Our reporter Lu Min

  The "14th Five-Year Plan for Digital Economy Development" recently issued by the State Council mentioned that the digital economy is an important manifestation of the country's comprehensive strength in the digital age and an important engine for building a modern economic system.

For the financial industry, how to grasp the development opportunities of the digital economy?

How to better promote the healthy development of the digital economy by accelerating the digital transformation of the financial industry?

How to prevent possible risks in the digital transformation of the financial industry?

Many issues are related to the future long-term development of the financial industry.

  From the perspective of industry experts, finance is the blood of the real economy. To improve the quality and efficiency of services, it is necessary to seize the development opportunities of the digital economy, accelerate development while preventing new risks, and play a more important role in building a new development pattern.

  Digital Transformation Accelerates

  Affected by factors such as the new crown pneumonia epidemic, my country's financial industry has faced profound changes in the macroeconomic and financial environment in recent years.

Under the pressure of intensifying horizontal competition and cross-border competition among non-financial institutions, financial institutions have accelerated their digital transformation in response to challenges.

  Among them, financial technology has become one of the important development directions of each company.

According to the 2020 annual reports of four large commercial banks, in terms of financial technology investment, ICBC reached 23.819 billion yuan. In addition, China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, and Bank of China invested more than 15 billion yuan in financial technology.

ICBC, ABC, and Bank of China's fintech investment growth rate all exceeded 40%.

  Among the joint-stock commercial banks that disclosed performance, China Merchants Bank invested the most in financial technology, reaching 11.912 billion yuan, higher than other joint-stock commercial banks, and technology investment accounted for 4.45% of revenue.

In addition, China Everbright Bank, China CITIC Bank and Ping An Bank’s financial technology investment accounted for more than 3% of revenue, which is at a high level.

  The rapid development of financial technology has also made new technologies widely used in financial scenarios.

Taking CCB as an example, according to the person in charge of the relevant business department of CCB, CCB established a wholly-owned subsidiary of financial technology in 2018, and has realized a total of 424 artificial intelligences in various fields such as customer service, risk management, intensive operation, and smart government affairs. Scenario application; the construction of the Internet of Things private network has completed the pilot project, and the Internet of Things platform has access to more than 200,000 terminals, enabling 15 Internet of Things applications such as smart security, 5G + smart banking, and CCB Yunongtong; the "CCB Cloud" platform can be used for government affairs. Provide service support for 346 applications in the fields of , housing, peers, social and people's livelihood, etc.

  除了助力金融服务场景,未来金融业数字化转型还有哪些趋势?工商银行软件开发中心日前发布的一份研究报告认为,随着数字化技术快速发展,商业银行数字化转型未来将向业务全面数据化、产品服务智能化、银行服务全面开放化与生态化方向发展,数字化转型将进入深水区。

  与此同时,随着金融技术不断发展,机构需要持续投入资金和人力,金融机构数字化转型的成本也将日益高企。由于行业竞争加剧导致数字化转型的时间窗口越来越短,没有能力跟上数字化浪潮的金融机构,无法顺利实现数字化转型,可能面临较大的生存压力。国家金融与发展实验室副主任、上海金融与发展实验室主任曾刚对记者表示,目前国内银行业数字化能力的分化越来越大,中小银行在资源投入、人才储备等方面,仍面临较多瓶颈,亟需探索符合自身特色和需要的数字化转型路径。

  合理分享“数据红利”

  金融业如何分享数字经济带来的发展红利?根据《“十四五”数字经济发展规划》中提到的7个重点行业数字化转型提升工程,其中第6个是“加快金融领域数字化转型。合理推动大数据、人工智能、区块链等技术在银行、证券、保险等领域的深化应用,发展智能支付、智慧网点、智能投顾、数字化融资等新模式,稳妥推进数字人民币研发,有序开展可控试点。”

  值得注意的是,上述《规划》在提出“加快金融领域数字化转型”的同时,强调了“合理”“稳妥”和“有序”。在业内看来,这具有较强的现实指导意义。

  近年来,在一些金融机构加快数字化转型的同时,消费者对个人金融消费信息泄露、遭遇网络诈骗或“大数据杀熟”等的投诉也居高不下。中国人民银行副行长陈雨露此前曾公开表示,个人信息的挖掘和利用对数字经济的发展意义重大。只有筑牢个人信息安全的保护墙,才能为数字经济的持续创新发展奠定坚实基础。

  监管部门对个人金融数据的保护力度正不断加强。去年11月,个人信息保护法正式实施,加大了对机构的处罚力度。清华大学国家金融研究院副院长张伟认为,这给金融机构带来不少挑战,比如保险销售误导就可能涉及过度采集个人信息等问题。他建议,金融机构一方面要提高从业人员对个人信息保护的意识,另一方面应建立相应的合规机制,促进线下从业人员遵纪守法,充分保证客户的合法权益。中国银保监会在2022年发布的2号文件《关于银行业保险业数字化转型的指导意见》中专门强调了“加强数据安全和隐私保护”,要求“加强第三方数据合作安全评估,交由第三方处理数据的,应依据‘最小、必要’原则进行脱敏处理”。

  “要发挥司法审判职能作用,平衡金融创新与金融安全。”北京金融法院院长蔡慧永在接受记者采访时表示,一方面要顺应金融科技发展趋势,秉持包容开放的态度,尊重并鼓励科技创新,对认定创新产品违法、创新交易模式无效时应采取审慎的态度。另一方面要遵循实质正义理念,准确把握金融科技创新产品的实质,坚持适度干预原则,要准确适用数据安全法、个人信息保护法等与金融科技发展相关的法律,形成裁判规则,推动金融数据合法开放与有序流转,促进金融个人信息合理利用。

  防范新型风险

  在推进数字化转型的过程中,金融机构也将面临一些新的风险。“以开放金融为例。原来技术体系是相对封闭的,风险挑战相对可控,防护边界也是清晰的,但在开放金融之后,面临的一个关键问题就是合作伙伴的短板,对方防护最薄弱的地方就是自己开放后要面临的挑战。尤其是在技术升级后,新的风险也应运而生。”光大银行副行长杨兵兵说。

  杨兵兵认为,银行数字化转型面临三类新型风险,即场景风险、模型风险和数据风险。“在数字化转型的大背景下,传统金融风险,如信用风险、市场风险和操作风险目前依然存在。不同的是,在数字经济时代,这些传统风险也在发生变化——风险更容易被放大,风险容易互相交织,呈现多样化。”杨兵兵表示,金融机构应该尤其重视新型风险。银行需要持续完善数据治理体系,不断强化数据质量管理;要把模型风险作为独立的风险重视起来;要相应地进行场景风险管理,在场景的限额、监控等方面形成完整的流程和解决方案。

  在业内专家看来,要持续分享数字经济带来的“数据红利”,金融业需要不断解决数据资产化过程中可能出现的一系列风险挑战。中国互联网金融协会战略研究部调研显示,不少金融机构通过场景嵌入、生态运营、数据合作获得了大量内外部数据,但存在内部数据孤岛,且数据治理不足、数据质量不高、数据融合不够,形式上成为“数据囤积者”,实质上是“数据贫血者”,没有形成数据驱动的业务运营管理模式。

  清华大学国家金融研究院院长朱民指出,目前数据资产化依然面临产权模糊、价值不确定、监管生态不完备以及所有权、使用权和经营权分离等诸多挑战。他建议,要构建数据资产化生态,包括进一步推动相关技术发展,保护隐私,推动共享,完善法律监管框架以及建立适应全球化的数据资产化治理机制,为数据流动创造安全框架。

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