"The grain output will remain above 1.3 trillion catties", which is the 2022 grain production target proposed by the "Government Work Report" of the National Two Sessions this year. This is also the second time this year that the national level has emphasized the same target.

Although my country's grain production has achieved 18 consecutive harvests, and the output has exceeded 1.3 trillion kilograms for 7 consecutive years, it is not easy to maintain this goal, especially the first step of grain production, summer grain, after the rainstorm and flood disaster last summer. , After a long period of rain in autumn, the main winter wheat producing areas such as Henan, Hebei and Shandong have weak seedlings caused by late sowing.

On February 23, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs released information showing that last year, about 110 million mu of wheat were planted late in the five provinces. After hard work, the sown area of ​​winter wheat was basically the same as last year. and difficulty.

With the recovery of winter wheat in various places, it is imminent for weak seedlings to grow strong, and an extraordinarily difficult spring ploughing begins. From the grass-roots farmers, to the agricultural departments at all levels, scientific research and teaching units, all forces have been mobilized, for a few months later A bumper summer grain harvest with sweat and wisdom.

  on site

  Late sowing seedlings "losing at the starting line"

  On March 3, 2022, in Zhangshu'an Village, Taiqian County, Puyang City, Henan Province, the Yellow River passes through large tracts of farmland.

The weather is not good, but the temperature is not low, and people's clothes are obviously much thinner.

  From a height, the wheat fields are neatly divided by ridges and canals, which are the traces left by mechanized farming. Straight field roads, straight irrigation canals, and straight farmland boundaries are more suitable for agricultural machinery operations.

  Most of the winter wheat planted here is the tillering period after turning green. Tillering is a key stage in the growth of wheat and an important period that affects the final yield.

Under normal circumstances, a seed grows a seedling, forming a main stem ear, and at the same time, it will tiller several tiller ears during the growth.

  The number of tillers is one of the important indicators to measure the strength, weakness and prosperity of wheat. Winter wheat has two tillers, one is winter tiller, under normal circumstances, about 10 to 15 days after sowing, one is spring tiller, Mainly in the stage of getting back to green.

  According to routine, in Taiqian County at this time, clumps of sturdy wheat in the farmland will dye the earth a green.

These tiller stems will eventually leave about 3 in the natural competition and selection, which will blossom and bear fruit, and contribute food to mankind.

  However, in this wheat field near Zhangshu'an Village, in many fields, the yellow soil is still exposed, and only some parts are covered with green, which makes the whole field look particularly mottled.

Thin wheat seedlings, many just beginning to tiller, reveal even thinner shoot tips at the roots.

  At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, Zhang Daoming came to the field again. He is from Zhang Shu'an Village and has planted more than 500 mu of winter wheat. Except for a very few plots, most of the fields are still yellow.

  "Last autumn, the rainy season was too long and the soil was too wet, so it was impossible to plant seeds, which delayed the farming time," Zhang Daoming told reporters that his more than 500 acres of land were generally sown late by about 10 days.

These late-planted seedlings that "lose at the starting line" did not have time to catch up with the winter tillers, and hurriedly entered the overwintering period. Until spring came and the temperature warmed up, they hurriedly started tillering, but they were obviously much weaker.

  survey

  "One needle" three types of seedlings account for 60%

  The wheat field in Zhangshu'an Village is not an isolated case. In the summer and autumn of last year, agricultural disasters caused by extreme weather in many places in the north resulted in the late sowing of winter wheat.

On February 18 of this year, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs launched the "Sinking the first-line Baojuan to win the summer grain harvest", bringing together experts from the entire agricultural system to enter the fields to guide the spring ploughing work and win the summer grain harvest.

  Wang Xiaosen is one of more than 200 agricultural experts sent by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Wang Xiaosen from the Institute of Irrigation of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences is also the leader of the Puyang team.

  On the afternoon of March 3, Wang Xiaosen and his colleagues, accompanied by the heads of the agricultural departments of Puyang City and Taiqian County, went to Zhang Shu'an Village to give on-the-spot guidance in Zhang Daoming's wheat field.

  This is the seventh day that Wang Xiaosen and the others have entered the field for guidance. During the seven days, they investigated the wheat fields in several counties and districts in Puyang. Most of the conditions were similar to those here.

  Puyang is a major agricultural city. Zhou Bing, chief of the Grain and Economics Section of the Puyang Agricultural and Rural Bureau, told reporters that in 2021, Puyang City will make every effort to fight disasters and relieve disasters, rush to arrange and rush seeds, and ensure the area of ​​grain planting. A total of 3.5525 million mu of winter wheat will be sown.

However, due to the influence of the rain, more than half of the area experienced late sowing.

  "Late sowing is not just a delay in the production period. In fact, because it involves overwintering, when the temperature is too low, weak seedlings are prone to appear, and the worst may not germinate." Wang Xiaosen told reporters.

  In Wang Xiaosen's hand, there is a "Puyang City Spring Wheat Field Management Technology Wall Chart", which is a field technical guide map formulated according to the local winter wheat seedling situation this year, marking the management points of wheat at all stages from turning green to pre-harvest.

In the first stage, during the recovery period, there are two obvious technical points, one is for "covering" wheat seedlings in the soil, and the other is for "one-needle" wheat seedlings.

  "Both of these are possible situations in which seedlings are sown late. One is that the seedlings do not emit the ground in the soil, and the other is that they emit the ground but only have a thin single stalk. Both require special attention, and take prompt measures as soon as possible. state measures,” Wang Xiaosen explained.

  In the classification of seedlings, whether it is "covering in the soil" or "a needle", they are all three types of seedlings.

"The growth of wheat seedlings is generally divided into three categories. One is strong seedlings, which do not need to be promoted, and are the best seedlings. The second category is general seedlings, which can be promoted through normal field management. Take special strengthening measures."

  In fact, in addition to the three types of seedlings, there is also an abnormal seedling called vigorous seedling, that is, the seedling that grows too vigorously. It needs to be controlled to prevent the wheat seedling from growing too fast, so that the wheat seedling can accumulate energy and grow stronger.

  Wang Xiaosen told reporters that in the investigation of Puyang, it was found that nearly 60% of the three types of seedlings this year, while in normal years, this number is less than 20%, and more than 80% are the first and second types of seedlings.

  response

  Watering can make submerged weak seedlings grow stronger

  Even in Jiangsu, where the flood disaster was relatively light last year, the proportion of three types of seedlings was higher than in previous years. In Xinghua, Jiangsu, Xiao Yonggui, an expert from the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, told reporters that they visited many cities in Jiangsu in 10 days. In the county, it was found that there is an imbalance in the seedling situation, there are strong seedlings and weak seedlings, which are all factors that are not conducive to the bumper harvest of summer crops.

  The spring in Jiangsu is a little earlier than that in Henan. In the fields of Henan, the greenness is not very clear, but in Jiangsu, the wheat seedlings in the farmland have long since reached their ankles. Willows and green trees along the road are all showing the charm of spring to people.

  However, grower Chen Sheng is not so optimistic about this spring. The color of his 300 mu of winter wheat is a little yellow.

In a farmland in Jiangsunzhuang Village, Zhouzhuang Town, Xinghua City, Chen Sheng found Xiao Yonggui and the others, who were doing field research, and asked about his own wheat.

  "This seedling is a little weak, but fortunately it's not serious." Xiao Yonggui finally told him, "Take advantage of the cloudy and rainy days, apply compound fertilizer once, and you can quickly develop strong seedlings."

  Compared with Chen Sheng, Zhang Daoming from Taiqian County, Henan Province, the problem of weak seedlings is a little more serious, but fortunately, the temperature in winter is higher, and after entering March, the temperature rises faster, and what needs to be done in front of you, more It is watering to promote strong.

Cai Zhongmin, an expert from the Cotton Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, squatted in the ground, grabbed a handful of soil, and twisted it slowly. The soil on the surface had dried out and turned into fine powder at Cai Zhongmin's fingertips, "Hurry up and water it once. Well, the base fertilizer in the ground is still there, and there is no need to fertilize for the time being, the main thing is watering, and this moisture content also needs to be watered once."

  On the edge of Zhang Daoming's land, there is a long cement canal. Several villagers are cleaning up the debris in the canal to prepare for the first watering in spring.

This canal is part of the water conservancy project just built by the government a few years ago. The canal extends in all directions and runs through a large area of ​​farmland on the banks of the Yellow River. In spring, the water from the Yellow River can be directly introduced into the farmland to irrigate this piece of land that has just experienced disasters.

  "Last year there was a lot of water in the fields, which led to weak seedlings sown late, but now they need watering to promote growth, which is also a wonderful change," Wang Xiaosen said.

  difficulty

  What does 110 million mu of late-planting wheat mean?

  North of the Qinling Mountains, south of the Great Wall, where the Yellow River, Haihe River, and Huaihe River flow through, thousands of years of alluvium have formed a fertile soil suitable for farming. This is the most important birthplace of Chinese farming civilization. For thousands of years, It has always been one of the centers of Chinese agricultural civilization.

  Today's Huanghuaihai is still the most important wheat area in my country, spanning Henan, Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Anhui and other places, dozens of cities and hundreds of counties.

  This piece of land is also one of the most important core areas for summer grain and wheat. It is precisely here that during the summer and autumn of last year, it suffered several floods.

  More data are coming together. In Pulianji Town and Zhuangzhai Town, Cao County, Heze, Shandong Province, where the impact of the autumn flood last year was severe, the winter wheat planting was completed around the end of November, which was nearly a month later than other places in Cao County. , The research from the expert group of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences shows that due to the high soil water content during sowing, the wheat fields are more rubbish, and the growth of wheat seedlings is poor, and there are many "one needle" phenomenon, most of which are three types of seedlings.

  In Wuzhi County and Bo'ai County, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, the autumn flood led to the late sowing of winter wheat by 20 to 40 days. Although the seeding rate increased by 25%-70%, the proportion of three types of seedlings was still too high. In Bo'ai County, three types of seedlings accounted for 40% %, in Wushe County, the good weather after turning green has made most of the three types of seedlings grow stronger. Even so, the three types of seedlings still account for about 15%.

  In cities or counties with millions of mu as the unit, every 1% increase in the three types of seedlings means an increase of more than 10,000 mu of winter wheat, which is on the verge of danger. It is necessary to take appropriate measures as soon as possible. Promote strong.

  For example, in Puyang City, Henan Province, more than 3.5 million mu of winter wheat were sown last year, and the proportion of three types of seedlings once reached more than 60%. Still needs to be further boosted.

  For example, in Suixi County, Anhui Province, 2.05 million mu of winter wheat were sown last year, with three types of seedlings accounting for 17%. This means that more than 300,000 mu of winter wheat is waiting for the care and help of farmers.

  Data from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs shows that the sown area of ​​winter wheat in 2021 will be the same as the previous year, which means that the sown area of ​​winter wheat in the country will be around 335 million mu, of which 110 million mu will be sown late, nearly one-third.

This is precisely why the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs indicated that this year's summer grain "faces unprecedented challenges and difficulties".

  pest

  Severe to pandemic is expected

  Winter wheat faces not only the problem of weak seedlings, but also the risk of high incidence of pests and diseases.

  On February 24, 2022, the National Agricultural Technology Promotion Center issued the "Technical Plan for the Prevention and Control of Major Pests and Diseases of Grain Crops" in 2022 as usual. Among them, wheat stripe rust, wheat scab, wheat sheath blight, aphids, etc. Threats all have different degrees of risk, such as scab, in Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Henan, Shandong and other places, the degree of occurrence is expected to be severe to a pandemic.

Such as aphids, in Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Shaanxi and other places, it is expected to occur from heavy to large.

  In Xinghua, Jiangsu, a farmer who was doing pest and disease prevention had a long discussion with Yan Xiaojing, a researcher from the Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The farmer told Yan Xiaojing that when using drones to spray medicine, he always felt that the effect was not good. Yan Xiaojing told him, It may be a problem with the height or speed of the drone, flying too high or too fast, the effect will fall off a cliff, so it must be operated according to technical standards.

  The popularity of plant protection drones has greatly improved the effect of pest control. In Anhui, grower Wu Ruirui bought a new plant protection drone this year to spray medicine for his own more than 200 acres of wheat. From planting to autumn harvest, it provides services for farmers all over the country. After buying a plant protection drone, it makes up for the last shortcoming of the service, and can provide full service in grain planting.

  In Jiangsu, the number of plant protection drones is higher, and flying prevention has become a universal pest control method. However, for farmers, the rapid iteration of plant protection drones will also bring technical pressure. Yan Xiaojing told reporters that every With the introduction of a new generation of products, the performance is all rolled over the old products, and the operation efficiency, accuracy, reliability, etc. may have a new height.

However, the rapid development of technology and the rapid update of equipment have put unprecedented pressure on farmers. The improvement of equipment performance requires re-learning, and the operation of each generation may be different.

For farmers who provide socialized services, it will also lead to restructuring of industry costs, and they will be eliminated if they do not buy new equipment. Under such a cycle, the industry is always replacing old people with new ones, and it is difficult to develop benignly.

Therefore, in terms of policy subsidies, a more complete top-level design is needed.

  However, despite the dire situation this year, there is still a group of people working on it.

"The field guidance and research from the end of February is the first step to win a bumper summer grain harvest." Xiao Yonggui, a researcher at the Institute of Crop Science of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, told reporters that this year's action to win a bumper summer grain harvest will continue. At one stage, on-the-spot research and guidance will be carried out until the summer grain harvest is completed.

  ■ Tips

  What is the Difference Between Winter Wheat and Spring Wheat

  my country's wheat cultivation is dominated by winter wheat, accounting for more than 90%, and the sown area of ​​spring wheat is only about 7%-10% of all wheat.

Winter wheat is mainly planted in the relatively warm and humid Huanghuaihai region. Wheat is sown from September to October of the previous year and harvested from April to May of the next year. The growth period is about 230 to 270 days.

Spring wheat is mainly planted in the relatively cold northeast and northwest parts of the country. It is sown from February to March every year and can be harvested from June to July.

  B06-B07 editions/Writing by Beijing News reporter Zhou Huaizong

  Version B06-B07 Photography / Beijing News reporter Wang Ying

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