The output per mu of double-cropping rice has exceeded the key goal for two consecutive years.

  What does it mean to break through the ceiling of yield per mu

  Our reporter Liu Lin and Xie Yao

  On October 17, the third-generation hybrid rice new combination test and demonstration base in Zimuchong, Qingzhu Village, Xiangyangqiao Street, Hengnan County, Hunan Province, ushered in the production test of late rice.

At noon, in a newly harvested rice field, Xie Huaan, the leader of the acceptance expert group and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, announced: "The results of late rice production in the demonstration area of ​​Hengnan County-an average yield of 936.1 kg per mu." 936.1 kg, plus July The average yield per mu of early rice tested in this hilly field was 667.8 kg, and the annual yield of hybrid rice double-cropping rice reached 1603.9 kg per mu, setting a new record again.

  How did the record of rice yield per mu break through?

What is the significance?

The reporter conducted an interview.

  How did you do it

  “At the end of last year, Academician Yuan Longping made arrangements for this year’s super-high-yield research and implementation of the “Research and Demonstration of Research and Demonstration of 1500 kg of Double-Crop Rice Yield per Mu” in double-cropping rice areas such as Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, and Hunan. It is called the "Three Thousand Jin Project". Today is here to test the achievements of this research project." On October 17th, at the test and acceptance site, Li Jianwu, director of the cultivation room of the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, said.

  The so-called "Three Thousand Jin Project" is the goal of implementing the "early rice + late rice" combination in the double-cropping rice area to achieve a total annual yield of 1,500 kg per mu.

The key varieties used, according to the different ecological regional conditions of the southern rice area, mainly use super hybrid early rice, and the yield of Chaoyouqian, the third-generation hybrid rice "Sanyou No. 1", which is cultivated through the use of indica and japonica inter-subspecific advantages. A rice combination with a major breakthrough potential.

Cai Weijun, director of the Hengnan County Agricultural Science Research Institute and senior agronomist of the County Agriculture and Rural Bureau, introduced that this year’s Hengnan County Demonstration Base will plant early rice with the second-generation hybrid rice and late rice with the third-generation hybrid rice. Three Excellent One".

  Li Jianwu held up a handful of golden ears and said that the annual yield of the demonstration base exceeded 1,600 kilograms per mu during the production test this year. The third-generation late hybrid rice combination "Sanyou No. 1" contributed a lot.

  For more than half a century, after successful research and development of three-line hybrid rice and two-line hybrid rice and large-scale promotion, how to build on the strengths and avoid weaknesses of the previous two generations of hybrid rice, and obtain new hybrid rice varieties with higher yield and quality. Third The next generation of hybrid rice takes on the important task of exploration.

  "Sanyou No. 1" is the third generation hybrid rice.

It combines the advantages of the previous two generations of hybrid rice and avoids the shortcomings of the previous two generations of hybrid rice.

In addition to simple seed production and propagation, compared with the previous two generations of hybrid rice's need for fertilizer and water, the third generation of hybrid rice is more "low-key" and more conducive to industrialization, that is, from experimental fields to ordinary farmers.

Yuan Longping regards the third-generation hybrid rice technology as the key to breaking through the "ceiling" of yield per mu, and highly appraised it as "an ideal way to utilize rice heterosis in the future."

  Li Xinqi, a researcher at the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center and the host of the third-generation hybrid rice project, introduced that the characteristics of high yield, disease resistance, cold resistance, and lodging resistance are the universal advantages of the third-generation hybrid rice compared to the previous two generations.

At the same time, the "Sanyou No. 1" seedling age is flexible in the early stage, with fewer ineffective tillers, and the ear formation rate is over 85%, allowing more sunlight, rain and dew and nutrients to concentrate on effective tillers.

  "There is little waste in the early stage of growth, and a solid foundation is laid. This is one of the high-yielding mechanisms. In addition, this variety can maintain grain filling for 50 to 60 days from heading to maturity. Sufficient growth time makes its ears grow heavier and stronger. , The rice stalks are still vigorous at the later stage, and they have strong lodging resistance." Li Xinqi said.

  "The yield measurement results fully verified the stability of the third-generation hybrid rice technology and varieties." Zhang Deyong, secretary of the Party Committee and researcher of the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, said that the third-generation hybrid rice marked a new breakthrough in hybrid rice breeding technology and achieved high yields. A solid step has been taken in the cultivation of high-quality varieties.

  How difficult is it

  Rice should be high-yield and have the "four good": the first is a good variety, with a good variety; the second is a good method, with a good cultivation method; the third is a good field, with a good foundation; the fourth is a good state, with a good climate.

Li Jianwu said that "Sanyou No. 1" is a good breed, and good law, good land, and good condition are the guarantee of high yield of good breeds.

  According to Cai Weijun, the Zimuchong Experimental Demonstration Base covers an area of ​​30.5 mu, 13 large and small hills, high in the east and low in the west. The fields are arranged in a trapezoid with different sizes. The soil is medium fertile and belongs to clay soil. The two adjacent mountain ponds can ensure production and irrigation. The water source is plentiful, and there are adobe ditches on both sides of Longtian, which is convenient for irrigation and drainage.

It is understood that the demonstration base has an altitude of 78 meters and has undertaken the demonstration task of the third-generation hybrid rice new combination super-high-yield research and demonstration task developed by the team of Academician Yuan Longping from 2019.

  "When transplanting seedlings this year, the basic seedling number in the early stage was guaranteed, which increased the effective ears in the later stage. When fertilizing, the appropriate amount of ear fertilizer was applied in the mid-term to help the formation of large ears." Li Jianwu said, this year, the fertilizer and water management will continue. Improvements have been made and the effect is good.

Of course, during the nearly one month from heading in early September to October 5 this year, Hunan has maintained fine weather conditions, which is also conducive to the filling and fruiting of rice.

  According to reports, the Agriculture and Rural Bureau of Hengnan County organized a dedicated work class with a strong sense of responsibility and exquisite business, formulated the cultivation technology regulations for "Sanyou No. 1", integrated assembly of key technologies, and innovated supporting facilities to achieve timely sowing. , Carefully raise seedlings, transplant appropriate ages, reasonable close planting, reasonable fertilization and green prevention and control, etc., to maximize the output of the experts planted in the experimental fields to the farmers' production fields.

  Chen Taijia, a farmer in Qingzhu Village, told reporters that although the Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center gave him a technical plan, he organized his own personnel to carry out fertilization and pesticide application and field management.

"The amount of fertilizer used in the experimental field is not much more than that of our usual farming, and I bought the fertilizer from the agricultural supply shop in the town." Chen Taijia said that her farming level is at best in the middle of the village.

  Li Jianwu introduced that the most prominent feature of the third-generation hybrid rice is that it gives full play to the advantages of hybridization, and its strong vitality can save farmers cost and energy.

  What's the significance

  The double-season yield of hybrid rice has set a new record per mu, which is not only a major breakthrough in rice breeding, but also a sign that China's hybrid rice breeding technology continues to lead the world.

  “Guarantee food security depends on increasing the yield and expanding the area,” said Yuan Longping, an expert from the team of academician Yuan Longping in an interview with reporters.

Based on this, at the end of last year, the team deployed a demonstration of the double-cropping rice annual production target of 1500 kg per mu.

"What does it mean to produce 1,500 kilograms per mu of double-cropping rice? It means that you can feed 5 more people!" On November 2 last year, Yuan Longping said excitedly after learning the results of the production test that year.

  In fact, the yield per mu of hybrid rice in one season has already exceeded 1,000 kilograms, but wouldn’t it exceed 2,000 kilograms in two crops?

Why is it necessary to tackle a problem with a double-season yield of 1500 kg per mu?

  "First of all, the current varieties with a yield of more than 1,000 kilograms per mu are single-season rice, also called mid-season rice. From the general practice and cultivation mode of rice-producing areas in China, it is impossible to grow double-season rice on the same farmland with one crop of rice. According to Li Xinqi, the yield of mid-range rice is generally higher than that of early rice and late rice. But when combined, the yield of mid-range rice is higher than the sum of early rice and late rice.

  Affected by factors such as the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the global food supply is in crisis.

In this context, the state attaches great importance to expanding the area of ​​double-cropping rice cultivation.

"In the past, we used to say'ton of grain field', which meant that the double-season yield reached 1 ton per mu. This has long been achieved in rural production fields, but 1.5 tons has never been realized. Therefore, the results of this production test are very important. Food security is of great significance." Li Xinqi said.

  After the yield per mu exceeds 1500 kg, what is the next goal?

Yuan Longping once stated that the goal is to achieve a yield of 1,200 kg per mu of one-season rice and 2,000 kg per mu of double-season rice, so as to realize the national “dream of enjoying the coolness under the grass”.

This is the goal of the next step, and it is also a new exam question.

  According to the relevant regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, in the same ecological area, the target output must be reached for two consecutive years to be successful.

Last year, the annual yield per mu of double-season rice in the Hengnan Demonstration Base reached 1530.76 kg. This year, at the same base, the yield of early rice increased by nearly 50 kg, and the yield of late rice increased by more than 20 kg, making the annual yield per mu set a new record.

  "'Sanyou No. 1'suffered long-term low temperature weather unseen in many years last year, and experienced continuous high temperature weather this year. Under such extreme weather conditions of one high and one low, it still broke the record of yield per mu, indicating the adaptability of the rice. Very good." Li Jianwu said that he hopes that through promotion and summing up successful experiences, farmers can increase production and income.

  Our reporter Liu Lin and Xie Yao

Our reporter Liu Lin and Xie Yao

Keywords: rice, yield, goal, hybrid rice, output, yuan longping, ceiling, liu lin, li jianwu, results, reporter, sanyou no. 1, hunan province, third, rice yield