu Bei was in Yuan Shaojun and wanted to go to vote. At this time, according to the "Emperor Wudi", "(Cao) Gong returned to the army, (Yuan) Shao entered Baoyang Wu." At this time, "Guan Yu died and returned to Liu Bei". The former site of Guandu is in the northeast of present-day Zhongmu County, Henan Province. The former site of Yangwu is in Yuanyang County, present-day Henan Province. It is only forty miles away from the former site of Guandu. The two armies were only forty miles away, and Guan Yuxun was only a quick journey away.

  There is also a saying that it is slightly different from these forty miles. The Biography of the Three Kingdoms, the First Lord (Liu Bei) and the Three Kingdoms, Emperor Wudi are stated as: "Cao Gong and Yuan Shao refused to Guandu, Runan Huangjin Liu Pi and others betrayed Cao Gongying Shao. Shao Xianxian sent his soldiers and Pi to wait for a while, and Guan Yu died and returned to Xianxu."

  According to this, Brother Guan Yuxun needs to go to the military party in Liu Pi, Runan to meet. Runanzhi is located in Xixian County, Henan, a little far from Guandu, but Guan Yuruo is only six hundred miles away from Guandu if he goes to Runan to find a brother. If according to the drama, starting from Xudu to Runan, only three hundred miles away. Therefore, no matter whether it is based on "Wu Di Ji" or "Premier Biography", there is far no "thousands of miles" mentioned in the play, let alone "five levels". This is completely a successful joke.

Seated Statue of Guan Gong in the Ming Dynasty in the Xinxiang Museum

  How long did San Guanyu stay in Caoying?

  Could another name of this play "Twelve Years of Cao Ying" be historical facts? This is even more artificial, even unbelievable, and listen to the author.

  How long did Guan Yu stay in Cao Ying? According to Shi Zai, only half a year. "Jian'an five years in spring, the first month... Cao Cao struck Liu Bei, broke it, won his wife, pulled out Pi, and captured Guan Yu..." This was the first month, and in the "summer, April", Cao Cao and Yuan Shao general Yan Liangzhan In Baimapo, Guan Yu joined Cao Cao to join the battle. "(Guan) Yu looked at (Yan) Liang Yugai, spurted the spurs among the people, and beheaded him, Shao Zhu will be able to be the one." Guan Yu wrote a letter, saying goodbye and hiding his Cao Cao, and "Ben Liu Bei prepared for Yuan Jun", what year and month is this? "Jian'an for five autumn and July, Runan Huangjin Liu Pui and others betrayed Cao Cao to Yuan Shao, and Shao Liu sent soldiers to help him... Between Liu Beilu and Ru Ying, since the south of Xu, the officials were uneasy..." (See "Zi Zhi Tong Jian·Han Ji Fifty Five")

  Then check the "Three Kingdoms" Biography: "Cao Gong and Yuan Shao refused to Guandu, Runan Huangjin Liu Pi, etc. betrayed Cao Gongying Shao. Shao dispatched the first master and soldiers and Pi, etc., Guan Yu died and returned to the first master." When Guan Yu fled back to Liu Beijun, it was in the fifth year of July and July in Jian'an. Based on this calculation, Guan Yu has been in Caoying since the first five years of spring and the first month of Jian'an until July and then half a year. Besides, Guan Yu was killed by Dongwu for Jianan twenty-four years, according to "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms", at the age of fifty-eight. He was thirty-nine years old when he was captured by Cao Cao. If he had been in Caoying for twelve years, Guan Yu should be fifty-one when he went out to find Liu Bei. There are so many major events in the back, such as investing in Liu Biao, the Chibi War, and guarding Jingzhou, etc. In the next twenty years, there are still seven years left, can you do it? It can be seen that "Twelve Years of Cao Ying" was deduced.

  Besides, "Ancient City Meeting", the history book does not contain, only the words "return to Liu Bei". Examining the origins of touching brothers on the stage today, there is this story as early as in the "Three Kingdoms Zhi Ping Hua": "Ten Drums Cut Cai Yang" and "Ancient City Convergence", as well as Yuan Zaju "Guan Yun Chang Qian Li Lian Xing" and "The Romance of the Three Kingdoms" "Twenty-eighth session "Chopping the brothers of Cai Yang to dispel doubts and gather the principals of the ancient city". There is also the Ming legend "Ancient City", which tells the same story. The play on the stage of Peking Opera was created based on the Romance of the Three Kingdoms and absorbed the essence of Pinghua and Xiqu. Although Guan Yu had never passed five stages, cut six generals, and walked alone for thousands of miles, the "righteousness" embodied in Guan Yu was true. At that time, Guan Yu in Cao Ying was treated favorably by Cao Cao. Upon arriving at Cao Ying, he was given a silver gift by the official. When Guan Yu learned of the news of his master Liu Bei, although Cao Cao intentionally avoided seeing, Guan Yu left a letter stating that The original committee, and to seal the gold and silver given by Cao Cao, protected the two wives of Liu Bei to find Liu Bei in Yuan Shaojun, who had no soldiers and no inch of land. If Cao Cao really sent troops to catch up, Guan Yu and Liu Bei’s two wives There is also no return. This not only explained Guan Yu's loyalty, but also showed the broad mind of Cao Cao's great politician.

  Several northern actors have played Guan Yu’s famous actors, such as Cheng Changgeng, the ancestor of Peking Opera, and his disciple Wang Guifen, as well as Tan Xinpei, the “King of the Lingjie Realm,” as well as the disciples of Wang Fengqing, Liu Hongsheng, and Gao Qingkui. "Bai Mapo", "Broken Wall Study", "Hanjinkou", "Huarong Road", "Linjiang Meeting", and "Fighting Changsha" are just five or six. Although they also pay attention to workmanship and figure, they are mainly singers. It is Wang Hongshou, a famous actress who has long been in the south of the Yangtze River, to put this sing-along and the Kunlun chaotic compatible drama "Single Thousand Miles" on the stage of Peking Opera. The Guan Yu he portrays has blood and flesh, eight-faced majesty, and martial arts are outstanding but quite humane! No wonder the audience praised Wang Hongshou as a "live Guan Gong". In the future, regardless of the north and the south, all the performances of Guan Yu's drama are Wang Hongshou's disciples' inheritance, so Wang Hongshou undoubtedly took the chair of the "Red Originator".