She Ying

  Enterprise "health codes" will benefit companies that abide by the rules, and make small companies panic.

To implement this measure, the design of indicators must be scientific and reasonable, and can accurately reflect the real situation of the enterprise; the technical level of supervision must keep up, and big data can be used to mine and correlate various information of the enterprise; Only by strengthening the coordination of information can we outline the whole picture of the credit of the enterprise.

  The new crown pneumonia epidemic has made everyone familiar with the "health code", whether it is a high-risk group or not, just scan it to know.

So, how can outsiders know whether the company is "healthy" and whether there is a risk of dishonesty?

Recently, with the approval of the State Council, the State Administration for Market Regulation issued a notice deciding to implement enterprise credit risk classification management.

Simply put, according to the credit risk status, enterprises are divided into four categories: low credit risk (category A), moderate credit risk (category B), high credit risk (category C), and high credit risk (category D). Internal reference for configuring governance resources.

  This is equivalent to adding a "health code" to the enterprise: Class D is approximately equal to the "red code", which must be strictly controlled; Class C is approximately equal to the "yellow code", which must be carefully managed; Class A and B are approximately equal to the "green code".

This is just an analogy, and how to differentiate regulation in practice remains to be further clarified.

But it is certain that the "health code" of enterprises will benefit companies that abide by the rules, and make companies that engage in petty actions panic.

  Supervision "simplifies complexity" because management methods are also being iteratively upgraded.

At present, there are more than 150 million market entities in my country, including more than 47 million enterprises.

In contrast, the law enforcement team of the regulatory authorities is only a "fraction", relying on traditional manpower to mark and visit one by one, even if they "run and break their legs", it is difficult to find out the situation.

At the same time, new business forms and new models are developing vigorously, and traditional supervision methods are difficult to adapt to the needs of supervision under the new situation, and there is an urgent need to change the supervision methods.

  实施企业信用风险分类管理最大的好处,就是把有限的监管资源分配到最需要的地方,提升监管精准性和有效性。此前试点的山东省烟台市有个数据:同样是双随机抽查,但他们针对不同信用风险类别的企业采取了不同抽查比例,例如对连续两个年度未年报的企业,抽查比例提高至20%;对注册资本1亿元以上且2018年度年报中纳税额填写“0”的企业,抽查比例提高至100%等。风险分类为监管找准了靶子,抽查5679户企业发现问题2588户,问题发现比例提高到45.57%,监管效能大幅提高,实现对违法失信者“无处不在”,对诚信守法者“无事不扰”。

  落实4700多万企业的“健康码”,其复杂性不低于14亿中国人的健康码。人的健康码主要依据大数据行程,查去没去过高风险地区、跟病例有没有密切接触,大多数人不会故意隐匿。不过,企业的信用状况涉及方方面面,包括登记注册、股权出质登记、行政许可、行政处罚、抽查检查结果等,而且企业倘若有违法违规行为,多半会选择隐瞒而不会主动检举自己。这就要求指标设计要科学合理,能够准确反映企业的真实状况;监管的技术水平要跟得上,能够用大数据挖掘和关联分析企业明里暗里的各种信息;不同部门之间也要加强信息协同,才能勾勒出企业的信用全貌。

  目前,企业信用风险分类只作为内部监管依据,不对外公开。在前期各项指标还不完善时,谨慎对待、内部使用是很理性的安排。等到指标体系能准确全面反映企业信用状况了,建议监管部门考虑对外公开,方便群众监督,就像国家企业信用信息公示系统提示的“严重失信”“经营异常”等标签。此前多项政策均按照先企业后个体户的路径推行,如果条件成熟,信用风险分类也可考虑将包括个体户在内的1.5亿市场主体全部纳入。

  虽然企业的“健康码”只是基于其过去某段时间的经营行为,一定程度反映其当下的信用风险,既不能证明企业财务、销售等状况良好,也不能保证它未来不犯错误。但是,如果生意伙伴谈合作前、消费者交预付款前可以请企业出示“健康码”,至少能将它作为一项重要参考,对自身权益多一层保护,也能倒逼企业更加重视合法经营。

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