It is necessary to prevent and control risks, but also to facilitate the people——

  Why is it difficult to open a bank account?

  Our reporter Guo Ziyuan and Chen Guojing

  Recently, many individual users and small and micro business owners have found that opening bank accounts has become difficult-"My account is not in Beijing, and the branch staff recommends to return to the place where I registered to open an account. Otherwise, I need to prepare a lot of materials to verify my identity." "The bank found the company's The business address is my own home, so I refused to open an account for my business."

  If the time goes back to 6 years ago, I believe many people still remember a piece of news that was exposed at the "March 15" party in 2015: reporters used fake ID cards bought online to open an account at a bank, and most banks went through smoothly and opened an account successfully. , Reflecting the huge loopholes in the illegal use of cards at that time.

  From being able to open an account with a fake ID card to the difficulty of opening an account nowadays, this reflects the increasingly tighter risk prevention and control of banks and other institutions in recent years.

In recent years, due to the high risks associated with telecommunications network fraud and cross-border gambling issues, some banks have tightened the account opening process due to risk control considerations.

"But be aware that risk prevention and control does not mean one size fits all." The relevant person in charge of the People's Bank of China said that it is necessary not only to prevent and control bank account risks, but also to effectively meet the needs of individuals for normal and reasonable account opening. To this end, the central bank has issued an announcement. The "Guiding Opinions on Doing a Good Job in Personal Bank Account Services for Mobile Employment Groups" and the "Guiding Opinions on Doing a Good Job in Optimized Services and Risk Prevention and Control of Bank Accounts for Small and Micro Enterprises" must adhere to the "risk-based" principle, We must also adhere to the concept of "paying for the people".

  How to prove "you are you"

  In the opening stage of a bank account, the core logic of risk prevention and control is to prove that "you are you", that is, to prove that this card was not issued by others by stealing your identity.

How to prove it?

From the identification of ID photos by bank service staff to the submission of various supporting materials-is there any unreasonable problem behind the seemingly stricter?

  The reporter's investigation found that the pain points of individual account opening were mainly concentrated in the tightening of "open accounts in different places", while the pain points of small and micro enterprises account opening were concentrated in the "high threshold".

  At the branches of the five major banks in the industry and peasants in the Beijing area, reporters consulted on account opening matters as individual customers. They were all asked "whether it is a local hukou?" Come, but when the reporter said that it was negative, many banks further inquired about the specific purpose of issuing the card. If it is a salary card, a series of supporting documents must be submitted.

  In addition to opening accounts in different places, banks have increasingly strict management of the purpose of opening accounts for local users.

"Because I live in the rental housing provided by the unit, the property company stipulates that the CCB card should be used for property fee collection. I went directly to the bank to open an account. I thought it would be enough to bring an ID card. I didn't expect it to be very complicated." Liu Min in Shenzhen said that at that time, the bank staff first inquired about the purpose of opening the card, and then asked her to provide the rental contract, the labor contract signed with the company, the social security certificate, and the record of the mobile phone real-name authentication for more than half a year.

  "I didn't bring these documents with me at the time, and I was anxious to open an account. Suddenly I felt it was very inconvenient and the user experience was not good." Liu Min said.

  Compared with individual account opening, the experience of small and micro enterprises is even more "inconvenient."

A number of small and micro business owners told reporters that their company had been refused account opening due to various "strange" reasons, such as no company door number, few employees, the company has not yet carried out business activities, the business owner's account is not in the local area, and the bank has not saved enough. Full funds, etc.

“Some banks even make the purchase of wealth management and insurance products as additional conditions for opening an account.” Ms. Duan established a media company in Beijing at the beginning of this year, with a turnover of only about 800,000 yuan. If she buys investment products for the purpose of opening an account, for her Neither meets or exceeds her actual needs.

  Combating fraud and crime is the main reason

  Why is bank account opening from loose to tight?

Many people in the industry expressed that they need to treat it dialectically.

For some account openings with strict purposes, if the bank requires relevant materials, there is nothing wrong with it. However, if the identity can be cross-verified through valid external data, there is no need for customers to submit too many proof materials, otherwise there will be a size fits all or even a lazy policy.

  "The central bank has received reports before, especially for migrant workers, who often open accounts in different places and need to produce various certification materials. There are problems such as difficulty in opening personal salary cards." The person in charge of the central bank said that there are two main reasons.

  On the one hand, in order to combat telecommunications network fraud and cross-border gambling crimes, banks have generally strengthened account risk management.

In the identified criminal cases of telecommunications network fraud and cross-border gambling, the main methods of rapid transfer of illegal funds are mobile banking and online bank large-value transfers. According to the investigation of the case, the transfer limit has obviously exceeded the normal and reasonable customer's need.

  So, why do we need to focus on managing remote account opening?

"In response to the increasingly rampant illegal and criminal activities on the telecommunications network in recent years, relevant departments have launched a nationwide'break card' operation to punish illegal renting, lending, selling, and purchasing bank cards and telephone cards." Dong Ximiao, chief researcher of China Merchants Union Finance Said that this is indeed necessary and urgent, which will help eradicate the soil that breeds fraud from the source.

Statistics show that in October 2020, since the Ministry of Public Security, together with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Central Bank and other departments launched the "Card Broken" operation, a total of 450,000 suspects of buying and selling bank cards and mobile phone cards have been investigated and dealt with, and more than 610,000 bank cards have been seized.

The commercial bank investigated the accounts involved and found that the accounts opened by individuals in different places accounted for a relatively high proportion, thus tightening the policy for opening accounts in different places.

  On the other hand, some banks have not implemented the service concept of "pay for the people". From the perspective of convenient management, they have made unreasonable requirements across the board to customers, and some have exceeded the necessary limits for identity verification.

  The main reason for the high threshold for small and micro enterprises to open accounts is that some banks, out of business considerations, believe that the benefits cannot cover the costs, and there has been a phenomenon of excuse.

“Bank accounts are an important carrier and channel for market entities to carry out business activities.” Wang Xin, director of the Central Bank’s Research Bureau, said that it is necessary to thoroughly implement the decision and deployment of the Party Central Committee and the State Council on deepening the reform of The bank account optimization service and risk prevention and control "do not miss and promote both", and strive to let small and micro enterprises see the real results and changes in bank account services.

  Convenient and safe

  How can bank account opening management take a convenient and safe balance beam?

Many industry insiders said that this is a systematic project. It is recommended that source governance, system governance, and comprehensive governance should be multi-pronged. Each bank should also strengthen the hierarchical management of accounts, continuously improve risk identification capabilities, and reduce risk prevention. Control the adverse effects on normal account services.

  A few days ago, the Central Bank successively issued the "Guiding Opinions on Doing a Good Job in Personal Bank Account Services for Mobile Employment Groups" and the "Guiding Opinions on Doing a Good Job in Optimized Bank Account Services and Risk Prevention and Control for Small and Micro Enterprises" The “Guiding Opinions” also proposes to establish and improve the classified and hierarchical management of personal bank accounts.

  Specifically, one is to make full use of existing bank accounts to prevent account opening difficulties from the root cause.

For example, instead of forcing the bank to open a separate account with the bank, the bank can use the account that the customer has opened to pay wages on behalf of the bank.

In this way, it not only reduces the personal burden of users studying, working, and living in different places, but also effectively protects their legitimate rights and interests.

  The second is to optimize the bank account opening process and implement simple account opening services for small and micro enterprises.

The so-called "simple account opening" means that the bank makes full use of the externally valid data that it has mastered to cross-check the identity of the customer and reduce the requirements for the customer to submit proof materials.

  "At present, ICBC has completed docking with 26 business departments and 33 business systems at home and abroad. The risk control data has covered nine areas including risk, intelligence, correlation, public opinion, coefficient, reporting, dynamic monitoring, regulatory punishment, and centralized procurement risk control. "The relevant person in charge of the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China said that on this basis, the bank can improve the identification of customers without excessive reliance on proof materials.

  The third is to establish a long-term mechanism for personal bank account services.

Next, we must establish an inter-bank risk monitoring mechanism, establish a sound account classification and hierarchical management system, and strengthen the monitoring and interception of fraud and gambling funds.

  Regarding the issue of account classification management, the above-mentioned person in charge of the central bank stated that next, the bank should comprehensively judge customer risks in accordance with relevant legal systems, combining the characteristics of customers' identity, occupation, age, and transaction needs, and provide accounts that match the customer's risk level. Function, and agree with customers on mobile banking and online banking transaction limits and verification methods.

"If it is found that the customer has exceeded the normal payment and settlement needs of funds and requires the opening of mobile banking and online banking for large-value transfers, then the bank shall include it in key monitoring."