中新经纬1月22日电 (薛宇飞)临近春节,买房话题再度升温。近日,贝壳研究院依据2021年35个样本城市数据,发布了《2021城市刚需购房报告》(下称《报告》),对各大城市刚需买房客群进行画像。接下来,让我们看看刚需群体都有哪些特征,你又符合哪些条件。

一线城市刚需房300万起步

  何为刚需买房人,外界对它的定义不完全一致。在贝壳研究院看来,所谓的刚需,即刚性住房需求,是指受房价因素影响较小,为了实现房屋的居住功能而不得不买房的那部分置业群体。

“上车”套均总价方面,《报告》数据显示,分城市能级角度看,2021年一线城市套均总价约为298万元,2020年一线城市套均总价约为297万元,两者基本持平;2021年新一线城市套均总价约为149.5万元,与2020年相比出现略微上涨;对于二线城市而言,2021年套均总价约为123.4万元,2020年约为121.3万元,变化不显著。

  分城市看,

北京、深圳、上海、厦门及杭州套均总价位居前五,仍是“刚需上车”难度较高的城市。

其中,300万元以上的城市达到3个,分别为北京、深圳和上海;更多城市集中在100万-300万元区间,达到25个;另外,有7个城市套均总价并未达到100万,以哈尔滨、贵阳、长春、沈阳及烟台为代表的城市,“上车”总价相对于其他样本城市较低。

  来源:贝壳研究院

居住负担指数方面,分城市级别看,一线城市居住负担指数均值约为84.8,明显高于新一线城市的52.7及二线城市的45.9。相较于新一线城市及二线城市,对于刚需客群而言,一线城市居住负担明显更高。

  该研究院认为,以北京、上海及深圳为代表的一线城市,依靠强大的产业基础,带来了更优质的就业机会,叠加便利的基础配套服务,使得其对人才具有更强的吸引力,从需求侧角度来看,刚需客群的购房需求就相对旺盛,成为房价的有力支撑。贵阳、哈尔滨居住负担相对较低主要是由于房价相对较低,相应的居住负担指数也相对较低,

而对于长沙而言,房价相对友好的同时,平均月薪也相对较高,约为9080元,在35个样本城市中居于第15位,导致负担指数较低。

  置业面积方面,深圳、上海、天津及北京等城市刚需“上车”平均面积较小,一方面是因为所在城市居住负担较大,另一方面则是这些城市住房供给以小户型房源为主导,以深圳为例,在售房源中近64%集中在90平以下面积段,整体住房市场结构偏向小面积房源。

  《报告》称,一线城市刚需置业套均面积从小到大排名为“深上北广”,与2020年的“上北深广”相比,在排名上出现了变化,4个一线城市平均住房面积约为62.31平方米。

  15个新一线城市中,居住面积较低的城市为天津、南京及重庆,居住面积较大的城市为佛山、长沙及郑州,15个新一线城市的居住面积均值约为83.86平方米,与2020年15个新一线城市85.66平方米相比,下降约1.8平方米。

  16个二线城市中,居住面积较小的城市为哈尔滨、大连及厦门,居住面积较大的城市为南昌、石家庄,16个二线城市的居住面积82.56平方米,与2020年11个二线城市84.83相比,下降约2.27平方米。

  来源:贝壳研究院

一线城市刚需购房年龄33.5岁

在刚需客群置业年龄方面,《报告》称,分城市群看,在纳入统计的12个城市群中,京津冀刚需置业平均年龄最高,达到33.9岁,其后是海峡西岸,约为33.4岁,而粤港澳紧随其后,约为33.2岁。分城市级别看,一线城市刚需客群购房平均年龄约为33.5岁,高出新一线城市1.1岁,高出二线城市0.7岁。

  "Limited by the high threshold of 'getting on the bus', customers in first-tier cities have greater pressure to buy houses. Therefore, reflected in the age structure of home buyers, the age of home buyers in first-tier cities is significantly higher." The "Report" explained.

  来源:贝壳研究院

  How to pay the house price when the first-time customer buys a home?

According to the survey data, 75.2% of the respondents said they needed to take out a mortgage, and only 24.8% of the respondents said they could pay in full.

The proportion of mortgage loans in second-tier cities is about 73.2%, that in new first-tier cities is about 74.8%, and that in first-tier cities is about 82.6%. From second-tier cities to first-tier cities, the proportion of mortgage loans in the interviewed samples increased sequentially, and first-tier cities and other energy-level cities There is a significant difference between the two, which is also in line with the inference that the higher the city's energy level, the higher the "entry threshold".

  The "Report" also uses the "monthly income ratio" to measure the monthly pressure of households, and defines 30% as the "comfort line", that is, a family who just needs 30% of their monthly disposable income for monthly payment expenses , which can ensure the daily expenses of the family while maintaining a relatively decent living standard; 50% is defined as the "safety line", that is, it can maintain the normal expenses of the family and have a certain ability to resist risks.

  The survey data found that among the sample households with just-needed properties, the ratio of monthly income to income is 30% and below is about 67.5%, that is, more than 60% of the sample households with just-needed households are at the "comfort line" level, and the monthly income ratio is 30% or less. The proportion of 50% and below is about 98.1%, that is, more than 90% of the sample households with rigid needs are at the "safety line" level.

What are the characteristics of the residential area range that the just-needed customer group tends to choose?

The survey data shows that 97.6% of the households with just need choose a living area of ​​less than 90 square meters. Among them, 52.6% of the interviewed samples have a living area of ​​85-90 square meters, and 35.6% of the interviewed samples have a living area of ​​70-90 square meters. 85 square meters.

  What kind of communities do just-needed customers tend to be?

According to the survey data, 63.8% of the sample households who just needed it tended to choose medium-sized communities, 22.5% said they tended to choose large-scale communities, 11.5% said they preferred small communities, and only 2.2% said they would choose super-large-scale communities.

  "46.1% of the sample households with just need indicated that they prefer to choose a safe and worry-free community, that is, in terms of living experience, they are safe and comfortable, monitoring and protective measures are in place, and the safety is high; 42.2% of the sample households with just need said they prefer to choose A healthy LOHAS community, that is, the community is rich in functions, family members have their own favorite activity space, and LOHAS is worry-free; 32.8% of the sample households with just-in-demand said they prefer to choose a high-quality property community, that is, the community can provide a variety of property value-added services etc." the report said.

  来源:贝壳研究院

  Regarding the living pain points, 60.4% of the sample households with just-in-demand said that the living pain points were mainly concentrated in the community facilities, and believed that the surrounding facilities could not meet the needs of life, 56.3% said that the layout of the houses was not reasonable, and 53.7% said that the internal environment of the community was poor.

The "Report" believes that solving the living pain points requires comprehensive improvements in the surrounding facilities of the community, the internal construction of the community, and the experience of living space.

(Sino-Singapore Jingwei APP)

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