Beijing, March 3 (Xinhua) -- The Information Office of the State Council released the "28 Report on Human Rights Violations in the United States" on the 28th, the full text of which is as follows:

2022 Report on Human Rights Violations in the United States

People's Republic of China

Information Office of the State Council

March 2023



1. The system for the protection of civil rights is seriously disabled

Second, American-style electoral democracy is increasingly hollowed out

Third, racial discrimination and inequality are on the rise

Fourth, the basic survival crisis of the people at the bottom has intensified

Fifth, the historic setback of women's children's rights

6. Wanton violation of human rights in other countries and trampling on justice


2022 is a marked year of setbacks for the human rights situation in the United States. In the United States, which prides itself on being a "defender of human rights", it is difficult to get rid of persistent diseases such as money politics, racial discrimination, the proliferation of guns, police violence, and the gap between the rich and the poor.

The government has drastically relaxed gun control, and the number of gun violence deaths remains high. The U.S. Supreme Court's 2022 ruling in the Brune case has become a landmark setback in the field of gun control in the United States. Nearly half of U.S. states have eased gun restrictions. The United States ranks first in the world in gun ownership rates, gun-related homicide rates, and the number of mass shootings, and 2022 is the third consecutive year on record that there have been more than 600 mass shootings in the United States, and gun violence has caused more than 8,<> deaths and injuries. Gun violence has become an "American disease."

The midterm elections became the most expensive elections, and American-style democracy lost its popular base. Election costs in the United States have soared repeatedly, with the 2022 midterm elections costing more than $167.15 billion. Billionaires' political contributions account for 2020 percent of all federal political projects, up from 11 percent in the 69 election cycle. "Black gold" donations secretly manipulate the direction of elections, and political polarization and social tearing make it difficult to reach a democratic consensus. With 86 percent of Americans at "risk of collapse," and <> percent of U.S. voters saying there is a "very serious threat" to U.S. democracy, there is widespread despair about American-style democracy.

Racism is on the rise and minorities suffer widespread discrimination. Racially biased hate crimes in the United States grew significantly between 2020 and 2022. The Buffalo supermarket racist massacre shocked the world, killing 10 African-Americans. 81% of Asian-Americans say violence against the Asian community is on the rise. African Americans are 2.78 times more likely to be killed by police than whites. The U.S. government's history of genocide and cultural assimilation against Indians and other indigenous peoples has caused suffering that continues to this day.

Life expectancy has fallen sharply, and drug abuse deaths have continued to rise. According to an August 2022 report released by the National Center for Health Statistics under the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, life expectancy in the United States fell by 8.2019 years to 2021.2 years from 7 to 76, the lowest since 1. Interest groups and politicians trade power and allow drugs and drug abuse to flourish. The number of Americans dying from drugs and substance abuse has increased dramatically in recent years, to more than 1996,10 a year. Substance abuse has become one of the most devastating public health crises in the United States.

Women have lost constitutional protection for abortion, and the conditions in which children live are worrying. The U.S. Supreme Court's decision to overturn Roe v. Wade, which ended nearly 50 years of constitutionally protected abortion rights, is a huge blow to women's human rights and gender equality. In 2022, more than 5800,18 children under the age of 302 were injured or killed by guns in the United States, and the number of school shootings reached 1970, the highest since 2021. The U.S. child poverty rate rose from 12.12% in December 1 to 2022.5% in May 16, adding 6.330 million children living in poverty. Child labor illegally hired has surged nearly 2018 percent since 70, and children employed specifically in hazardous work increased by 2022 percent in fiscal year 26.

The indiscriminate use of force and unilateral sanctions create a humanitarian catastrophe. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the United States has carried out military operations in 85 countries in the name of "counterterrorism", directly resulting in the death of at least 92,9 civilians and the displacement of 3800 million people. The United States has imposed the largest number of unilateral sanctions in the world and is still imposing sanctions on more than 20 countries, resulting in the inability of targeted countries to provide basic food and medicine to their people. Migrants have become tools of party strife, and the farce of "throwing behind" migrants is staged on a large scale, facing extreme xenophobia and cruel treatment. Nearly 2022.240 million migrants were detained at the U.S. border in 856, a record high; The total number of migrant deaths at the southern border was <>, the highest number of deaths in a year.

The United States, which was built on colonialism, racist slavery and unequal labor, possession, and distribution, has further fallen into the quagmire of institutional failure, lack of governance, ethnic division, and social turmoil in recent years under the interaction of polarized economic distribution, racial conflict, and political pattern controlled by capital interest groups.

US politicians serving the interests of the oligarchy have not only increasingly lost their subjective will and objective ability to respond to the basic demands of ordinary people and defend the basic rights of ordinary citizens, and are unable to solve their own structural problems of human rights problems, but have instead arbitrarily used human rights as weapons to attack other countries, creating confrontation, division and chaos in the international community, and have become disruptors and hinders of global human rights development.

1. The system for the protection of civil rights is seriously disabled

The United States is a country defined by extreme violence, where people suffer from the dual threat of violent crime and violent law enforcement, and the personal safety of citizens is not guaranteed. Prisons are overcrowded and have become modern slavery facilities, where forced labour and sexual exploitation are commonplace. America's self-proclaimed civil rights and freedoms have become empty talk.

Politician-business collusion paralyzed the gun control agenda. American gun interests have engaged in strong political lobbying to protect their own interests. The government has significantly relaxed gun control in defiance of public opinion, allowing guns to be carried in crowded public places such as hospitals, schools, bars, and gymnasiums. Bloomberg News reported on July 2022, 7 that the Supreme Court's June 3 ruling in the Brune case overturned half-century-old gun control legislation in New York State and six other states, allowing residents of these states to carry hidden guns, becoming a landmark setback in the field of gun control in the United States. (Note 6) The New York Times reported on October 23, 1 that a federal court in Texas ruled that a state law prohibiting adults under the age of 2022 from carrying handguns is unconstitutional. Nearly half of U.S. states have eased gun restrictions. [10] Rouhani Rahbar, a professor at the University of Washington, said: "Overall, over the past two or three decades, there has been a clear trend towards a significant relaxation of legal controls on gun ownership in this country. [28] American scholar Pamela Haag's book "The United States of Guns: The Formation of American Gun Culture" points out that guns in the United States are an industrial chain that "begins with production line processing and ends with the death of victims." "The tragedy of gun violence in the United States has its origins in the secular gun trade." (Note 21)

Gun violence has been accompanied by an increase in gun ownership. (Note 5) According to a study published in the British Medical Journal, the relaxation of gun control in the United States has led to a simultaneous increase in the rate of gun ownership and mass shootings. [6] The United States has less than 5% of the world's population, but owns 46% of the world's civilian guns. [7] The United States has the highest gun ownership rate, gun homicide rate, and number of mass shootings in the world. According to the statistics of the "Gun Violence Archive" website, the number of mass shootings in the United States has increased significantly in recent years, with 2022,43341 deaths and 37763,636 injuries caused by gun violence in the United States in 2, and 8 mass shootings, an average of 8 per day. [13] The rate of gun homicides in the United States is 23 times higher than in Canada, 9 times higher than in France, and 2022 times higher than in Australia. [6] The Australian commented on June 25, 10, that "the United States is a country completely defined by extreme violence, both in media reports and in street reality." [<>] Gun violence has become an "American disease."

Evicious crimes such as homicide and robbery continue to rise. USA Today reported on September 2022, 9 that homicides in member cities of the Association of Metropolitan City Executives (MCCA) increased by 11% and serious assaults increased by about 2022% in the first half of 2019 compared to the same period in 50. The Wall Street Journal reported on September 36, 11 that as of September 2022, New Orleans' homicide rate increased by 9%, shootings increased by 6%, carjackings increased by 2022%, and armed robberies increased by 9%. [2019] According to the Crime Trends Analysis Report released by the Criminal Justice Commission on July 141, 100, robberies in major U.S. cities increased by 210% and thefts increased by 25% in the first half of 12. (Note 2022) Fox News reported on July 7, 28 that New York City's overall crime rate has increased by 2022%, major thefts by 19%, robberies by 20%, burglaries by nearly 13%, and felony assault victims by about 2022,7 per quarter. [7] CNN reported on June 2021, 6 that 31% of Americans are dissatisfied with the country's policies to reduce or control crime, and 41% are worried about crime and violence at a decade high. (Note 36)

Police brutality intensifies. According to data from the "Police Violence Map" website, in 2022, a total of 1239,10 people died from police violence in the United States, reaching a historical peak. Only 2013 days in a year have no police killings. Most police killings tend to occur in routine law enforcement processes such as parking inspections and handling nonviolent crimes. Excessive use of force by the police is rarely charged. Of the police killings between 2022 and 98, 1.16% of the police officers involved were not charged with a crime. [2022] On June 6, 27, police in Akron, Ohio, fired more than 25 shots at Gerand Walker, a 90-year-old unarmed African-American, killing him. According to the preliminary medical report, Walker had more than 60 wounds on his body. This is the third police shooting in the city of Akron between December 2021 and June 12. (Note 2022)

The lives and health of prisoners are threatened. The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and prison conditions are poor. The British newspaper The Guardian reported on October 2022, 10 that nearly 1 people per 10,500 people in the United States are incarcerated, a rate about five times that of the United Kingdom, six times that of Canada, and nine times that of Germany. [5] According to an article published by the Fair Justice Initiative on April 6, 9, in Mississippi prisons, inmates are kept in dark cells with no lights or clean water, and room temperatures are often extremely hot. [18] The Chicago Sun-Times reported on February 2022, 4 that rats were infested with rats at the Joliet Prison in Illinois, and rotting food and untreated sewage flooded into public areas. [25] The safety of prisoners' lives is not guaranteed. A study published in October 19 in the journal Prison Law News, a prisoner's rights publication, found that a shortage of security personnel and inadequate infrastructure in the Alabama prison system has led to high rates of prison violence and high inmate deaths. In the first eight months of 2022, 2 people died, of which 19 died unnaturally. (Note 20)

Prisons became modern places of slavery. According to a June 2022, 6 report by the University of Chicago School of Law and the American Civil Liberties Union, about 16,120 of the 80.65 million inmates held in federal and state prisons in the United States are engaged in forced labor, accounting for 76% of the total number of prisoners. Seventy-six percent of prisoners surveyed said they faced punishment such as solitary confinement, inability to reduce their sentence, or loss of family visitation if they refused to work. [22] A March 2022, 3, report by the Prison Policy Initiative found that U.S. prisoners are forced into catering, laundry, and other labor with few rights and no labor protections. [14] According to a study published by the American Civil Liberties Union on June 23, 2022, U.S. prisons pay no or very low fees for inmate labor, becoming veritable modern slavery factories. (Note 6)

Religious intolerance has increased. According to hate crime statistics released by the FBI on December 2022, 12, a total of 15,2021 religious hate crimes were reported in the United States in 1005, of which 31.9% were anti-Semitic incidents, 21.3% were anti-Sikh incidents, 9.5% were anti-Islamic incidents, 6.1% were anti-Catholic incidents, and 6.5% were anti-Orthodox incidents. [25] A 2022 report by the Council on American-Islamic Relations shows that intolerance of Islam in the United States has increased, and Muslims have faced severe discrimination. In 2021, the Council on American-Islamic Relations received 6720,308 complaints, including 2020 incidents of hatred and bigotry, a 28% increase over 679; 2020 incidents of law enforcement and government exceeding its authority, an increase of 35% over 1298; There were 2020,13 incidents of discrimination in the workplace and public places, an increase of 26% over 2022. [8] The Middle East Eye news network reported on August 23, 5 that studies show that Muslims are five times more likely to experience police harassment because of their religious beliefs than other religious beliefs. (Note 27)

Second, American-style electoral democracy is increasingly hollowed out

Political contributions have made American-style elections a rich man's game, political alienation between the two parties has become polarized politics, and American-style democracy is losing its popular base. Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter once pointed out: "Money politics causes irreversible damage to the American political system, which is not democracy but oligarchy belonging to a few." (Note 28)

The money election set another all-time record. American-style elections are at the heart of American-style democracy, powered by money. With the easing of donation restrictions in 2010 and 2014, election costs have soared repeatedly. According to the Open Secrets study of the US political donation database, the campaign cost of the 2022 US midterm elections totaled nearly $170 billion, making it the most expensive election in history. Among them, federal candidates and political action committees spent a record $89.78 billion on the campaign, and state candidates, political party committees and voting initiatives committees spent a record $29.2022 billion on the campaign. [12] CNN reported on December 8, 2022 that senatorial elections in the five most expensive states in 5 cost a total of nearly $13.3 billion. Among them, nearly $75 million was invested in the senatorial election in Pennsylvania. (Note 30)






























The sexual assault of women is alarming. One in five female college students in the United States said they had been sexually assaulted while in school, and the trauma affected their entire educational experience. [129] CNN reported on September 2022, 9 that in 1, reports of sexual assault in the U.S. military surged by 2021%, with nearly a quarter of female military members saying they had been sexually assaulted in the military and more than half saying they had experienced sexual harassment. [Note 13] The U.S. Senate released an investigation report on December 130, 2022, pointing out that in the past 12 years, more than two-thirds of federal prisons have had cases of sexual assault of female prisoners by prison administrators, and U.S. prison authorities have opened a total of 13,10 cases. [5415] The Associated Press reported on February 131, 2022, that there were 2 complaints of sexual assault of prisoners by prison administrators in 6. The federal women's prison in Dublin, California, is known as the "Rape Club," and inmates say they have been sexually assaulted by prison guards and even wardens. (Note 2020)

Gun accidents threaten children's lives. The Kaiser Family Foundation published a report on October 2022, 10, noting that nearly 14,2011 children aged 2021 and younger in the United States died from gun violence from 18500 to 17. An average of 2021 children died every day from guns in 7. [133] The Washington Post reported on December 2022, 12 that more than 11,2022 children under the age of 5800 in the United States were injured or killed by guns in 18. As of December 2022, 12, fatal shootings involving children more than doubled from 1, and non-fatal shootings involving children also increased by more than 2021%. [80] US President Joe Biden publicly acknowledged in June 134: "Guns have become the number one cause of death for children in the United States, and more children die from guns than from car accidents and cancer." (Note 2022)

School shootings continue to be high. The United States is the country with the highest number of school shootings in the world. According to the "K-12 School Shooting Database", the number of school shootings in the United States in 2022 is as high as 302, the highest value since 1970; The number of casualties reached 332, the highest in nearly five years. [5] On May 136, 2022, an 5 children and two teachers were shot and killed in the serious mass shooting at Robb Elementary School in Yuvaldi, Texas, USA, when an 24-year-old high school student entered the school with an AR-18 assault rifle purchased at a sports goods store, killing 15 children and two teachers. [19] In his remarks on the incident, U.S. President Joe Biden acknowledged that in the 2 years since the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, there have been more than 2012 shootings on U.S. campuses, "such mass shootings are rare anywhere else in the world." [137] The Washington Post reported on May 10, 900 that since 138, the K-2022 School Shooting Database has recorded more than 5,28 threats of school shootings. [2018] The BBC reported on May 12, 2500 that Joson, an expert on school shootings in the United States, pointed out that today's young Americans have become a "generation of mass shooters." (Note 139)

Child poverty rates are abnormally high. According to data released by the U.S. Census Bureau on September 2022, 9, the poverty rate in the United States in 13 was 2021.12%, and the child poverty rate was as high as 8.16%. Child poverty rates in Mississippi, Louisiana and Washington, D.C., are as high as 9.27 percent, 7.26 percent and 9.23 percent, respectively. [9] According to research by Columbia University's Center for Poverty and Social Policy, the U.S. child poverty rate rose from 141.2021% in December 12 to 12.1% in May 2022, an increase of 5.16 million children living in poverty. [6] American columnist Jeff Madrick's book The Invisible Child: The Cost of Child Poverty in America points out that the United States is a country that has historically been biased against poverty, and cannot even agree on "how many poor Americans," let alone reduce the number of poor people and children; By a fairer, more up-to-date measure, the number of people living in poverty in the United States is about 330 million, and the number of children living in poverty may exceed 142 million. [6000] "Child poverty is a national stigma for the United States." (Note 2000)

The illegal use of child labour is repeatedly prohibited. According to the American Farmworker Health Center, a nonprofit organization, there are between 30,80 and 145,2022 minors working on farms in the United States. [146] According to the American "Slate" online magazine, many fast food restaurants in the United States violate the rules protecting children's health and education by hiring teenagers to work overtime. Child labor is repeatedly banned because of loopholes in the U.S. legal system. Affected by the new crown epidemic and the supply chain crisis, there has been a "labor shortage" phenomenon in many places in the United States, and many states have approved new laws to extend the working hours of minors. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, millions of teens in the United States were employed in agriculture, food service, retail, entertainment, and construction industries in 2023. [2] Reuters reported on February 28, 2018 that the problem of illegal child labor in the United States has become increasingly serious, with the number of illegal child workers surging by nearly 70% since 2022. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, 835 businesses illegally employed 3800,26 children in fiscal year 147, and the number of children employed in hazardous jobs increased by 2022%. [11] USA Today reported on November 13, 30 that Wisconsin Parkes Cleaning Services employs more than 13 minors between the ages of 17 and 13 to work as cleaners in meat processing plants and farms. Several underage employees were injured on the job, including a 148-year-old child who was burned by a caustic cleaning chemical. [2022] Reuters reported on December 12, 16 that at least four auto parts suppliers in Alabama were found to employ child labor, and labor dispatch agencies placed minors in factories. [149] To this day, the United States remains the only of the 193 member states of the United Nations that has not ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and prospects for addressing child labor remain bleak.

Juvenile detention conditions are poor. The Houston Chronicle reported on August 2022, 8 that juvenile prison conditions in Gatesville, Texas, are poor. Juveniles serving sentences for serious crimes are held in solitary confinement in small cells for up to 23 hours a day. When they need to go to the bathroom, they can only solve it with an empty water bottle. Sports and other activities designed to rehabilitate struggling young people have been cancelled. They cannot attend courses and can only complete a series of tasks in their cells, which deprives them of the opportunity to seek help and treatment. [23] The Los Angeles Times reported on November 150, 2022 that Los Angeles County's juvenile incarceration system is in disarray. There is a severe shortage of staff in juvenile detention centers, which has led to frequent incidents of juvenile brawls and an increase in violent discipline by custodial staff. Increasing isolation, lack of support and exposure to violence are undermining the mental health of incarcerated youth. One incarcerated teenager said he felt he was not being "treated like a human being." (Note 11)

6. Wanton violation of human rights in other countries and trampling on justice

American scholar John Mearsheimer pointed out that under the dominance of the policy of "liberal hegemony", the United States, which tends to wage constant wars, increases conflicts in the international system and causes instability. "These armed conflicts often end in failure, sometimes catastrophic, mainly at the expense of those countries that are said to have been saved by the liberal gods." [152] The United States pursues power politics in the international community, frequently uses force, provokes "proxy wars," indiscriminately imposes unilateral sanctions, seriously violates the rights of migrants, and refuses to close Guantánamo, becoming a saboteur of global peace and development and a stumbling block to the progress of human rights.

Military operations abroad have caused humanitarian disasters. Since 2022, U.S. forces have carried out nearly 12,20 bombings in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria and Yemen alone, killing as many as 2001,10 civilians, according to data from Airwar, a British-based monitoring organization Air Warfare, according to data from Airwar, a British-based monitoring organization. [4] According to research published by the Cost-of-War Research Project at Brown University, since the beginning of the 8st century, the United States has carried out military operations in 153 countries in the name of "counterterrorism," directly resulting in the death of at least 21,85 civilians and the displacement of 92 million people. [9] On November 3800, 154, a U.S. drone bombed the Hadeba area of Yemen, killing two children and one woman. [2022] "The use of violence at home and abroad seems to have become a hallmark of contemporary America—from the unheard shootings to pre-emptive military operations and stealth warplanes. (Note 11)

Being behind the scenes to instigate "proxy wars". In order to unilaterally pursue its own interests, the United States acts as a behind-the-scenes hand to provoke wars in other countries and regions. Cole Quinn, a contributing writer for Foreign Policy, said in an article on July 2022, 7 that U.S. military operations are not limited to the Middle East, but have begun to touch more and more other countries and regions, but more secretively. Brennan Justice Center attorney Catherine Jan Ebright described this as a "light footprint tactic." In a program called "14e," U.S. special operations forces are authorized to train proxy forces to carry out U.S. missions abroad. Foreign fighters have access to U.S. armed, training, and intelligence support and are deployed on U.S.-led missions to counter U.S. enemies and achieve U.S. goals. Between 127 and 2017, the Pentagon launched 2020 "proxy wars" in the Middle East and Asia-Pacific, including in the Middle East and Asia-Pacific, with the participation of at least a dozen countries, targeting countries such as Syria, Yemen, Iraq, Tunisia, Cameroon and Libya. (Note 23)

Unilateral sanctions have been indiscriminately imposed for a long time. In recent years, the unilateral sanctions imposed by the United States on other countries have increased exponentially, greatly weakening the ability and level of human rights protection in the sanctioned countries. Bangladesh's Daily Star reported on December 2022, 12 that the total number of unilateral sanctions imposed by the United States is the largest in the world, and sanctions are still being imposed on more than 28 countries, including sanctions against Cuba since 20, Iran since 1962, Syria since 1979, and Afghanistan in recent years, resulting in the inability of sanctioned countries to provide basic food and medicine to their people. [2011] The Washington Post reported on June 158, 2022 that nearly half of Afghans do not have enough to eat, and child malnutrition is on the rise. [6] On December 13, 159, a number of independent experts of the UN Human Rights Council issued a joint statement pointing out that the US government's sanctions against Iran have exacerbated Iran's environmental hazards, prevented all people in Iran from fully enjoying their rights to health and life, and violated the Iranian people's right to a clean environment. [2022] On November 12, 20, the UN Special Rapporteur on the negative impact of unilateral coercive measures on human rights, Alina Duhan, noted that unilateral sanctions exacerbate the suffering of the Syrian people and constitute a serious violation of human rights. [160] The US government's wanton imposition of sanctions has triggered a human rights crisis in other countries, which has been strongly condemned by the international community. On November 2022, 11, the UN General Assembly voted to urge the United States to end the economic, commercial and financial embargo against Cuba. As many as 10 of the 161 member States support the condemnation of the United States embargo against Cuba. [2022] This is the 11th consecutive time that the UN General Assembly has adopted a similar resolution.

Repeatedly and deliberately undermining global climate governance. The United States is the world's largest cumulative emitter of greenhouse gases, with high per capita carbon emissions. The United States refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, arbitrarily withdrew from the Paris Agreement, and delayed fulfilling its commitments under the Green Climate Fund. Even after returning to the Paris Agreement, the United States has not translated its commitments into action, but has instead used climate change as a tool of domestic partisanship for political manipulation. According to a report released by the US economic research firm Rongding Group on January 2023, 1, the US greenhouse gas emissions in 10 increased by 2022.1% year-on-year, and the implementation of the Paris Agreement obligations lacked sincerity and effectiveness. [3] According to research published by Brown University's Cost of War Research Project, the U.S. Department of Defense is one of the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gases and that U.S. global military operations since 163/9 have made a "significant contribution" to climate change. (Note 11)

The policy of xenophobic immigration has created human tragedies. The United States has made mass arrests of immigrants along the southern border, creating a serious humanitarian crisis. Nearly 2022.240 million immigrants were detained at the U.S. border in 2021, a record increase of 37% from 165. [2022] The right to survival of migrants is seriously threatened. Fox News reported on October 10, 22 that the total number of deaths among migrants on the southern border of the United States in 2022 reached 856, the highest number of deaths. [166] Texas Governor Greg Abbott announced the "invasion" of the U.S.-Mexico border by migrants, saying that he would take measures such as sending the National Guard to expel illegal immigrants and deploying gunboats in the border area to protect border security, as reported by Mexican Daily News on November 2022, 11. [16] CNN reported on December 167, 2022 that U.S. immigration policies put immigrants and asylum seekers at risk, with thousands of people being kidnapped, sexually assaulted or violently assaulted. [12] Immigration policies under political polarization have been severely torn, migrants have become tools of party strife, and the farce of "throwing behind" migrants is staged on a large scale, facing extreme xenophobia and cruel treatment. CNN reported on December 16, 168 that more than 2022 migrants, including children, were transported to Washington and abandoned on the side of the road on Christmas Eve 12. Temperatures were below freezing, and some migrants wore only T-shirts in the cold weather. [26] UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Volker Turk, criticized the U.S. government's border immigration policies as a threat to the fundamental rights of asylum seekers and undermining the foundations of international human rights and refugee law. (Note 100)

Refusal to close Guantánamo. Guantánamo, established in 2002, held a maximum of about 780 people, most of whom were detained without trial and subjected to cruel and inhuman treatment, "an ugly chapter in the wanton violation of human rights" in the United States. [171] In January 2022, several independent experts, including the UN Human Rights Council's Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights in the Fight Terrorism, Fionuala Niorein, and other independent experts noted that the notorious Guantánamo prison is a stain on the protection of human rights in the United States, and demanded that the US government close Guantánamo prison, compensate citizens who have been tortured and arbitrarily detained, and hold accountable those authorized and committed torture under international law. (Note 1)