Editor's note:

  The reconstruction of the global industrial chain and supply chain is accelerating, and the China New Observation column of Chinanews.com launched a series of reports on "Great Powers and Strong Chains" to gather wisdom from all parties for supply chain reform and industrial security development.

  China News Service, December 1 (Li Jinlei, chief financial reporter) "In recent years, factor prices have gradually increased, and the impact of anti-globalization, the new crown pneumonia epidemic, and the Ukrainian crisis has been superimposed. The double squeeze of "low-end diversion" in developing countries." Liu Zhibiao, dean of the Yangtze River Industrial Economics Research Institute of Nanjing University, said in an interview with the China New Observation column of Chinanews.com that continuous optimization of the local investment and business environment is a response to industrial relocation. main pulling force.

There are two restructuring trends in the global supply chain

  "Currently, there are two eye-catching reorganization trends in the global supply chain." Liu Zhibiao pointed out that, first, in key and emerging technology fields, the United States implements a precise decoupling policy of "small courtyards and high walls" to restrict science and technology against China. In the name of democratic values, unite allies and partners to strengthen the technological blockade against China.

Second, in order to avoid over-concentration of supply chains, developed countries in Europe and the United States have begun to implement the "China + 1" or "China + N" strategy to diversify their supply chains, such as the "near-shore outsourcing" of the United States and Mexico, and Vietnam, India, etc. "friendly shore outsourcing".

  In Liu Zhibiao's view, China's industrial transfer presents a "two-way" trend. On the one hand, as China's demographic dividend subsides and production costs such as taxes, logistics, land, raw materials, and financing remain high, the manufacturing industry, in particular, is facing great challenges. The profits of labor-intensive industrial products under pressure from resources and the environment have been further compressed, and China's labor-intensive international OEM enterprises such as textiles, electronics, and home furnishing have begun to transfer to Southeast Asia, India, Mexico and other regions.

At the same time, the core technology production links of some multinational companies are also relocating to developed countries.

  Liu Zhibiao believes that under the strategic competition between China and the United States, the adjustment and reorganization of the global supply chain and the impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic have further accelerated the process of this "two-way transfer". Low-value-added manufacturing industries spread to long-chain, high-value-added manufacturing industries.

  How to avoid excessive outflow of manufacturing industry, prevent the hollowing out of the industry, keep the proportion of manufacturing industry basically stable, realize the climb of the value chain, and move from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power has become a major problem that China needs to solve urgently.

Build a domestic value chain with local enterprises as the main body

  "In this context, China's central and western regions have fierce competition with developing countries such as Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Latin America in undertaking industrial transfers from the eastern region." Liu Zhibiao said.

  Liu Zhibiao believes that a more feasible policy approach at present is to build a domestic value chain with local enterprises as the main body through the interregional migration of manufacturing industries.

  He said that the relocation of the manufacturing industry and the extension of the industrial chain, whether it is for the industrial upgrading of the eastern coastal areas of China, or to promote the transformation of comparative advantages between the eastern coastal areas and the central and western regions, form inter-regional industrial linkages, and then Realizing benign interaction with the regional economy has positive and feasible practical value.

  In his view, on the whole, in recent years, China's industrial transfer has been more manifested in various forms such as enterprise group, industrial chain, industrial cluster, and industrial park cooperative development.

The level of inter-regional industrial transfer has changed from low to high, and the phenomenon of low-end lock-in of industrial undertakings has eased, and it is expected to realize the synchronization of undertaking industrial transfers and promoting industrial upgrading.

Continue to optimize the local investment and business environment

  Liu Zhibiao analyzed whether the enterprise's industrial transfer should choose domestic transfer or international transfer. In addition to considering production costs, the core principles to be followed are not only openness and security, but also the principle of efficiency. Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the investment and business environment between the two countries.

A good investment and business environment is productivity, and a market-oriented, legalized, internationalized, and convenient investment and business environment is the main factor that promotes efficient competition among enterprises.

  According to the "Global Business Environment Report 2020" released by the World Bank, the level of China's business environment and international rankings have improved significantly compared with previous years.

Among the 190 economies reported, the level of China's business environment has risen from 90th in 2015 to 46th in 2019, and will continue to rise to 31st in 2020. It has been included in the global business environment improvement for two consecutive years The ten largest economies.

  Liu Zhibiao said that compared with most ASEAN countries such as India and Vietnam, China still has great advantages in terms of business environment. From a policy perspective, continuous optimization of the investment and business environment is the main force for China to actively respond to the trend of industrial relocation .

  Liu Zhibiao believes that it is necessary to closely focus on the problems and difficulties in optimizing the stock of foreign capital and expanding the incremental work, objectively view the reasonable demands of foreign-funded enterprises, vigorously promote the reform of systems and mechanisms, and effectively improve the investment and business environment.

  He suggested that it is necessary to benchmark international high-standard rules and promote open system reforms by classification.

According to the difficulty of benchmarking in the reform of China's institutional mechanisms and related rules and regulations, formulate a benchmarking roadmap and timetable, and promote the improvement of the business environment and the deepening of domestic reforms by category.

It is necessary to open up the "last mile" of policy services and create a more stable, open, transparent and predictable investment and business environment.

Encourage and guide foreign-funded enterprises to implement profit reinvestment, and further tap and release the investment potential of foreign enterprises.