The Central Economic Work Conference proposed that the recovery and expansion of consumption should be given priority; consumption capacity should be enhanced, consumption conditions should be improved, and consumption scenarios should be innovated.

As an important tool for macro-control, what are the highlights of fiscal and taxation policies in promoting recovery and expanding consumption?

In the next step, how can fiscal and taxation policies address the prominent contradiction of insufficient demand and promote the accelerated recovery of consumption to become the main driving force of the economy?

  Effectively reduce consumption costs

  "My New Year's wish has been fulfilled, so it will be much more convenient to commute to work, go home to visit relatives, and travel during holidays!" Recently, Ms. Lai from Fuzhou, Jiangxi Province said happily after purchasing a new energy vehicle.

  During the Spring Festival, Ms. Lai, who had been thinking about buying a car for a long time, learned from the publicity team of the taxation department of Fuzhou BYD Qianyuan Xinjing Automobile Sales Company that the purchase of new energy vehicles can enjoy the policy of exemption from vehicle purchase tax, and she immediately "shot".

According to the calculation of the taxable price of more than 130,000 yuan, the purchase of a car can save about 13,500 yuan in taxes. Coupled with the 3,000 yuan electronic consumer coupon subsidy issued by the government and the car dealer's profit sharing, the car purchase cost nearly 20,000 yuan less.

  "Tax incentives and consumer voucher subsidies are very powerful, which has boosted car sales." Gan Chaochao, the financial director of Qianyuan Xinjing Company, said that from December last year to January this year, the company sold a total of 133 vehicles, an increase of 80% from the previous month. The effect of a series of policy measures is obvious.

  The implementation of the vehicle purchase tax exemption policy for new energy vehicles is an important measure to promote the consumption of new energy vehicles and green and low-carbon development.

In the whole year of 2022, my country will exempt a total of 87.9 billion yuan from new energy vehicle purchase tax, a year-on-year increase of 92.6%.

The consumption-promoting effect of this policy is becoming more and more apparent. According to the uniform invoice data for motor vehicle sales, the cumulative sales of new energy vehicles in 2022 will be 5.681 million units, a year-on-year increase of 70.6%.

  Ningbo National High-tech Zone is an area where local automobile 4S stores are concentrated. Yu Chenghao, deputy director of the high-tech zone management committee, said: "In recent years, the taxation department has actively carried out the 'Convenience of the People's Tax Spring Breeze Action' to promote the exemption of new energy vehicles for car purchases with high-quality services. Taxes and other tax and fee support policies have been implemented in detail, which has mobilized residents' enthusiasm for consumption and played a positive role in promoting the heating up of the local consumer market." Statistics show that in 2022, the cumulative sales of new energy vehicles in Ningbo City will be 94,800, a year-on-year increase. 112.29%, enjoying a tax exemption amounting to 1.79 billion yuan.

  In September 2022, the state extended this policy until December 31, 2023, stabilizing social expectations and boosting market confidence.

Experts believe that the continuation of the policy is of great significance to promoting the strategic transformation of my country's transportation energy and promoting the high-quality development of my country's auto industry, allowing car buyers to get real discounts and effectively stimulating the consumption potential of new energy vehicles.

  "Consumption makes an important contribution to economic growth, and the improvement of consumption capacity is closely related to the distribution of residents' income. Among them, fiscal and taxation policies play a prominent role." Li Xuhong, director of the Institute of Fiscal and Taxation Policy and Application of Beijing National Accounting Institute, said.

  As far as the promotion of automobile consumption is concerned, in addition to the policy of exempting new energy vehicles from vehicle purchase tax, my country also implemented a policy of phased reduction of vehicle purchase tax on some passenger cars last year. Passenger cars, halved car purchase tax, also sparked a wave of consumption boom.

  Bai Yanfeng, a professor at the School of Finance and Taxation of the Central University of Finance and Economics, believes that government subsidies and tax incentives are important policy variables that affect the consumer market. "Especially in the context of focusing on expanding domestic demand, tax policies are promising, and reducing consumption costs through tax incentives is an effective measure." .

  In fact, in recent years, tax policies have frequently taken measures to promote consumption.

From January 1, my country will adjust the import and export tariffs of some commodities.

Among them, in line with the trend of consumption upgrading, high-quality supply to meet the consumption needs of residents, reduce the import tariffs on homogenized mixed food for infants and young children, frozen blue cod, cashew nuts and other foods, coffee machines, juicers, hair dryers and other small household appliances.

After adjustment, my country's overall tariff level will drop from 7.4% to 7.3%.

  Experts believe that a series of tariff adjustment measures will help strengthen the endogenous power of the domestic cycle, accelerate the upgrading and development of the industrial system, and satisfy the people's yearning for a better life.

  According to the value-added tax invoice data of the State Administration of Taxation, during the Spring Festival holiday this year, the sales revenue of consumption-related industries across the country increased by 12.2% compared with the Spring Festival holiday of the previous year, and an average annual increase of 12.4% over the Spring Festival holiday in 2019, maintaining a steady growth overall.

Consumption of daily necessities, home upgrades, and travel services grew rapidly, and returning home for the holidays led to a relatively high increase in consumption in provinces with large migrant workers.

  "It can be seen from the value-added tax invoice data that the current consumption has a relatively obvious recovery trend, which will help drive the further recovery of the macroeconomic situation." Li Xuhong said.

  Expenditure plays a multiplier effect

  The gradual recovery of consumption in various places is inseparable from the increase in fiscal investment.

  On the first day of the first month of the first lunar month, the Beijing Consumer Season "New Year's Flowers and Food Fair" was unveiled in the outdoor lawn area of ​​Beijing World Flower Grand View Garden, attracting tens of thousands of people to check in, satisfying the general public to taste food, search for new year flavors, visit parks, The demand for New Year's flowers.

  In recent years, the "Beijing Consumer Season" activities have continued to carry out, which has heated up the capital's consumer market.

In 2022, 24 city-wide symbolic events such as the World Premiere Festival and the National Tide Jingpin Festival will be successfully held to meet the new needs of the masses for diversified, high-quality, and personalized consumption.

The Beijing budget report shows that in 2022, the commercial service industry will spend 1.56 billion yuan. One of the purposes is to help organize high-quality consumption promotion activities such as the "Beijing Consumer Season" and promote the implementation of a new round of business district transformation and upgrading action plan.

  "Multiple financial measures are taken to increase support for the expansion of domestic demand, effectively promote consumption upgrades and release potential, which is an important part of the proactive fiscal policy to increase efficiency." Li Xuhong said.

  In Fujian, in 2022, 200 million yuan will be arranged to support the issuance of consumer coupons in various places, and the "Fujian Tesco·Fujian Business Travel" campaign will be arranged to promote consumption; 20 million yuan will be arranged to encourage all localities to issue subsidies and consumer coupons to promote automobile consumption. Those who buy new cars will be given a subsidy of not less than 3,000 yuan per car.

  In Guangdong, 2.388 billion yuan will be invested in 2022 to implement policies and measures to promote consumption. Provinces and municipalities will jointly issue consumer coupons on a large scale, implement policies such as trade-in of cars and home appliances, and subsidies for the purchase of new energy vehicles.

  In Zhejiang, the fiscal promotion of consumption is also not small.

In 2022, 273 million yuan will be implemented to support the cultivation of new consumption hotspots, improve community commercial facilities, and promote the construction of smart business circles, etc.; introduce a summer consumption coupon reward and subsidy policy, cashing 117 million yuan in reward and subsidy funds, driving consumption by 4.938 billion yuan.

In addition, implement 300 million yuan to guarantee the promotion and application of new energy vehicles and the construction of charging infrastructure.

  Experts believe that by giving full play to the amplification effect and guiding role of fiscal funds, it has effectively supported the expansion of domestic demand, promoted consumption, and further promoted the smooth domestic and international dual cycles.

  Policy continues to strengthen

  The Central Economic Work Conference made it clear that proactive fiscal policies should be strengthened to improve efficiency.

Recently, in response to the contradiction of insufficient demand, fiscal and taxation support measures in various places have continued to "overweight" to activate and expand residents' consumption and promote the heating up of the consumer market.

  In the 2023 budget reports of various provinces, "promoting consumption" has become the focus of expenditure policies.

  Fujian Province proposed to give priority to the recovery and expansion of consumption, ensure the supply and price stability of basic consumer goods, cultivate and expand "smart +" consumption such as smart products and services, and expand consumption in key areas such as automobiles.

  The budget report of Hunan Province listed "multiple measures to expand domestic demand" as the first item of the main expenditure policy in 2023, and clearly stated that it is necessary to optimize the income distribution structure, enhance residents' consumption capacity, and guide consumption such as housing improvement, new energy vehicles, and elderly care services; The investment in infrastructure such as airports, railways, highways, water transportation, and water conservancy has driven the high-quality and efficient growth of investment in the whole society.

  Guangdong Province proposed that in 2023, it will support the expansion of domestic demand and stabilize foreign trade, so as to promote the prosperity of the industry.

Among them, 322 million yuan will be allocated to support the development of domestic trade to promote consumption, support the construction of consumption hubs, upgrade catering brands, improve the construction of county-level commercial systems, and accelerate consumption replenishment and potential release.

Arrange 1.845 billion yuan to support the application and promotion of new energy vehicles, accelerate the construction of charging infrastructure, and promote the transformation and upgrading of energy consumption.

  Zhejiang Province proposed to improve consumption support policies and support the recovery and improvement of key industries.

For example, 200 million yuan will be allocated to support the optimization of the new energy vehicle application environment and industrial development ecology; 18 million yuan will be allocated to encourage the renovation of demonstration high-quality pedestrian streets.

Arrange 50 million yuan to support the implementation of pilot demonstration projects of smart business circles, smart stores and modern supply chains; coordinate 194 million yuan of funds to support the establishment of the second batch of 19 county-level commercial system pilot counties and the cultivation of leading commercial and trade circulation enterprises.

  From the perspective of macro policy, how can finance and taxation further expand domestic demand and promote consumption?

"Fiscal and tax policies can escort and empower the expansion of domestic demand. For example, by increasing expenditures, fiscal funds can guide and leverage consumption." Bai Yanfeng said.

  The stimulating effect of tax policy on consumption has been highly concerned.

Bai Yanfeng believes that in recent years, people's demand for health and medical services has soared, and the tax policy can give tax reduction support without losing time.

After our country entered the stage of high-quality development, residents' demand for iteratively upgraded commodities showed a "blowout" state, and it should also be a key area of ​​tax support in 2023 and even in the future. It can achieve twice the result with half the effort in terms of domestic demand and consumption promotion."

  "This year, my country's value-added tax legislation is accelerating, which is conducive to enhancing the certainty of the tax system, stabilizing market expectations, and playing a positive role in guiding consumption. At the same time, the consumption tax on specific consumer goods can play a certain role in guiding healthy consumption and green consumption. effect." Li Xuhong said.

Zeng Jinhua