Laozi's "Xuande" ethical values, which are different from the Confucian "benevolent" morality, are not only of great value in traditional Chinese culture, but also have an important influence on ancient literati and literary tradition. This question requires In-depth exploration of the cross-cutting from philosophy to literature.
"Xuande" appears three times in the Tao Te Ching. Chapter 10 says: "The beast that is born, has no birth, is not born, and grows but is not slaughtered. It is called metamorphosis." Here is a direct illustration of the "broadness without birth." In order not to hesitate, to grow but not to slaughter "these three main qualities. Chapter 51 states, "The respect of the Tao, the nobility of virtue, and the life of Fumo are always natural ... nothing is born, no reason is not healed, no growth is not slaughtered, it is called Xuande." In addition to the three virtues, the core point of the morality of the Tao is to point out that "Mo's life is always natural". Chapter 65 states: "The commonly known pattern is Xuande. Xuande is deep, far away, against things, and even Dashun." The former "Xuande" refers to the cultivation of nature. Sage character; the latter "Xuande" describes the characteristics and functions of the virtue of the Tao. It can be seen that the "Xuan Virtue" mentioned by Lao Zi is to clarify the function and virtue of the natural way from different aspects. It contains both the function of natural objects and the virtue of man. It can be collectively called "natural virtue".
The function of "Xuande" is that it is a bridge of ethical value between "Tiandao" and "humanity". This is not only the purpose of Laozi to mark "Xuande", but also the unique cultural value of "Xuande". The basic purpose of Lao Tzu's "Tao Da Jing" is not on "Dao" but on "De." To those who practice Taoism, "Tao" is only an objective basis for "morality". The purpose of knowing and mastering the Tao of nature is to cultivate natural virtue. The reason why Lao Tze has worked hard to establish the "Xuande" ethics and values is to build an ethical and value bridge between "Heavenly Way" and "Humanity", hoping to use "Heavenly Way" to discipline "Human Way" ", Use rational understanding of the nature of the Tao of nature, with a" Daoxin "" Xuanlan "everything, practice the virtue of" Xuande ", let people return to the natural" nature "and human" nature " .
The "Xuande" exemplified by Lao Tzu, as an ethical value that communicates the harmony between heaven and human, the harmony of heaven and humanity, and the realization of harmony between heaven and human, is not only a doctrine of philosophy, ethics, axiology, practice, but also an ancient Chinese influence. Culture, especially the literary theory of literati and literature. Its core influence lies in the fact that "Xuande" has directly influenced the generation of the aesthetic realm of ancient Chinese literature with its influence on the ancient Chinese literati moral outlook. As early as in "The Book of Shang", "de" has both the virtues of heaven and earth, and the virtues of life and society. However, since Laozi marked "Xuande" and Confucius upholding "benefits", Confucianism and Taoism have gradually formed two opposing ethics and moral theories. Taoist scholars generally use concepts such as "Xuande" and "Tiande" to mark the natural virtues they follow, while Confucian scholars generally use concepts such as "Mingde" and "morality" to declare their morality of benevolence. . As far as the individual literacy of the ancient literati is concerned, these two "ethics" can complement each other, and they are not necessarily opposites and intolerances. They cultivated the Confucian benevolence and morality with the spirit of "Mingde", and cultivated the natural virtues of Taoism with the concept of "Xuande", thus forming the dual moral personality of "complement of Confucianism and Taoism", and then formed "entry into the world" and "born out of the world" Compatible outlook on life. This compatible and complementary outlook on life has given many outstanding literati independent personality. They generally "do the work of joining the world with the spirit of being born" (Zhu Guangqian), and they truly have the righteousness of the world and the glory of the sun and the moon. Such a realm of moral personality is manifested in their literary works, that is, they have both the homeland sentiment and moral realm of resorting to "Mingde" and the cosmopolitan sentiment and heaven and earth realm of resorting to "Xuande".
Mr. Feng Youlan divides the realm of life from natural to utilitarian, moral, and heaven and earth. The higher-level moral and heaven and earth are beyond the natural and utilitarian realms, thus achieving the aesthetic realm of life. The moral realm is equivalent to the "benign and righteous" realm of Confucianism, and its behavior is righteous; the heaven and earth realm is equivalent to the "moral" realm of Taoism, and its behavior is natural. He said: "We call the realm of heaven and earth, in Taoism's words, the realm of morality." Zhuangzi · Shanmu "said: 'Floating by morality', 'Floating around the ancestors of all things, but not things' This is the "hometown of morality." This so-called hometown of morality is exactly what we call the realm of heaven and earth. "Mr. Feng clearly stated that Zhuangzi's so-called" moral realm "is actually" the realm of heaven and earth ". Both the Confucian "benevolent" moral realm and the Taoist "xuande" realm are super-utilitarian, and therefore both are aesthetic realms. But compared with the aesthetic spirit of Chinese traditional culture, such as freedom and equality, selfless ecstasy, ultra-dust, unification, harmony between man and nature, return to nature, independence and uninhibitedness, the heaven and earth feelings and world realms generated by "Xuande" character , Is undoubtedly the highest level of aesthetic realm.
In the history of literature, a large number of outstanding scribes and their works, such as Qu Yuan, Tao Yuanming, Li Bai, Du Fu, Su Shi, are a vivid reflection of the combination of "Xuande" and "Mingde". He is famous for his singing with the feelings of heaven and earth and harmony between heaven and man. Su Shi is most notable. In his life, he not only adhered to the Confucian family feelings and moral realm, but also always showed the cosmic feelings and the realm of heaven and earth. In his twenty-four-year-old "Nostalgia for Hezi Youji Pond", the poem reads: "Life is everywhere, it should be like Feihong stepping on the mud. By accidentally leaving fingers on the mud, Hongfei counts things." Life and Feihong Same, just let nature soar. In his 34-year-old Sangha Pagoda in Sizhou, Shi Yun said: "I have no intention of being so thick and thick, and I am happy with my own selfishness. Farming in the field is raining and raining, and the weather is clear. People pray, and the confession should change day by day. "Heaven is selfless and everyone desires selfishness. If everyone prays to the gods, heaven meets different selfish desires, then God is too busy, so people must conform. Natural way. Su Shi's famous phrase "People have sad and happy separation, the moon is cloudy and sunny, this is an ancient and difficult event", "A smoky and rainy life", "There is no wind and rain," "I always hate this as my own, when I forget the camp ", Etc., are the concrete manifestation of such a" integration of heaven and man "in the text. In particular, the "Chibi Fu" states that "It is in the heavens and the earth, a drop in the sea. The beard of my sorrow and the endlessness of the Yangtze River." Nothing can be obtained. But the breeze on the river and the bright moon between the mountains can be heard by the ears, and the color of the sight is inexhaustible, the inexhaustible use is the endless hiding of the Creator, and I "The harmony of the Son" is a song of the soul that integrates self into the nature of heaven and earth, and the harmony between man and nature.
Literature is a mirror of the soul. The moral personality and spiritual realm constructed with "Xuande" are the source of the soul that the ancient Chinese literati's feelings of heaven and earth relied on. The realm of heaven and earth presented in literary works surpasses the social aesthetic values of Confucian morality Toward the "selfless state" of the integration of heaven and human. In the joy of observing things, the author moves towards the aesthetic realm of "the heaven and earth live together with me, and everything is one with me". This is exactly the spirit of aesthetic culture with great national characteristics presented by ancient Chinese literati and literary works.
(Author: Hu Lixin, a professor of College of Huanggang Normal University)