How to increase the anti-risk ability of grain production
Our reporter Guo Guozhong correspondent Zhang Ping Jin Yifu
In the past month, continuous thunderstorms and possible pests and diseases in the later period have made the large farmers in the rice-wheat rotation area in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River feel uneasy.
Facing the severe situation of grain production, how to improve the anti-risk ability of grain production and ensure the high yield and safety of grain in the country and region this year?
The key to achieving high output and quality
On July 12th, at the on-site evaluation meeting of the research results of the satellite navigation line precision fertilization technology and equipment research project organized by Yangzhou University, Jiangsu Agriculture and Rural Department, Jiangsu Provincial Crop Society, Jiangsu Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Jiangsu University Experts in the agricultural field conducted in-depth discussions and put forward various solutions and suggestions for the early and late stages of grain production.
Researcher Wu Jianhua, chairman of the Jiangsu Provincial Crop Society, said that Jiangsu’s current cultivated land reserves are 77.475 million acres and permanent basic farmland is 58.816 million acres, mainly planting rice and wheat. Among them, through the selection of excellent varieties and the combination of intelligent agricultural machinery and high-yield cultivation agronomy, wheat production this year has resisted the effects of late planting, "inverted spring cold" and many insect pests, and has achieved the goal of high wheat yield. Expert demonstrations generally exceed 1100 kg per mu. At present, the province's rice cultivation area is about 34 million mu.
According to experts, as far as the cultivation of food crops is concerned, at present, fertilization and application are still in the extensive stage, especially at the stage of crop seedlings, the full-spreading spraying process is still commonly used, causing 80% of pesticides to fall to the ground and 50% of chemical fertilizers to volatilize or be lost. Not only waste a lot of fertilizers and pesticides, but also seriously pollute the soil, but also low yield and low efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent to change this status quo.
According to the reporter of Science and Technology Daily, in response to the problems in the grain production process, the scientific research team of Yangzhou University summarized more than 40 years of crop theory and promoted the precise quantitative cultivation technology of rice, and cooperated with Nanjing Woyang Machinery Technology Co., Ltd. and Wuxi Kalman Navigation Technology. Co., Ltd. jointly undertook the research task of Jiangsu Province Science and Technology Support Plan project-satellite navigation counter-precision fertilization and application technology and equipment, focusing on the research and development of satellite navigation-based counter-application, fertilizer and mechanical weeding technology and equipment. In order to achieve substantial savings in the amount of fertilizers and medicines used in rice and wheat seedlings, improve the ability to prevent diseases and insects, and ensure high yield and high efficiency of food production.
At present, relevant scientific research and technological achievements are being demonstrated in Jiangsu, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and other places. In the eyes of Huang Qinghua, executive vice president of Jiangdu High-end Equipment Research Institute of Yangzhou University, these advanced technologies and equipment of agricultural intelligence have subverted the traditional agricultural production mode of relying on the sky. Traditional manual fertilization and field application operations in the field not only have low accuracy, but also low quality operation. The satellite navigation equipment for precise fertilization and application of pesticides, using the precise fertilization and application technology to the target, improves the accuracy of fertilization and application, guarantees the spraying and spreading position of drugs and fertilizers, reduces the pesticide into the soil and the loss of fertilizer volatilization, and greatly increases the fertilizer And the utilization rate of pesticides has effectively improved the economic benefits of agricultural planting.
Wu Chundu, vice president of Jiangsu University, believes that storing grain in technology and storing grain in the field depends on science and technology. In recent years, various types of natural disasters have occurred frequently in China. To achieve high yield and quality in food production, governments at all levels must establish an early warning mechanism and expert decision-making system, increase the implementation of water conservancy construction and improve the plant protection system, and focus on promoting the application of advanced advanced agriculture, agricultural machinery, and agronomy Equipment, accelerate the cultivation of new types of professional farmers through industry-university-research cooperation, from "capable land" to "expert land", and comprehensively improve China's grain production level.
The weather is changing, and disaster monitoring needs to be strengthened
According to Professor Zhang Ruihong of Yangzhou University, food security is a matter of national security. Despite the good harvest of wheat in my country, this year rice will face many irresistible factors. At present, rice is in a critical period of development and growth. Later field management, disease prevention and insect control, etc., even a little carelessness will lead to a reduction in production, or even an outage, which is sloppy.
Hua Banan, chairman of Jiangsu Jinyun Agricultural Development Company, told reporters that last year, Jinyun Agriculture and Yangzhou University cooperated fully to establish a 4000-mu modern intelligent agricultural industry demonstration zone in Shaobo Town, Jiangdu District. Under the guidance of experts, relying on satellite navigation for precise fertilization and application technology and complete sets of intelligent equipment, it completed 9 process operations such as hydroponic, pulping, leveling, water sowing, weeding, fertilization, and pesticide application at one time. The demonstration area last year The highest yield of rice is more than 1500 kg.
The reporter came to the Jinyun Agricultural Demonstration Field with related agricultural experts on the 12th and learned that in July, despite the continuous rain, Jinyun Agriculture completed the summer sowing and fertilization and pesticide application before the rainstorm. Supported by farmland water conservancy facilities, at present, 9108 varieties of southern japonica rice have been bred, and the seedlings are thick and strong.
Experts pointed out that after entering the flood season, the weather in various regions is volatile, and the main production areas of rice and wheat rotation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River need to apply intelligent information methods to strengthen monitoring of water, seedling, fertilizer, insect, disease, and grass conditions. In the event of thunderstorms, it is necessary to use existing water conservancy facilities to organize farmers to open ditches to drain and reduce the field water level. At the same time, under the guidance of experts, it is necessary to strengthen the field management of crops, grasp the time, concentration and method of medication, do disease prevention, and reduce the losses caused by different natural disasters.