His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister, in his capacity as Ruler of Dubai, issued Law No. 4 of 2020 regarding the regulation of unmanned aircraft in the Emirate of Dubai, with the aim of preserving the security and safety of air navigation in the emirate, and achieving the public interest To the society, to regulate the operations of unmanned aircraft in the emirate, and to ensure optimal use of them, in accordance with the best international standards and practices applied in this regard, and to regulate the conduct of activities related to the use of unmanned aircraft, and to create an environment conducive to investment in this sector.
The law also aims to reduce the risks arising from the operation of drones, and to define the tasks and responsibilities of the concerned authorities in this regard, and to contribute to making Dubai a center for the manufacture of drones, smart transport, and innovation in the field of air transport, and to enable public and private entities to use aircraft without A pilot in providing the desired services.
The provisions of this law apply to all types of unmanned aircraft - including the stripped-down plane, the remotely piloted plane, and the self-guided plane - and their uses, with different control systems throughout the emirate of Dubai, including private development areas, and free zones including a center Dubai International Financial, and to all individuals and public and private entities that use unmanned aircraft in the emirate, while the provisions of this law are exempt from unmanned aircraft that are used for military purposes, provided that coordination is done in this regard with the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority to ensure the safety of operations Operating, and not to jeopardize civil aviation.
Dubai Civil Aviation Authority terms of reference
According to the law, the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority supervises the implementation of its provisions, and organizes the operations and associated activities, in accordance with federal legislation, treaties and agreements to which the state is a party or is a party to, and for that purpose, and in coordination with the relevant authorities, may perform a number of tasks And powers, including: defining the operations and associated activities, supervising and controlling them, supervising the operations of operating drones in the airspace designated for these aircraft, and setting and adopting the conditions and procedures necessary for issuing permits to conduct operations and engage in related activities, including operational experiences.
The authority also specializes in identifying and accrediting the approved areas and altitudes, in which the use of drones is permitted and conducting operational experiments, and approving the fields and air paths in which the drones are permitted to fly, and setting and adopting the conditions for issuing permits for the pilot of the unmanned aircraft, and the observer assigned by the operator to assist the pilot of the aircraft To operate it safely, or by monitoring the operations related to the aircraft, the crew members and the intended persons qualified, and assigned by the operator to carry out duties related to the unmanned aircraft systems, during the operating times, and determine their obligations, as well as the adoption of the conditions and standards for the construction of airports for unmanned aircraft, and the development and approval of systems Aviation security, safety and environment services for unmanned aircraft systems, risk management, issuance of permits, approvals and certificates necessary to carry out operations and engage in associated activities, in accordance with the provisions of this law and the decisions issued pursuant to it and the legislation in force in the emirate, as well as the permits and approvals necessary to operate airports for unmanned aircraft, and issuance The temporary permits for conducting its operational experiments, in addition to issuing the permit to the independent safety assessor, in accordance with the requirements and standards approved by the authority in this regard.
Dubai Air Navigation Services Corporation terms of reference
The law stipulated that the Dubai Aeronautics Services Corporation should organize the safe and effective movement of unmanned aircraft within the emirate’s airspace in a horizontal and vertical extension, in a manner that ensures the safety of air navigation, and is consistent with the federal legislation and treaties and agreements to which the state is a party or is a party to it, The Corporation has a number of tasks and powers, including: defining the airspace for unmanned aircraft in the Emirate of Dubai, for the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority to supervise and manage it, and to organize, monitor and manage the operations and movement of unmanned aircraft in that field.
The Corporation also specializes in providing air navigation services for drones in a manner that achieves the security and safety of air traffic and the movement of drones, and includes: providing the necessary information about aircraft movement, drones and air navigation, and providing the necessary information on the weather and wind traffic, as well as the necessary information on Airplanes for drones in the emirate, and managing the equipment and systems necessary to manage the movement of drones in the airspace.
In accordance with the law, the Dubai Aeronautics Services Corporation, in coordination with the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, defines and accredits the approved areas and altitudes in which the use of drones is permitted and conducts operational experiments in a manner that does not affect the safety and integrity of the airspace, and the design of airspace and air paths in which drones are permitted Flying in it, in coordination with the authority, and taking the necessary measures to ensure the safety of the airspace, operations and operational experiments.
Dubai Authority for Engineering Projects
The law defines the terms of reference of the Dubai Foundation for Engineering Aviation Projects, which include: setting specifications, standards and conditions that must be met in airports for unmanned airplanes, submitting them to the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority for approval, and setting and approving engineering designs for unmanned aerial airports for government use, stations, infrastructure and infrastructure. Necessary for it and supervising its establishment and implementation.
The corporation also specializes in approving engineering designs and plans for non-governmental aircraft for non-governmental aircraft for non-governmental uses, stations, and facilities, and the necessary infrastructure for them, supervising and supervising their implementation, and issuing certificates of achievement related to them, provided that those designs and plans are compatible with the requirements of urban planning regulations The movement of transportation and transportation in the emirate, as well as defining the foundations and standards for the qualification and accreditation of contractors and consultants working in the construction of airports for unmanned aerial vehicles, their stations and facilities and the necessary infrastructure for them, in coordination with the concerned authorities, in addition to studying the engineering and technical obstacles facing the operations of the operations of unmanned aircraft , And develop appropriate solutions for it, and submit them to the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority for approval.
Law No. (4) of 2020 stipulated that the Dubai Police, in coordination with the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, undertake a number of tasks and powers in this regard, including: Establishing and implementing security measures and measures to address and prevent acts of unlawful interference with the use of drones, and investigating crimes Resulting from its use, setting and applying preventive measures and measures in the event that the plane lost control of the plane without a pilot or exited the approved areas or air routes or did not comply with the instructions of the authority and the concerned authorities.
Organizing activities and uses
According to the law, any person is prohibited from driving a plane without a pilot, using it, carrying out operations, practicing any of the associated activities, creating an infrastructure, or creating a private airport for unmanned aircraft in Dubai, before obtaining a permit from the Dubai Authority For civil aviation, the decisions issued in implementation of this law determine the conditions and requirements for obtaining the permit, and when issuing the permit, an assessment of the risks arising from the operation of the unmanned aircraft, the type of use through which the aircraft will be used, the place of use, and any other considerations deemed necessary by the authority, are taken into consideration in a manner that guarantees the safety of air navigation And operational security.
The law detailed the uses of unmanned aircraft in the Emirate of Dubai to practice: the activities assigned to government agencies to be carried out in accordance with the applicable legislation, commercial, scientific and research activities, as well as activities related to the practice of hobbies and air sports, and any other activities specified by the Director General of the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, who is entrusted with the law Issuing a list of activities carried out by operating the unmanned aircraft, the conditions for this operation, and the obligations of the operators.
Types of aircraft without pilot, circulation and registration
The law stipulates that the director general of the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority specifies the types and categories of unmanned aircraft that may be operated in the Emirate of Dubai, the conditions, requirements and specifications that must be met therein, and it is prohibited for any person to design, manufacture, assemble, modify, maintain, or inspect unmanned aircraft and their systems or Development of its simulation systems or training in its leadership, before obtaining a permit to do so from the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority.
The law prohibits the import, entry, or sale of aircraft without a pilot or any of its parts or systems in the Emirate of Dubai, before obtaining a permit to do so from the authority, and any person who owns a plane without a plane must register it with the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority in accordance with the provisions of this law and the issued decisions Accordingly, the concerned authorities in Dubai must coordinate with the authority to set the necessary procedures to implement the provisions of this law, and the Director General of the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority may, for justified reasons, exclude certain types of unmanned aircraft in coordination with the relevant authorities.
Also, it is prohibited for any person to perform operations or operational experiments of the plane without a pilot before registering it with the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, as it is prohibited to conduct operational experiments of the drone without clearly carrying numbers or registration codes on it, or any other means determined by the authority to identify and distinguish it On the other hand, the owner of the drone must register it before carrying out operations or operational experiments, or cancel its registration, according to the terms and procedures that are specified by a decision of the Director General of the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority in this regard.
The Authority shall create a registry for unmanned aircraft, containing data and information related to it, its owners and operators, and any rights contained therein, and the form of this record, and the data and information to be recorded therein, shall be determined by a decision issued in this regard by the Director General of the Authority.
Drone control systems
The law defines drone control systems that include: the naked eye control system, in which the movement of the drone is controlled remotely by direct visual vision, and the remote control direction system, in which the movement of the drone is controlled through the remote control station, And the plane without a pilot by programming it, and to control its own movement, and it is used in the self-driving aircraft.
The law also specified the persons who are authorized to control the plane without a pilot, whereby any person is prohibited from driving the plane without a pilot, or assisting in its piloting or conducting the observation process, or carrying out any work related to its operating systems, unless it is qualified, and has a permit to do so from the Dubai Authority Civil Aviation.
The Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, in coordination with the General Authority for Regulating the Telecommunications Sector, sets conditions, requirements and procedures for the use of radio frequency for unmanned aircraft, systems and remote control stations.
Establishing the infrastructure and operating the airports
The law specifies the requirements for the establishment of the infrastructure to carry out operations for the operation of aircraft without a pilot, which may not be established unless after obtaining a permit from the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, and this permit is issued in coordination with the Dubai Foundation for Engineering Aviation Projects and the concerned authorities, according to the terms and requirements approved by the authority and these authorities .
The law prohibits any person from establishing or operating airports for private aircraft without a pilot or making any amendment to it before obtaining a permit to do so from the authority, and this permit is issued in coordination with the Dubai Foundation for Engineering Aviation Projects and the concerned authorities, and on the operators of aircraft without a pilot, when using the airports and airstrips Helicopters, abide by the safety conditions and standards set by the authority in this regard.
Refueling, energy and operational safety certification
According to the law, no party may supply fuel or energy to the unmanned aircraft except after obtaining a permit to do so from the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, and this permit is issued in coordination with the Dubai Foundation for Engineering Projects and the concerned authorities, and the operator before proceeding to use the unmanned aircraft or its systems Or the airport's private operation of the plane without a pilot, or after the completion of the establishment of the infrastructure, submit to the authority for the issuance of the operational safety certificate, and it is valid throughout the period of operation, unless it is terminated before that for any of the reasons specified in a decision issued by the director general of the authority in this regard.
The obligations to operate the drone
The law defines the obligations that the operator, the pilot of the unmanned aircraft, the monitor and the crew members must abide by, including: safety requirements and procedures, the manufacturer's instructions, and security requirements set by the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority in coordination with the Dubai Aeronautics Services Corporation and the concerned authorities, and the procedures and controls for the flight without Its systems, including pre-flight procedures, safety procedures for takeoff, approach, landing, and distances between aircraft, ensure that the unmanned aircraft and its systems are valid for use before take off and follow the manufacturer's instructions in this regard, and be familiar with all information related to the flight or operation.
The law obligated the operator, the pilot of the unmanned aircraft, the observer, and the crew members not to use the aircraft without pilot to recklessly or in violation of any legal duty or to carry out any act or activity that would affect the security and safety of the airspace, or the safety of persons or property in any way or in any way. Ensure the availability of appropriate insurance cover for liability for damages that may arise from operations or operational experiences, and ensure that the airport's unmanned airport is suitable for operations of take-off, landing and landing, and stop these operations immediately, in the event of any threat to the safety of aviation or persons or Properties.
In accordance with the law, the operator must adhere to the emergency plan approved by the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority when the aircraft is disrupted without a pilot, its systems, remote control station, equipment used in operations, loss of communication, loss of control, termination of flight or any other cases determined by the authority, and notification The authority immediately when an accident or accident occurs or a violation of the conditions of the permit, and conducting periodic maintenance of the aircraft without a pilot and its regulations in accordance with the manufacturer's manual and the manuals approved by the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, and maintaining records related to carrying out operations or operational experiments and maintenance of aircraft without a pilot and its systems and any other information determined by the authority Throughout the period you specify.
Use of the airspace
The law defines the airspace and areas designated for unmanned aircraft, which are determined by the Director General of the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, and the Dubai Aeronautics Services Corporation is planning the airspace and determining air routes in which drones may fly, according to a plan issued for this purpose and approved From the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority.
The Authority, in coordination with the Corporation and the concerned authorities, shall determine the permissible heights to carry out operations or operational experiments provided that it does not affect the air navigation operations of civil and military aircraft, in addition to determining the allowed horizontal dimension for carrying out operations or operational experiences, taking into account determining the adequate safety and security distance To protect individuals, property, civil and military aircraft, installations, buildings, and other unmanned aircraft from the risk of collision.
Controlled airspace and prohibited areas
According to the law, any person is prohibited from carrying out operations or operational experiences in the controlled airspace and assigned to civil or military aircraft in a manner other than those authorized, and the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority may allow the operator to carry out operations in the controlled airspace according to the conditions and controls set by the Dubai Foundation Air Navigation Services, provided that it does not affect the air navigation operations, the safety and safety of civil aircraft, and its passengers.
Any person is prohibited from carrying out operations or operational experiences in prohibited, restricted and dangerous areas, and the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority may, in coordination with the Dubai Police, allow government agencies that use unmanned aircraft for security purposes, rescue, extinguishing, surveillance or other purposes related to the public interest, to operate Drones in prohibited, restricted or dangerous areas.
Providing public services
Government entities, after obtaining the approval of the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, may use unmanned aircraft to provide general services to the community and its members, and to carry out the process of monitoring and inspection in the areas entrusted to follow them, the most important of which are: air transport of passengers and goods, data collection and statistics, and provision of ambulance and firefighting services, Traffic control, securing the different activities that need air insurance, and monitoring environmental, health, planning and building violations, as well as monitoring the infrastructure, ports, beaches and seaports, and for conducting air surveys and search and rescue operations, in accordance with the controls adopted by the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority in this regard .
Acts of unlawful interference
The law enumerated the acts of unlawful interference, which endanger the safety of civil aviation and air transportation, namely: unlawful seizure of aircraft without pilot, control or unlawful infiltration of their operating systems, use them in preparatory work or to commit any act that violates the applicable legislation, and install any weapon Or a device or material dangerous or prohibited on an unmanned aircraft in an unlawful manner, and it is prohibited for any person to perform any of the aforementioned acts, under penalty of legal responsibility.
Privacy and data protection
According to the law, everyone who uses the plane without a plane must take all necessary measures to preserve the sanctity of housing and not violate the privacy of people, as well as their private and commercial secrets, etc., and to keep the confidentiality of the data enjoying legal protection, and it is prohibited for any person to record, photograph or use sensor technologies Remotely to violate the privacy of the private or family life of individuals, as well as photographing installations, buildings, the forbidden area or restricted area, in cases other than those authorized by law or without obtaining a permit to do so from the relevant authorities, and any person is prohibited from installing any devices or equipment to collect information And data illegally.
Penalties, violations, and compensation for damages
Without prejudice to any more severe punishment stipulated in any other legislation, imprisonment and a fine or one of these two penalties shall be imposed on anyone who: endangers the safety and security of the airspace in any way, or designs, manufactures, assembles, modifies or maintains the aircraft without a pilot and its systems and develops simulation systems And training without obtaining a permit to do so from the authority, or importing, inserting or selling planes without a plane or its parts or systems in the emirate without obtaining a permit to do so from the authority, as well as all who carried out operations or operational experiments of the plane without a plane in violation of the provisions of This law and the decisions issued thereunder.
A decision issued by the Chairman of the Executive Council of the Emirate of Dubai shall be determined: the acts that constitute a violation of the provisions of this law and the decisions issued pursuant thereto, the financial fine and administrative penalties that must be taken against the perpetrators of violations, and the conditions and limits of double the financial fine in the event of a repeat of the violation itself.
The person responsible for the damage resulting from the operations and related activities shall be responsible for compensation for the damages, and for removing the causes of the violation committed during the deadline set by the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority, and in the event he is not committed to removing the causes of the violation or delaying its removal, the Authority shall have, at the expense of the damage, the removal of causes Damage, whether by its own devices or through the use of any other party, in addition to charging the one who causes the damage at a rate of (20%) of the value of the cost of removing the damages as administrative expenses.
Any interested party shall have the grievance in writing with the Director General of the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority regarding the decisions, actions or measures taken against him under this law and the decisions issued pursuant thereto, within thirty days from the date of notification of the grievance, decision or measure from him, and this grievance shall be decided within thirty days. From the date of its submission by a committee formed by the Director General of the Commission for this purpose