◎Wang Liming Chen Ke

  In September, the B You 1928 demonstration base, a new nitrogen-efficient rice variety located in Guihua Village, Wolong Town, Zitong County, Mianyang City, ushered in a "big test".

In this demonstration area of ​​101 mu, rice with strong roots and leaves and full grains is swaying in the wind.

  The acceptance expert group of the Sichuan Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs randomly selected three fields in the upper, middle and lower fields in the demonstration area, and conducted on-site machine harvesting and production testing.

The results of the yield test and acceptance of the new varieties and supporting cultivation techniques cultivated by the Rice Research Institute of Southwest University of Science and Technology were finally affirmed by the expert group.

  The expert group believes that the new nitrogen-efficient rice variety B You 1928 has the characteristics of high quality, disease resistance and high yield, and the supporting cultivation technology formed is practical and efficient.

"High-efficiency varieties and high-efficiency cultivation technology systems are the two technological 'ace cards' of nitrogen-efficient rice breeding bases," said Hu Yungao, director of the Rice Research Institute of Southwest University of Science and Technology. The dual effects of improved nitrogen use efficiency and increased yield.

  Sustainability of nitrogen efficient varieties

  Why is nitrogen efficient?

Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for rice growth, and it affects rice biomass and yield.

The application of nitrogen fertilizers can increase the yield of rice.

However, from the actual planting situation, there is an excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer in my country.

  Data shows that my country consumes 35% of the world's chemical fertilizers, and the amount of chemical fertilizers is more than twice the international standard, but the nitrogen fertilizer utilization rate of rice is only about 30%, which is about 10% lower than the international level.

Therefore, improving the absorption and utilization efficiency of nitrogen by rice varieties can reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer without reducing the yield of rice, which is nitrogen efficiency.

  As a result, the research team first proposed the concept of directional breeding of nitrogen-efficient rice varieties for production, and carried out research on the breeding of nitrogen-efficient rice varieties and supporting high-yield and high-efficiency cultivation techniques.

In the cultivation of rice varieties, the team studied the genetic mechanism of rice yield, quality and nutritional efficiency, and used modern molecular biology methods to locate qualitative and quantitative traits.

  At the same time, through the screening and creation of nitrogen-efficient genes such as TCP19 and rice blast and bacterial blight resistance gene materials, the team transferred and aggregated the found excellent trait genes to achieve Byou 1928 with high nitrogen collection efficiency and rice blast resistance. , bacterial blight resistance and other favorable genes are accumulated as a whole.

  "Compared with other rice varieties, Byou 1928 has a great variety advantage." Hu Yungao said that due to the high temperature resistance and high seed setting rate genes aggregated in the new variety, the seed setting rate still reached more than 90% under the conditions of continuous high temperature at the heading stage this year. Shows good resistance to stress.

At the same time, because this variety has the Xa23 gene for bacterial blight resistance and multiple rice blast resistance genes, it has high disease resistance, so it is especially suitable for planting in Yunnan and Southeast Asian rice areas with high incidence of bacterial blight.

  Economic and ecological benefits to achieve "double harvest"

  In addition to cultivating high-quality varieties, the research team also uses crop production system simulation and decision-making technology and spatial information technology to achieve efficient utilization of agricultural resources in rice areas.

For example, the team has respectively constructed a technical system for the creation of efficient rice germplasm resources and the efficient utilization of agricultural resources in rice areas, which provides technical support for increasing rice production.

  It is understood that the organic fertilizer under this system partially replaces the nitrogen fertilizer high-efficiency fertilizer operation technology, straw oxygenation and returning technology system, high-quality rice high-yield cultivation technology system, etc., which can make rice lose weight, increase efficiency, and improve the multiple effects of quality.

  In addition, in order to solve the disadvantages of rural livestock breeding emissions and crop straw returning to the field, the team also developed an organic fertilizer production process based on crop straw and livestock manure as the base material.

Considering some drawbacks caused by the direct application of organic fertilizers to rice production, the team developed organic-inorganic mixed fertilization and its supporting application technology on this basis, which can further reduce the application of nitrogen fertilizer in paddy fields while solving the organic waste in rural areas. dosage.

  Through the combination of high-efficiency varieties and high-efficiency cultivation technology system, the overall utilization efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy fields has increased by 5%-10%. The B You 1928 variety also reduced the nitrogen fertilizer application amount by 16.7% compared with high-yield cultivation, and the average yield per mu reached 745.5 Kilogram.

  "The large-scale promotion of Byou 1928 and supporting cultivation techniques can not only reduce the input of chemical fertilizers, reduce environmental pollution, and be friendly to the ecological environment; it can also save costs and increase efficiency, and significantly improve the economic benefits of rice farmers. It has a good prospect of promotion and application." Hu Yungao said that the promotion of B You 1928 and supporting cultivation techniques will help to achieve the goals of increasing farmers' income, enterprise efficiency and agricultural production.